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[SCM] gawk branch, feature/latex-support, created. gawk-4.1.0-4975-g0f23


From: Arnold Robbins
Subject: [SCM] gawk branch, feature/latex-support, created. gawk-4.1.0-4975-g0f23965e
Date: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 15:46:35 -0500 (EST)

This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script. It was
generated because a ref change was pushed to the repository containing
the project "gawk".

The branch, feature/latex-support has been created
        at  0f23965e6ad5f3ad5c20fa9d8dd7a62909789204 (commit)

- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------
http://git.sv.gnu.org/cgit/gawk.git/commit/?id=0f23965e6ad5f3ad5c20fa9d8dd7a62909789204

commit 0f23965e6ad5f3ad5c20fa9d8dd7a62909789204
Author: Arnold D. Robbins <arnold@skeeve.com>
Date:   Wed Dec 21 22:46:08 2022 +0200

    Preliminary LaTeX support in gawktexi.in.

diff --git a/doc/ChangeLog b/doc/ChangeLog
index 779319f4..acaa51b4 100644
--- a/doc/ChangeLog
+++ b/doc/ChangeLog
@@ -1,3 +1,7 @@
+2022-12-21         Arnold D. Robbins     <arnold@skeeve.com>
+
+       * gawktexi.in: Add LaTeX support.
+
 2022-12-21         Arnold D. Robbins     <arnold@skeeve.com>
 
        * gawktexi.in (Sample Debugging Session): End gawk invocation
diff --git a/doc/gawk.info b/doc/gawk.info
index f2f91ef6..373511f2 100644
--- a/doc/gawk.info
+++ b/doc/gawk.info
@@ -1,23 +1,23 @@
-This is gawk.info, produced by makeinfo version 6.8 from gawk.texi.
+This is gawk.info, produced by makeinfo version 7.0.1 from gawk.texi.
 
-Copyright (C) 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996-2005, 2007, 2009-2022
+Copyright © 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996–2005, 2007, 2009–2022
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 
 
-   This is Edition 5.2 of 'GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User's
-Guide for GNU Awk', for the 5.2.2 (or later) version of the GNU
+   This is Edition 5.2 of ‘GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User’s
+Guide for GNU Awk’, for the 5.2.2 (or later) version of the GNU
 implementation of AWK.
 
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
 any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
-Invariant Sections being "GNU General Public License", with the
-Front-Cover Texts being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as
+Invariant Sections being “GNU General Public License”, with the
+Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual”, and with the Back-Cover Texts as
 in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
-"GNU Free Documentation License".
+“GNU Free Documentation License”.
 
-  a. The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
-     modify this GNU manual."
+  a. The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and
+     modify this GNU manual.”
 INFO-DIR-SECTION Text creation and manipulation
 START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
 * Gawk: (gawk).                 A text scanning and processing language.
@@ -34,27 +34,27 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Foreword3,  Up: (dir)
 General Introduction
 ********************
 
-This file documents 'awk', a program that you can use to select
+This file documents ‘awk’, a program that you can use to select
 particular records in a file and perform operations upon them.
 
-   Copyright (C) 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996-2005, 2007, 2009-2022
+   Copyright © 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996–2005, 2007, 2009–2022
 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 
 
-   This is Edition 5.2 of 'GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User's
-Guide for GNU Awk', for the 5.2.2 (or later) version of the GNU
+   This is Edition 5.2 of ‘GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User’s
+Guide for GNU Awk’, for the 5.2.2 (or later) version of the GNU
 implementation of AWK.
 
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
 any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
-Invariant Sections being "GNU General Public License", with the
-Front-Cover Texts being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as
+Invariant Sections being “GNU General Public License”, with the
+Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual”, and with the Back-Cover Texts as
 in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
-"GNU Free Documentation License".
+“GNU Free Documentation License”.
 
