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[SCM] gawk branch, gawk-5.2-stable, updated. gawk-4.1.0-5061-g45d7bc53

From: Arnold Robbins
Subject: [SCM] gawk branch, gawk-5.2-stable, updated. gawk-4.1.0-5061-g45d7bc53
Date: Wed, 24 May 2023 12:48:13 -0400 (EDT)

This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script. It was
generated because a ref change was pushed to the repository containing
the project "gawk".

The branch, gawk-5.2-stable has been updated
       via  45d7bc53ca6126c73d9895992630b196633152d3 (commit)
      from  1ae57a46de0ee449020feadb400e2f461c55bae5 (commit)

Those revisions listed above that are new to this repository have
not appeared on any other notification email; so we list those
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- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------

commit 45d7bc53ca6126c73d9895992630b196633152d3
Author: Arnold D. Robbins <>
Date:   Wed May 24 19:47:58 2023 +0300

    Small doc fixes.

diff --git a/doc/ChangeLog b/doc/ChangeLog
index 2f302915..64ca24b5 100644
--- a/doc/ChangeLog
+++ b/doc/ChangeLog
@@ -1,3 +1,7 @@
+2023-05-24         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
+       * Small fixes.
 2023-05-19         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
        * Get rid of duplicated words.
diff --git a/doc/ b/doc/
index 4dee68be..4299b409 100644
--- a/doc/
+++ b/doc/
@@ -3471,9 +3471,11 @@ previous releases of ‘gawk’ that either are not 
available in the current
 version or are still supported but deprecated (meaning that they will
 _not_ be in a future release).
-   The arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is deprecated as of ‘gawk’
-version 5.2.  Use of ‘-M’/‘--bignum’ produces a warning message.  The
-feature will be removed in the release of 2024.
+   As of ‘gawk’ version 5.2.  the arbitrary precision arithmetic feature
+is “on parole.” This feature is now being supported by a volunteer in
+the development team and not by the primary maintainer.  If this
+situation changes, then the feature will be removed.  For more
+information see *note MPFR On Parole::.
 File:,  Node: Undocumented,  Next: Invoking Summary,  Prev: 
Obsolete,  Up: Invoking Gawk
@@ -3950,10 +3952,12 @@ the braces ‘{’ and ‘}’, have the highest 
precedence, followed by
 concatenation, and finally by ‘|’.  As in arithmetic, parentheses can
 change how operators are grouped.
-   In POSIX ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’, the ‘*’, ‘+’, and ‘?’ 
operators stand for
-themselves when there is nothing in the regexp that precedes them.  For
-example, ‘/+/’ matches a literal plus sign.  However, many other
-versions of ‘awk’ treat such a usage as a syntax error.
+   According to the POSIX specification, when ‘*’, ‘+’, ‘?’, or 
‘{’ are
+not preceded by a character, the behavior is “undefined.” In practice,
+for ‘gawk’, the ‘*’, ‘+’, ‘?’ and ‘{’ operators stand for 
+when there is nothing in the regexp that precedes them.  For example,
+‘/+/’ matches a literal plus sign.  However, many other versions of
+‘awk’ treat such a usage as a syntax error.
                      What About The Empty Regexp?
@@ -37123,7 +37127,7 @@ Index
                                                               (line  18)
 * empty pattern:                         Empty.               (line   6)
 * empty regexps:                         Regexp Operator Details.
-                                                              (line 149)
+                                                              (line 151)
 * EMRED:                                 TCP/IP Networking.   (line   6)
 * enable breakpoint:                     Breakpoint Control.  (line  73)
 * enable debugger command:               Breakpoint Control.  (line  73)
@@ -38696,7 +38700,7 @@ Index
                                                               (line 104)
 * regexp constants, as patterns:         Expression Patterns. (line  34)
 * regexps, empty:                        Regexp Operator Details.
-                                                              (line 149)
+                                                              (line 151)
 * register loadable extension:           Registration Functions.
                                                               (line   6)
 * regular expressions, interval expressions and: Options.     (line 323)
@@ -38911,7 +38915,7 @@ Index
 * sidebar, Escape Sequences for Metacharacters: Escape Sequences.
                                                               (line 137)
 * sidebar, What About The Empty Regexp?: Regexp Operator Details.
-                                                              (line 147)
+                                                              (line 149)
 * sidebar, Using \n in Bracket Expressions of Dynamic Regexps: Computed 
                                                               (line  58)
 * sidebar, Caveats When Using Regular Expressions for RS: gawk split records.