-  a. The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
-     modify this GNU manual."
+  a. The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and
+     modify this GNU manual.”
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -64,14 +64,14 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Preface::                        What this Info file is about; brief
                                    history and acknowledgments.
 * Getting Started::                A basic introduction to using
-                                   'awk'. How to run an 'awk'
+                                   ‘awk’. How to run an ‘awk’
                                    program. Command-line syntax.
-* Invoking Gawk::                  How to run 'gawk'.
+* Invoking Gawk::                  How to run ‘gawk’.
 * Regexp::                         All about matching things using regular
                                    expressions.
 * Reading Files::                  How to read files and manipulate fields.
-* Printing::                       How to print using 'awk'. Describes
-                                   the 'print' and 'printf'
+* Printing::                       How to print using ‘awk’. Describes
+                                   the ‘print’ and ‘printf’
                                    statements. Also describes redirection of
                                    output.
 * Expressions::                    Expressions are the basic building blocks
@@ -80,37 +80,37 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Arrays::                         The description and use of arrays. Also
                                    includes array-oriented control statements.
 * Functions::                      Built-in and user-defined functions.
-* Library Functions::              A Library of 'awk' Functions.
-* Sample Programs::                Many 'awk' programs with complete
+* Library Functions::              A Library of ‘awk’ Functions.
+* Sample Programs::                Many ‘awk’ programs with complete
                                    explanations.
 * Advanced Features::              Stuff for advanced users, specific to
-                                   'gawk'.
-* Internationalization::           Getting 'gawk' to speak your
+                                   ‘gawk’.
+* Internationalization::           Getting ‘gawk’ to speak your
                                    language.
-* Debugger::                       The 'gawk' debugger.
-* Namespaces::                     How namespaces work in 'gawk'.
+* Debugger::                       The ‘gawk’ debugger.
+* Namespaces::                     How namespaces work in ‘gawk’.
 * Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic:: Arbitrary precision arithmetic with
-                                   'gawk'.
+                                   ‘gawk’.
 * Dynamic Extensions::             Adding new built-in functions to
-                                   'gawk'.
-* Language History::               The evolution of the 'awk'
+                                   ‘gawk’.
+* Language History::               The evolution of the ‘awk’
                                    language.
-* Installation::                   Installing 'gawk' under various
+* Installation::                   Installing ‘gawk’ under various
                                    operating systems.
-* Notes::                          Notes about adding things to 'gawk'
+* Notes::                          Notes about adding things to ‘gawk’
                                    and possible future work.
 * Basic Concepts::                 A very quick introduction to programming
                                    concepts.
 * Glossary::                       An explanation of some unfamiliar terms.
 * Copying::                        Your right to copy and distribute
-                                   'gawk'.
+                                   ‘gawk’.
 * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this Info file.
 * Index::                          Concept and Variable Index.
 
-* History::                             The history of 'gawk' and
-                                        'awk'.
+* History::                             The history of ‘gawk’ and
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Names::                               What name to use to find
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * This Manual::                         Using this Info file. Includes
                                         sample input files that you can use.
 * Conventions::                         Typographical Conventions.
@@ -118,23 +118,23 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         this Info file.
 * How To Contribute::                   Helping to save the world.
 * Acknowledgments::                     Acknowledgments.
-* Running gawk::                        How to run 'gawk' programs;
+* Running gawk::                        How to run ‘gawk’ programs;
                                         includes command-line syntax.
 * One-shot::                            Running a short throwaway
-                                        'awk' program.
+                                        ‘awk’ program.
 * Read Terminal::                       Using no input files (input from the
                                         keyboard instead).
-* Long::                                Putting permanent 'awk'
+* Long::                                Putting permanent ‘awk’
                                         programs in files.
-* Executable Scripts::                  Making self-contained 'awk'
+* Executable Scripts::                  Making self-contained ‘awk’
                                         programs.
-* Comments::                            Adding documentation to 'gawk'
+* Comments::                            Adding documentation to ‘gawk’
                                         programs.
 * Quoting::                             More discussion of shell quoting
                                         issues.
 * DOS Quoting::                         Quoting in Windows Batch Files.
 * Sample Data Files::                   Sample data files for use in the
-                                        'awk' programs illustrated in
+                                        ‘awk’ programs illustrated in
                                         this Info file.
 * Very Simple::                         A very simple example.
 * Two Rules::                           A less simple one-line example using
@@ -142,11 +142,11 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * More Complex::                        A more complex example.
 * Statements/Lines::                    Subdividing or combining statements
                                         into lines.
-* Other Features::                      Other Features of 'awk'.
-* When::                                When to use 'gawk' and when to
+* Other Features::                      Other Features of ‘awk’.
+* When::                                When to use ‘gawk’ and when to
                                         use other things.
 * Intro Summary::                       Summary of the introduction.
-* Command Line::                        How to run 'awk'.
+* Command Line::                        How to run ‘awk’.
 * Options::                             Command-line options and their
                                         meanings.
 * Other Arguments::                     Input file names and variable
@@ -154,13 +154,13 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Naming Standard Input::               How to specify standard input with
                                         other files.
 * Environment Variables::               The environment variables
-                                        'gawk' uses.
+                                        ‘gawk’ uses.
 * AWKPATH Variable::                    Searching directories for
-                                        'awk' programs.
+                                        ‘awk’ programs.
 * AWKLIBPATH Variable::                 Searching directories for
-                                        'awk' shared libraries.
+                                        ‘awk’ shared libraries.
 * Other Environment Variables::         The environment variables.
-* Exit Status::                         'gawk''s exit status.
+* Exit Status::                         ‘gawk’’s exit status.
 * Include Files::                       Including other files into your
                                         program.
 * Loading Shared Libraries::            Loading shared libraries into your
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Regexp Operators::                    Regular Expression Operators.
 * Regexp Operator Details::             The actual details.
 * Interval Expressions::                Notes on interval expressions.
-* Bracket Expressions::                 What can go between '[...]'.
+* Bracket Expressions::                 What can go between ‘[...]’.
 * Leftmost Longest::                    How much text matches.
 * Computed Regexps::                    Using Dynamic Regexps.
 * GNU Regexp Operators::                Operators specific to GNU software.
@@ -181,9 +181,9 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Regexp Summary::                      Regular expressions summary.
 * Records::                             Controlling how data is split into
                                         records.
-* awk split records::                   How standard 'awk' splits
+* awk split records::                   How standard ‘awk’ splits
                                         records.
-* gawk split records::                  How 'gawk' splits records.
+* gawk split records::                  How ‘gawk’ splits records.
 * Fields::                              An introduction to fields.
 * Nonconstant Fields::                  Nonconstant Field Numbers.
 * Changing Fields::                     Changing the Contents of a Field.
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Regexp Field Splitting::              Using regexps as the field separator.
 * Single Character Fields::             Making each character a separate
                                         field.