@@ -39447,563 +39451,563 @@ Node: Exit Status161403
 Node: Include Files162118
 Node: Loading Shared Libraries166178
 Node: Obsolete167670
-Node: Undocumented168306
-Node: Invoking Summary168605
-Node: Regexp171632
-Node: Regexp Usage173126
-Node: Escape Sequences175227
-Node: Regexp Operators181758
-Node: Regexp Operator Details182251
-Ref: Regexp Operator Details-Footnote-1190117
-Node: Interval Expressions190276
-Ref: Interval Expressions-Footnote-1192545
-Node: Bracket Expressions192645
-Ref: table-char-classes195205
-Node: Leftmost Longest198727
-Node: Computed Regexps200087
-Node: GNU Regexp Operators203610
-Node: Case-sensitivity207633
-Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-1210590
-Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-2210835
-Node: Regexp Summary210951
-Node: Reading Files212475
-Node: Records214792
-Node: awk split records215903
-Node: gawk split records220793
-Ref: gawk split records-Footnote-1226087
-Node: Fields226124
-Node: Nonconstant Fields229011
-Ref: Nonconstant Fields-Footnote-1231322
-Node: Changing Fields231538
-Node: Field Separators237846
-Node: Default Field Splitting240662
-Node: Regexp Field Splitting241805
-Node: Single Character Fields245634
-Node: Command Line Field Separator246729
-Node: Full Line Fields250116
-Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-1251696
-Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-2251742
-Node: Field Splitting Summary251850
-Node: Constant Size254019
-Node: Fixed width data254763
-Node: Skipping intervening258282
-Node: Allowing trailing data259084
-Node: Fields with fixed data260149
-Node: Splitting By Content261775
-Ref: Splitting By Content-Footnote-1265714
-Node: More CSV265877
-Node: FS versus FPAT267530
-Node: Testing field creation268739
-Node: Multiple Line270432
-Node: Getline276914
-Node: Plain Getline279500
-Node: Getline/Variable282150
-Node: Getline/File283347
-Node: Getline/Variable/File284795
-Ref: Getline/Variable/File-Footnote-1286440
-Node: Getline/Pipe286536
-Node: Getline/Variable/Pipe289349
-Node: Getline/Coprocess290532
-Node: Getline/Variable/Coprocess291855
-Node: Getline Notes292621
-Node: Getline Summary295582
-Ref: table-getline-variants296026
-Node: Read Timeout296931
-Ref: Read Timeout-Footnote-1300895
-Node: Retrying Input300953
-Node: Command-line directories302220
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-Node: Input Exercises306538
-Node: Printing306978
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-Node: Special Network345934
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-Node: Close Return Value354098
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-Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-2631833
-Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-3631995
-Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-4632106
-Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-5632224
-Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-6632459
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-Ref: Library Names-Footnote-2691883
-Node: General Functions691979
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-Node: Readfile Function711674
-Node: Shell Quoting713703
-Node: Isnumeric Function715159
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-Node: Filetrans Function717203
-Node: Rewind Function721497
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-Ref: File Checking-Footnote-1724848
-Node: Empty Files725055
-Node: Ignoring Assigns727122
-Node: Getopt Function728696
-Ref: Getopt Function-Footnote-1744530
-Node: Passwd Functions744742
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-Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-3879273
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-Node: Extension Intro1079526
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-Node: Compiling from Git1323987
-Node: Building the Documentation1324546
-Node: Non-Unix Installation1325958
-Node: PC Installation1326434
-Node: PC Binary Installation1327307
-Node: PC Compiling1328212
-Node: PC Using1329390
-Node: Cygwin1333118
-Node: MSYS1334374
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-Node: OpenVMS Running1341303
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-Node: Usenet1354361
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-Node: Asking for help1358610
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-Node: Installation summary1370971
-Node: Notes1372355
-Node: Compatibility Mode1373165
-Node: Additions1373987
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-Node: Implementation Limitations1395398
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-Node: Notes summary1405961
-Node: Basic Concepts1407174
-Node: Basic High Level1407859
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-Ref: figure-process-flow1408848
-Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-11412249
-Node: Basic Data Typing1412438
-Node: Glossary1415856
-Node: Copying1448978
-Node: GNU Free Documentation License1486739
-Node: Index1512062
+Node: Undocumented168422
+Node: Invoking Summary168721
+Node: Regexp171748
+Node: Regexp Usage173242
+Node: Escape Sequences175343
+Node: Regexp Operators181874
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+Node: Bracket Expressions192910
+Ref: table-char-classes195470
+Node: Leftmost Longest198992
+Node: Computed Regexps200352
+Node: GNU Regexp Operators203875
+Node: Case-sensitivity207898
+Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-1210855
+Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-2211100
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+Node: Records215057
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+Node: Regexp Constants369559
+Node: Using Constant Regexps370105
+Node: Standard Regexp Constants370751
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+Node: Locale influences conversions386969
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+Node: Assignment Ops397006
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+Ref: table-relational-ops417431
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+Node: Boolean Ops423103
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+Node: I/O And BEGIN/END456184
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+Node: Reference to Elements533676
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+Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-1576578
+Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-2577262
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+Ref: String Functions-Footnote-2603554
+Ref: String Functions-Footnote-3603814
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+Ref: table-sub-escapes605808
+Ref: table-sub-proposed607454
+Ref: table-posix-sub608964
+Ref: table-gensub-escapes610652
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+Ref: table-system-return-values618427
+Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-1620598
+Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-2620746
+Node: Time Functions620866
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-1632022
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-2632098
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-3632260
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-4632371
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-5632489
+Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-6632724
+Node: Bitwise Functions633006
+Ref: table-bitwise-ops633608
+Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-1639862
+Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-2640041
+Node: Type Functions640238
+Node: I18N Functions643831
+Node: User-defined645574
+Node: Definition Syntax646394
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+Node: Function Calling655300
+Node: Calling A Function655894
+Node: Variable Scope656864
+Node: Pass By Value/Reference659918
+Node: Function Caveats662650
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+Node: Return Statement664869
+Node: Dynamic Typing667924
+Node: Indirect Calls670325
+Node: Functions Summary681484
+Node: Library Functions684261
+Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-1687809
+Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-2687952
+Node: Library Names688127
+Ref: Library Names-Footnote-1691921
+Ref: Library Names-Footnote-2692148
+Node: General Functions692244
+Node: Strtonum Function693438
+Node: Assert Function696520
+Node: Round Function699972
+Node: Cliff Random Function701550
+Node: Ordinal Functions702583
+Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-1705692
+Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-2705944
+Node: Join Function706158
+Ref: Join Function-Footnote-1707961
+Node: Getlocaltime Function708165
+Node: Readfile Function711939
+Node: Shell Quoting713968
+Node: Isnumeric Function715424
+Node: Data File Management716836
+Node: Filetrans Function717468
+Node: Rewind Function721762
+Node: File Checking723741
+Ref: File Checking-Footnote-1725113
+Node: Empty Files725320
+Node: Ignoring Assigns727387
+Node: Getopt Function728961
+Ref: Getopt Function-Footnote-1744795
+Node: Passwd Functions745007
+Ref: Passwd Functions-Footnote-1754189
+Node: Group Functions754277
+Ref: Group Functions-Footnote-1762415
+Node: Walking Arrays762628
+Node: Library Functions Summary765676
+Node: Library Exercises767100
+Node: Sample Programs767587
+Node: Running Examples768369
+Node: Clones769121
+Node: Cut Program770393
+Node: Egrep Program780834
+Node: Id Program790151
+Node: Split Program800265
+Ref: Split Program-Footnote-1810500
+Node: Tee Program810687
+Node: Uniq Program813596
+Node: Wc Program821461
+Node: Bytes vs. Characters821856
+Node: Using extensions823458
+Node: wc program824238
+Node: Miscellaneous Programs829244
+Node: Dupword Program830473
+Node: Alarm Program832536
+Node: Translate Program837449