-* Command Line Field Separator::        Setting 'FS' from the command
+* Command Line Field Separator::        Setting ‘FS’ from the command
                                         line.
 * Full Line Fields::                    Making the full line be a single
                                         field.
@@ -206,42 +206,42 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Splitting By Content::                Defining Fields By Content
 * More CSV::                            More on CSV files.
 * FS versus FPAT::                      A subtle difference.
-* Testing field creation::              Checking how 'gawk' is
+* Testing field creation::              Checking how ‘gawk’ is
                                         splitting records.
 * Multiple Line::                       Reading multiline records.
 * Getline::                             Reading files under explicit program
-                                        control using the 'getline'
+                                        control using the ‘getline’
                                         function.
-* Plain Getline::                       Using 'getline' with no
+* Plain Getline::                       Using ‘getline’ with no
                                         arguments.
-* Getline/Variable::                    Using 'getline' into a variable.
-* Getline/File::                        Using 'getline' from a file.
-* Getline/Variable/File::               Using 'getline' into a variable
+* Getline/Variable::                    Using ‘getline’ into a variable.
+* Getline/File::                        Using ‘getline’ from a file.
+* Getline/Variable/File::               Using ‘getline’ into a variable
                                         from a file.
-* Getline/Pipe::                        Using 'getline' from a pipe.
-* Getline/Variable/Pipe::               Using 'getline' into a variable
+* Getline/Pipe::                        Using ‘getline’ from a pipe.
+* Getline/Variable/Pipe::               Using ‘getline’ into a variable
                                         from a pipe.
-* Getline/Coprocess::                   Using 'getline' from a coprocess.
-* Getline/Variable/Coprocess::          Using 'getline' into a variable
+* Getline/Coprocess::                   Using ‘getline’ from a coprocess.
+* Getline/Variable/Coprocess::          Using ‘getline’ into a variable
                                         from a coprocess.
 * Getline Notes::                       Important things to know about
-                                        'getline'.
-* Getline Summary::                     Summary of 'getline' Variants.
+                                        ‘getline’.
+* Getline Summary::                     Summary of ‘getline’ Variants.
 * Read Timeout::                        Reading input with a timeout.
 * Retrying Input::                      Retrying input after certain errors.
 * Command-line directories::            What happens if you put a directory on
                                         the command line.
 * Input Summary::                       Input summary.
 * Input Exercises::                     Exercises.
-* Print::                               The 'print' statement.
-* Print Examples::                      Simple examples of 'print'
+* Print::                               The ‘print’ statement.
+* Print Examples::                      Simple examples of ‘print’
                                         statements.
 * Output Separators::                   The output separators and how to
                                         change them.
 * OFMT::                                Controlling Numeric Output With
-                                        'print'.
-* Printf::                              The 'printf' statement.
-* Basic Printf::                        Syntax of the 'printf' statement.
+                                        ‘print’.
+* Printf::                              The ‘printf’ statement.
+* Basic Printf::                        Syntax of the ‘printf’ statement.
 * Control Letters::                     Format-control letters.
 * Format Modifiers::                    Format-specification modifiers.
 * Printf Examples::                     Several examples.
@@ -249,10 +249,10 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         files and pipes.
 * Special FD::                          Special files for I/O.
 * Special Files::                       File name interpretation in
-                                        'gawk'. 'gawk' allows
+                                        ‘gawk’. ‘gawk’ allows
                                         access to inherited file descriptors.
 * Other Inherited Files::               Accessing other open files with
-                                        'gawk'.
+                                        ‘gawk’.
 * Special Network::                     Special files for network
                                         communications.
 * Special Caveats::                     Things to watch out for.
@@ -269,7 +269,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Regexp Constants::                    Regular Expression constants.
 * Using Constant Regexps::              When and how to use a regexp constant.
 * Standard Regexp Constants::           Regexp constants in standard
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Strong Regexp Constants::             Strongly typed regexp constants.
 * Variables::                           Variables give names to values for
                                         later use.
@@ -279,30 +279,30 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         This is an advanced method of input.
 * Conversion::                          The conversion of strings to numbers
                                         and vice versa.
-* Strings And Numbers::                 How 'awk' Converts Between
+* Strings And Numbers::                 How ‘awk’ Converts Between
                                         Strings And Numbers.
 * Locale influences conversions::       How the locale may affect conversions.
-* All Operators::                       'gawk''s operators.
-* Arithmetic Ops::                      Arithmetic operations ('+',