+Ref: Translate Program-Footnote-1842190
+Node: Labels Program842468
+Ref: Labels Program-Footnote-1845909
+Node: Word Sorting846001
+Node: History Sorting850195
+Node: Extract Program852470
+Node: Simple Sed860739
+Node: Igawk Program863955
+Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-1879202
+Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-2879408
+Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-3879538
+Node: Anagram Program879665
+Node: Signature Program882761
+Node: Programs Summary884013
+Node: Programs Exercises885271
+Ref: Programs Exercises-Footnote-1889587
+Node: Advanced Features889673
+Node: Nondecimal Data892167
+Node: Boolean Typed Values893797
+Node: Array Sorting895772
+Node: Controlling Array Traversal896501
+Ref: Controlling Array Traversal-Footnote-1905008
+Node: Array Sorting Functions905130
+Ref: Array Sorting Functions-Footnote-1911249
+Node: Two-way I/O911457
+Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-1919452
+Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-2919643
+Node: TCP/IP Networking919725
+Node: Profiling922905
+Node: Persistent Memory932615
+Ref: Persistent Memory-Footnote-1942225
+Node: Extension Philosophy942356
+Node: Advanced Features Summary943891
+Node: Internationalization946161
+Node: I18N and L10N947867
+Node: Explaining gettext948562
+Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-1954715
+Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-2954910
+Node: Programmer i18n955075
+Ref: Programmer i18n-Footnote-1960188
+Node: Translator i18n960237
+Node: String Extraction961073
+Ref: String Extraction-Footnote-1962251
+Node: Printf Ordering962349
+Ref: Printf Ordering-Footnote-1965211
+Node: I18N Portability965279
+Ref: I18N Portability-Footnote-1967853
+Node: I18N Example967924
+Ref: I18N Example-Footnote-1971324
+Ref: I18N Example-Footnote-2971400
+Node: Gawk I18N971517
+Node: I18N Summary972173
+Node: Debugger973574
+Node: Debugging974598
+Node: Debugging Concepts975047
+Node: Debugging Terms976873
+Node: Awk Debugging979486
+Ref: Awk Debugging-Footnote-1980463
+Node: Sample Debugging Session980603
+Node: Debugger Invocation981155
+Node: Finding The Bug982784
+Node: List of Debugger Commands989470
+Node: Breakpoint Control990847
+Node: Debugger Execution Control994679
+Node: Viewing And Changing Data998159
+Node: Execution Stack1001897
+Node: Debugger Info1003578
+Node: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands1007877
+Node: Readline Support1013130
+Node: Limitations1014076
+Node: Debugging Summary1016720
+Node: Namespaces1018019
+Node: Global Namespace1019146
+Node: Qualified Names1020591
+Node: Default Namespace1021626
+Node: Changing The Namespace1022401
+Node: Naming Rules1024095
+Node: Internal Name Management1026010
+Node: Namespace Example1027080
+Node: Namespace And Features1029663
+Node: Namespace Summary1031120
+Node: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic1032633
+Node: Computer Arithmetic1034152
+Ref: table-numeric-ranges1037969
+Ref: table-floating-point-ranges1038467
+Ref: Computer Arithmetic-Footnote-11039126
+Node: Math Definitions1039185
+Ref: table-ieee-formats1042230
+Node: MPFR features1042804
+Node: MPFR On Parole1043257
+Ref: MPFR On Parole-Footnote-11044101
+Node: MPFR Intro1044260
+Node: FP Math Caution1045950
+Ref: FP Math Caution-Footnote-11047024
+Node: Inexactness of computations1047401
+Node: Inexact representation1048432
+Node: Comparing FP Values1049815
+Node: Errors accumulate1051073
+Node: Strange values1052540
+Ref: Strange values-Footnote-11055206
+Node: Getting Accuracy1055311
+Node: Try To Round1058048
+Node: Setting precision1058955
+Ref: table-predefined-precision-strings1059660
+Node: Setting the rounding mode1061545
+Ref: table-gawk-rounding-modes1061927
+Ref: Setting the rounding mode-Footnote-11065985
+Node: Arbitrary Precision Integers1066168
+Ref: Arbitrary Precision Integers-Footnote-11069380
+Node: Checking for MPFR1069536
+Node: POSIX Floating Point Problems1071026
+Ref: POSIX Floating Point Problems-Footnote-11075890
+Node: Floating point summary1075928
+Node: Dynamic Extensions1078192
+Node: Extension Intro1079791
+Node: Plugin License1081099
+Node: Extension Mechanism Outline1081912
+Ref: figure-load-extension1082363
+Ref: figure-register-new-function1083948
+Ref: figure-call-new-function1085058
+Node: Extension API Description1087182
+Node: Extension API Functions Introduction1088911
+Ref: table-api-std-headers1090809
+Node: General Data Types1095273
+Ref: General Data Types-Footnote-11104441
+Node: Memory Allocation Functions1104756
+Ref: Memory Allocation Functions-Footnote-11109481
+Node: Constructor Functions1109580
+Node: API Ownership of MPFR and GMP Values1113485
+Node: Registration Functions1115046
+Node: Extension Functions1115750
+Node: Exit Callback Functions1121326
+Node: Extension Version String1122645
+Node: Input Parsers1123340
+Node: Output Wrappers1137984
+Node: Two-way processors1142832