-                                        '-', etc.)
+* All Operators::                       ‘gawk’’s operators.
+* Arithmetic Ops::                      Arithmetic operations (‘+’,
+                                        ‘-’, etc.)
 * Concatenation::                       Concatenating strings.
 * Assignment Ops::                      Changing the value of a variable or a
                                         field.
 * Increment Ops::                       Incrementing the numeric value of a
                                         variable.
 * Truth Values and Conditions::         Testing for true and false.
-* Truth Values::                        What is "true" and what is
-                                        "false".
+* Truth Values::                        What is “true” and what is
+                                        “false”.
 * Typing and Comparison::               How variables acquire types and how
                                         this affects comparison of numbers and
-                                        strings with '<', etc.
+                                        strings with ‘<’, etc.
 * Variable Typing::                     String type versus numeric type.
 * Comparison Operators::                The comparison operators.
 * POSIX String Comparison::             String comparison with POSIX rules.
 * Boolean Ops::                         Combining comparison expressions using
-                                        boolean operators '||' ("or"),
-                                        '&&' ("and") and '!'
-                                        ("not").
+                                        boolean operators ‘||’ (“or”),
+                                        ‘&&’ (“and”) and ‘!’
+                                        (“not”).
 * Conditional Exp::                     Conditional expressions select between
                                         two subexpressions under control of a
                                         third subexpression.
@@ -325,12 +325,12 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Empty::                               The empty pattern, which matches every
                                         record.
 * Using Shell Variables::               How to use shell variables with
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Action Overview::                     What goes into an action.
 * Statements::                          Describes the various control
                                         statements in detail.
 * If Statement::                        Conditionally execute some
-                                        'awk' statements.
+                                        ‘awk’ statements.
 * While Statement::                     Loop until some condition is
                                         satisfied.
 * Do Statement::                        Do specified action while looping
@@ -348,14 +348,14 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Next Statement::                      Stop processing the current input
                                         record.
 * Nextfile Statement::                  Stop processing the current file.
-* Exit Statement::                      Stop execution of 'awk'.
+* Exit Statement::                      Stop execution of ‘awk’.
 * Built-in Variables::                  Summarizes the predefined variables.
 * User-modified::                       Built-in variables that you change to
-                                        control 'awk'.
-* Auto-set::                            Built-in variables where 'awk'
+                                        control ‘awk’.
+* Auto-set::                            Built-in variables where ‘awk’
                                         gives you information.
-* ARGC and ARGV::                       Ways to use 'ARGC' and
-                                        'ARGV'.
+* ARGC and ARGV::                       Ways to use ‘ARGC’ and
+                                        ‘ARGV’.
 * Pattern Action Summary::              Patterns and Actions summary.
 * Array Basics::                        The basics of arrays.
 * Array Intro::                         Introduction to Arrays
@@ -363,20 +363,20 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         array.
 * Assigning Elements::                  How to change an element of an array.
 * Array Example::                       Basic Example of an Array
-* Scanning an Array::                   A variation of the 'for'
+* Scanning an Array::                   A variation of the ‘for’
                                         statement. It loops through the
-                                        indices of an array's existing
+                                        indices of an array’s existing
                                         elements.
 * Controlling Scanning::                Controlling the order in which arrays
                                         are scanned.
 * Numeric Array Subscripts::            How to use numbers as subscripts in
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Uninitialized Subscripts::            Using Uninitialized variables as
                                         subscripts.
-* Delete::                              The 'delete' statement removes an
+* Delete::                              The ‘delete’ statement removes an
                                         element from an array.
 * Multidimensional::                    Emulating multidimensional arrays in
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Multiscanning::                       Scanning multidimensional arrays.
 * Arrays of Arrays::                    True multidimensional arrays.
 * Arrays Summary::                      Summary of arrays.
@@ -385,15 +385,15 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Boolean Functions::                   A function that returns Boolean
                                         values.
 * Numeric Functions::                   Functions that work with numbers,
-                                        including 'int()', 'sin()'
-                                        and 'rand()'.
+                                        including ‘int()’, ‘sin()’
+                                        and ‘rand()’.
 * String Functions::                    Functions for string manipulation,
-                                        such as 'split()', 'match()'
-                                        and 'sprintf()'.
+                                        such as ‘split()’, ‘match()’
+                                        and ‘sprintf()’.
 * Gory Details::                        More than you want to know about
-                                        '\' and '&' with
-                                        'sub()', 'gsub()', and
-                                        'gensub()'.
+                                        ‘\’ and ‘&’ with
+                                        ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and
+                                        ‘gensub()’.
 * I/O Functions::                       Functions for files and shell
                                         commands.
 * Time Functions::                      Functions for dealing with timestamps.
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Function Example::                    An example function definition and
                                         what it does.
 * Function Calling::                    Calling user-defined functions.
-* Calling A Function::                  Don't use spaces.
+* Calling A Function::                  Don’t use spaces.
 * Variable Scope::                      Controlling variable scope.
 * Pass By Value/Reference::             Passing parameters.
 * Function Caveats::                    Other points to know about functions.
@@ -422,11 +422,11 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         variables in library functions.
 * General Functions::                   Functions that are of general use.
 * Strtonum Function::                   A replacement for the built-in
-                                        'strtonum()' function.
+                                        ‘strtonum()’ function.
 * Assert Function::                     A function for assertions in
-                                        'awk' programs.
+                                        ‘awk’ programs.
 * Round Function::                      A function for rounding if
-                                        'sprintf()' does not do it
+                                        ‘sprintf()’ does not do it
                                         correctly.
 * Cliff Random Function::               The Cliff Random Number Generator.
 * Ordinal Functions::                   Functions for using characters as
@@ -460,22 +460,22 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Library Exercises::                   Exercises.
 * Running Examples::                    How to run these examples.
 * Clones::                              Clones of common utilities.
-* Cut Program::                         The 'cut' utility.
-* Egrep Program::                       The 'egrep' utility.
-* Id Program::                          The 'id' utility.
-* Split Program::                       The 'split' utility.
-* Tee Program::                         The 'tee' utility.
-* Uniq Program::                        The 'uniq' utility.
-* Wc Program::                          The 'wc' utility.
+* Cut Program::                         The ‘cut’ utility.
+* Egrep Program::                       The ‘egrep’ utility.
+* Id Program::                          The ‘id’ utility.
+* Split Program::                       The ‘split’ utility.
+* Tee Program::                         The ‘tee’ utility.
+* Uniq Program::                        The ‘uniq’ utility.
+* Wc Program::                          The ‘wc’ utility.
 * Bytes vs. Characters::                Modern character sets.
 * Using extensions::                    A brief intro to extensions.
-* wc program::                Code for 'wc.awk'.
-* Miscellaneous Programs::              Some interesting 'awk'
+* wc program::                Code for ‘wc.awk’.
+* Miscellaneous Programs::              Some interesting ‘awk’
                                         programs.
 * Dupword Program::                     Finding duplicated words in a
                                         document.
 * Alarm Program::                       An alarm clock.
-* Translate Program::                   A program similar to the 'tr'
+* Translate Program::                   A program similar to the ‘tr’
                                         utility.
 * Labels Program::                      Printing mailing labels.
 * Word Sorting::                        A program to produce a word usage
@@ -485,7 +485,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Extract Program::                     Pulling out programs from Texinfo
                                         source files.
 * Simple Sed::                          A Simple Stream Editor.
-* Igawk Program::                       A wrapper for 'awk' that
+* Igawk Program::                       A wrapper for ‘awk’ that
                                         includes files.
 * Anagram Program::                     Finding anagrams from a dictionary.
 * Signature Program::                   People do amazing things with too much
@@ -493,34 +493,34 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Programs Summary::                    Summary of programs.
 * Programs Exercises::                  Exercises.
 * Nondecimal Data::                     Allowing nondecimal input data.
-* Boolean Typed Values::                Values with 'number|bool' type.
+* Boolean Typed Values::                Values with ‘number|bool’ type.
 * Array Sorting::                       Facilities for controlling array
                                         traversal and sorting arrays.
 * Controlling Array Traversal::         How to use PROCINFO["sorted_in"].
-* Array Sorting Functions::             How to use 'asort()' and
-                                        'asorti()'.
+* Array Sorting Functions::             How to use ‘asort()’ and
+                                        ‘asorti()’.
 * Two-way I/O::                         Two-way communications with another
                                         process.
-* TCP/IP Networking::                   Using 'gawk' for network