+Node: Printing Messages1145193
+Ref: Printing Messages-Footnote-11146407
+Node: Updating ERRNO1146562
+Node: Requesting Values1147361
+Ref: table-value-types-returned1148114
+Node: Accessing Parameters1149223
+Node: Symbol Table Access1150507
+Node: Symbol table by name1151023
+Ref: Symbol table by name-Footnote-11154234
+Node: Symbol table by cookie1154366
+Ref: Symbol table by cookie-Footnote-11158647
+Node: Cached values1158711
+Ref: Cached values-Footnote-11162355
+Node: Array Manipulation1162512
+Ref: Array Manipulation-Footnote-11163615
+Node: Array Data Types1163652
+Ref: Array Data Types-Footnote-11166474
+Node: Array Functions1166574
+Node: Flattening Arrays1171603
+Node: Creating Arrays1178655
+Node: Redirection API1183505
+Node: Extension API Variables1186526
+Node: Extension Versioning1187251
+Ref: gawk-api-version1187688
+Node: Extension GMP/MPFR Versioning1189476
+Node: Extension API Informational Variables1191182
+Node: Extension API Boilerplate1192343
+Node: Changes from API V11196479
+Node: Finding Extensions1198113
+Node: Extension Example1198688
+Node: Internal File Description1199512
+Node: Internal File Ops1203836
+Ref: Internal File Ops-Footnote-11215394
+Node: Using Internal File Ops1215542
+Ref: Using Internal File Ops-Footnote-11217973
+Node: Extension Samples1218251
+Node: Extension Sample File Functions1219820
+Node: Extension Sample Fnmatch1227958
+Node: Extension Sample Fork1229553
+Node: Extension Sample Inplace1230829
+Node: Extension Sample Ord1234501
+Node: Extension Sample Readdir1235377
+Ref: table-readdir-file-types1236274
+Node: Extension Sample Revout1237412
+Node: Extension Sample Rev2way1238009
+Node: Extension Sample Read write array1238761
+Node: Extension Sample Readfile1242035
+Node: Extension Sample Time1243166
+Node: Extension Sample API Tests1245456
+Node: gawkextlib1245964
+Node: Extension summary1249000
+Node: Extension Exercises1252858
+Node: Language History1254136
+Node: V7/SVR3.11255850
+Node: SVR41258200
+Node: POSIX1259732
+Node: BTL1261157
+Node: POSIX/GNU1261926
+Node: Feature History1268457
+Node: Common Extensions1287575
+Node: Ranges and Locales1288944
+Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-11293745
+Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-21293772
+Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-31294011
+Node: Contributors1294234
+Node: History summary1300439
+Node: Installation1301885
+Node: Gawk Distribution1302849
+Node: Getting1303341
+Node: Extracting1304340
+Node: Distribution contents1306052
+Node: Unix Installation1314132
+Node: Quick Installation1314954
+Node: Compiling with MPFR1317500
+Node: Shell Startup Files1318206
+Node: Additional Configuration Options1319363
+Node: Configuration Philosophy1321750
+Node: Compiling from Git1324252
+Node: Building the Documentation1324811
+Node: Non-Unix Installation1326223
+Node: PC Installation1326699
+Node: PC Binary Installation1327572
+Node: PC Compiling1328477
+Node: PC Using1329655
+Node: Cygwin1333383
+Node: MSYS1334639
+Node: OpenVMS Installation1335271
+Node: OpenVMS Compilation1335952
+Ref: OpenVMS Compilation-Footnote-11337435
+Node: OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions1337497
+Node: OpenVMS Installation Details1339133
+Node: OpenVMS Running1341568
+Node: OpenVMS GNV1345705
+Node: Bugs1346460
+Node: Bug definition1347384
+Node: Bug address1351035
+Node: Usenet1354626
+Node: Performance bugs1355857
+Node: Asking for help1358875
+Node: Maintainers1360866
+Node: Other Versions1361893
+Node: Installation summary1371236
+Node: Notes1372620
+Node: Compatibility Mode1373430
+Node: Additions1374252
+Node: Accessing The Source1375197
+Node: Adding Code1376732
+Node: New Ports1383868
+Node: Derived Files1388378
+Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-11394225
+Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-21394260
+Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-31394877
+Node: Future Extensions1394991
+Node: Implementation Limitations1395663
+Node: Extension Design1396905
+Node: Old Extension Problems1398069
+Ref: Old Extension Problems-Footnote-11399645
+Node: Extension New Mechanism Goals1399706
+Ref: Extension New Mechanism Goals-Footnote-11403202
+Node: Extension Other Design Decisions1403403
+Node: Extension Future Growth1405602
+Node: Notes summary1406226
+Node: Basic Concepts1407439
+Node: Basic High Level1408124
+Ref: figure-general-flow1408406
+Ref: figure-process-flow1409113
+Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-11412514
+Node: Basic Data Typing1412703
+Node: Glossary1416121
+Node: Copying1449243
+Node: GNU Free Documentation License1487004
+Node: Index1512327
 End Tag Table
diff --git a/doc/gawk.texi b/doc/gawk.texi
index 11a36e8f..e943d381 100644
--- a/doc/gawk.texi
+++ b/doc/gawk.texi
@@ -5244,10 +5244,20 @@ is thus essentially a place holder,
 in case some option becomes obsolete in a future version of @command{gawk}.