+* TCP/IP Networking::                   Using ‘gawk’ for network
                                         programming.
-* Profiling::                           Profiling your 'awk' programs.
+* Profiling::                           Profiling your ‘awk’ programs.
 * Persistent Memory::                   Preserving data between runs.
 * Extension Philosophy::                What should be built-in and what
                                         should not.
 * Advanced Features Summary::           Summary of advanced features.
 * I18N and L10N::                       Internationalization and Localization.
-* Explaining gettext::                  How GNU 'gettext' works.
+* Explaining gettext::                  How GNU ‘gettext’ works.
 * Programmer i18n::                     Features for the programmer.
 * Translator i18n::                     Features for the translator.
 * String Extraction::                   Extracting marked strings.
-* Printf Ordering::                     Rearranging 'printf' arguments.
-* I18N Portability::                    'awk'-level portability
+* Printf Ordering::                     Rearranging ‘printf’ arguments.
+* I18N Portability::                    ‘awk’-level portability
                                         issues.
 * I18N Example::                        A simple i18n example.
-* Gawk I18N::                           'gawk' is also
+* Gawk I18N::                           ‘gawk’ is also
                                         internationalized.
 * I18N Summary::                        Summary of I18N stuff.
-* Debugging::                           Introduction to 'gawk'
+* Debugging::                           Introduction to ‘gawk’
                                         debugger.
 * Debugging Concepts::                  Debugging in General.
 * Debugging Terms::                     Additional Debugging Concepts.
@@ -540,19 +540,19 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Limitations::                         Limitations and future plans.
 * Debugging Summary::                   Debugging summary.
 * Global Namespace::                    The global namespace in standard
-                                        'awk'.
+                                        ‘awk’.
 * Qualified Names::                     How to qualify names with a namespace.
 * Default Namespace::                   The default namespace.
 * Changing The Namespace::              How to change the namespace.
 * Naming Rules::                        Namespace and Component Naming Rules.
 * Internal Name Management::            How names are stored internally.
 * Namespace Example::                   An example of code using a namespace.
-* Namespace And Features::              Namespaces and other 'gawk'
+* Namespace And Features::              Namespaces and other ‘gawk’
                                         features.
 * Namespace Summary::                   Summarizing namespaces.
 * Computer Arithmetic::                 A quick intro to computer math.
 * Math Definitions::                    Defining terms used.
-* MPFR features::                       The MPFR features in 'gawk'.
+* MPFR features::                       The MPFR features in ‘gawk’.
 * MPFR On Parole::                      MPFR features are on parole!
 * MPFR Intro::                          MPFR General introduction.
 * FP Math Caution::                     Things to know.
@@ -566,7 +566,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Setting precision::                   How to set the precision.
 * Setting the rounding mode::           How to set the rounding mode.
 * Arbitrary Precision Integers::        Arbitrary Precision Integer Arithmetic
-                                        with 'gawk'.
+                                        with ‘gawk’.
 * Checking for MPFR::                   How to check if MPFR is available.
 * POSIX Floating Point Problems::       Standards Versus Existing Practice.
 * Floating point summary::              Summary of floating point discussion.
@@ -580,7 +580,7 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Constructor Functions::               Functions for creating values.
 * API Ownership of MPFR and GMP Values:: Managing MPFR and GMP Values.
 * Registration Functions::              Functions to register things with
-                                        'gawk'.
+                                        ‘gawk’.
 * Extension Functions::                 Registering extension functions.
 * Exit Callback Functions::             Registering an exit callback.
 * Extension Version String::            Registering a version string.
@@ -588,13 +588,13 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Output Wrappers::                     Registering an output wrapper.
 * Two-way processors::                  Registering a two-way processor.
 * Printing Messages::                   Functions for printing messages.
-* Updating ERRNO::               Functions for updating 'ERRNO'.
+* Updating ERRNO::               Functions for updating ‘ERRNO’.
 * Requesting Values::                   How to get a value.
 * Accessing Parameters::                Functions for accessing parameters.
 * Symbol Table Access::                 Functions for accessing global
                                         variables.
 * Symbol table by name::                Accessing variables by name.
-* Symbol table by cookie::              Accessing variables by "cookie".
+* Symbol table by cookie::              Accessing variables by “cookie”.
 * Cached values::                       Creating and using cached values.
 * Array Manipulation::                  Functions for working with arrays.
 * Array Data Types::                    Data types for working with arrays.
@@ -608,35 +608,35 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * Extension GMP/MPFR Versioning::       Version information about GMP and
                                         MPFR.
 * Extension API Informational Variables:: Variables providing information about
-                                        'gawk''s invocation.
+                                        ‘gawk’’s invocation.
 * Extension API Boilerplate::           Boilerplate code for using the API.