 @end ignore
 The arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is deprecated as of
 @command{gawk} @value{PVERSION} 5.2.
 Use of @option{-M}/@option{--bignum} produces a warning message.
 The feature will be removed in the release of 2024.
+@end ignore
+As of
+@command{gawk} @value{PVERSION} 5.2.
+the arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is ``on parole.''
+This feature is now being
+supported by a volunteer in the development team and not by the primary
+maintainer.  If this situation changes, then the feature will be removed.
+For more information see @ref{MPFR On Parole}.
 @node Undocumented
 @section Undocumented Options and Features
@@ -6104,8 +6114,11 @@ As in arithmetic, parentheses can change how operators 
are grouped.
 @cindex POSIX @command{awk} @subentry regular expressions and
 @cindex @command{gawk} @subentry regular expressions @subentry precedence
-In POSIX @command{awk} and @command{gawk}, the @samp{*}, @samp{+}, and
-@samp{?} operators stand for themselves when there is nothing in the
+According to the POSIX specification, when @samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?},
+or @samp{@{} are not preceded by a character, the behavior is
+In practice, for @command{gawk}, the @samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?} and
+@samp{@{} operators stand for themselves when there is nothing in the
 regexp that precedes them.  For example, @code{/+/} matches a literal
 plus sign.  However, many other versions of @command{awk} treat such a
 usage as a syntax error.
diff --git a/doc/ b/doc/
index b55e8c8a..cde3c228 100644
--- a/doc/
+++ b/doc/
@@ -5110,10 +5110,20 @@ is thus essentially a place holder,
 in case some option becomes obsolete in a future version of @command{gawk}.
 @end ignore
 The arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is deprecated as of
 @command{gawk} @value{PVERSION} 5.2.
 Use of @option{-M}/@option{--bignum} produces a warning message.
 The feature will be removed in the release of 2024.
+@end ignore
+As of
+@command{gawk} @value{PVERSION} 5.2.
+the arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is ``on parole.''
+This feature is now being
+supported by a volunteer in the development team and not by the primary
+maintainer.  If this situation changes, then the feature will be removed.
+For more information see @ref{MPFR On Parole}.
 @node Undocumented
 @section Undocumented Options and Features
@@ -5886,8 +5896,11 @@ As in arithmetic, parentheses can change how operators 
are grouped.
 @cindex POSIX @command{awk} @subentry regular expressions and
 @cindex @command{gawk} @subentry regular expressions @subentry precedence
-In POSIX @command{awk} and @command{gawk}, the @samp{*}, @samp{+}, and
-@samp{?} operators stand for themselves when there is nothing in the
+According to the POSIX specification, when @samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?},
+or @samp{@{} are not preceded by a character, the behavior is
+In practice, for @command{gawk}, the @samp{*}, @samp{+}, @samp{?} and
+@samp{@{} operators stand for themselves when there is nothing in the
 regexp that precedes them.  For example, @code{/+/} matches a literal
 plus sign.  However, many other versions of @command{awk} treat such a
 usage as a syntax error.


Summary of changes:
 doc/ChangeLog   |    4 +
 doc/   | 1138 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------------
 doc/gawk.texi   |   17 +-
 doc/ |   17 +-
 4 files changed, 605 insertions(+), 571 deletions(-)


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