 * Changes from API V1::                 Changes from V1 of the API.
-* Finding Extensions::                  How 'gawk' finds compiled
+* Finding Extensions::                  How ‘gawk’ finds compiled
                                         extensions.
 * Extension Example::                   Example C code for an extension.
 * Internal File Description::           What the new functions will do.
 * Internal File Ops::                   The code for internal file operations.
 * Using Internal File Ops::             How to use an external extension.
 * Extension Samples::                   The sample extensions that ship with
-                                        'gawk'.
+                                        ‘gawk’.
 * Extension Sample File Functions::     The file functions sample.
-* Extension Sample Fnmatch::            An interface to 'fnmatch()'.
-* Extension Sample Fork::               An interface to 'fork()' and
+* Extension Sample Fnmatch::            An interface to ‘fnmatch()’.
+* Extension Sample Fork::               An interface to ‘fork()’ and
                                         other process functions.
 * Extension Sample Inplace::            Enabling in-place file editing.
 * Extension Sample Ord::                Character to value to character
                                         conversions.
-* Extension Sample Readdir::            An interface to 'readdir()'.
+* Extension Sample Readdir::            An interface to ‘readdir()’.
 * Extension Sample Revout::             Reversing output sample output
                                         wrapper.
 * Extension Sample Rev2way::            Reversing data sample two-way
                                         processor.
 * Extension Sample Read write array::   Serializing an array to a file.
 * Extension Sample Readfile::           Reading an entire file into a string.
-* Extension Sample Time::               An interface to 'gettimeofday()'
-                                        and 'sleep()'.
+* Extension Sample Time::               An interface to ‘gettimeofday()’
+                                        and ‘sleep()’.
 * Extension Sample API Tests::          Tests for the API.
-* gawkextlib::                          The 'gawkextlib' project.
+* gawkextlib::                          The ‘gawkextlib’ project.
 * Extension summary::                   Extension summary.
 * Extension Exercises::                 Exercises.
 * V7/SVR3.1::                           The major changes between V7 and
@@ -644,52 +644,52 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
 * SVR4::                                Minor changes between System V
                                         Releases 3.1 and 4.
 * POSIX::                               New features from the POSIX standard.
-* BTL::                                 New features from Brian Kernighan's
-                                        version of 'awk'.
-* POSIX/GNU::                           The extensions in 'gawk' not
-                                        in POSIX 'awk'.
+* BTL::                                 New features from Brian Kernighan’s
+                                        version of ‘awk’.
+* POSIX/GNU::                           The extensions in ‘gawk’ not
+                                        in POSIX ‘awk’.
 * Feature History::                     The history of the features in
-                                        'gawk'.
+                                        ‘gawk’.
 * Common Extensions::                   Common Extensions Summary.
 * Ranges and Locales::                  How locales used to affect regexp
                                         ranges.
 * Contributors::                        The major contributors to
-                                        'gawk'.
+                                        ‘gawk’.
 * History summary::                     History summary.
-* Gawk Distribution::                   What is in the 'gawk'
+* Gawk Distribution::                   What is in the ‘gawk’
                                         distribution.
 * Getting::                             How to get the distribution.
 * Extracting::                          How to extract the distribution.
 * Distribution contents::               What is in the distribution.
-* Unix Installation::                   Installing 'gawk' under
+* Unix Installation::                   Installing ‘gawk’ under
                                         various versions of Unix.
-* Quick Installation::                  Compiling 'gawk' under Unix.
+* Quick Installation::                  Compiling ‘gawk’ under Unix.
 * Compiling with MPFR::                 Building with MPFR.
 * Shell Startup Files::                 Shell convenience functions.
 * Additional Configuration Options::    Other compile-time options.
-* Configuration Philosophy::            How it's all supposed to work.
+* Configuration Philosophy::            How it’s all supposed to work.
 * Compiling from Git::                  Compiling from Git.
 * Building the Documentation::          Building the Documentation.
 * Non-Unix Installation::               Installation on Other Operating
                                         Systems.
 * PC Installation::                     Installing and Compiling
-                                        'gawk' on Microsoft Windows.
+                                        ‘gawk’ on Microsoft Windows.
 * PC Binary Installation::              Installing a prepared distribution.
-* PC Compiling::                        Compiling 'gawk' for
+* PC Compiling::                        Compiling ‘gawk’ for
                                         Windows32.
-* PC Using::                            Running 'gawk' on Windows32.
-* Cygwin::                              Building and running 'gawk'
+* PC Using::                            Running ‘gawk’ on Windows32.
+* Cygwin::                              Building and running ‘gawk’
                                         for Cygwin.
-* MSYS::                                Using 'gawk' In The MSYS
+* MSYS::                                Using ‘gawk’ In The MSYS
                                         Environment.
-* OpenVMS Installation::                Installing 'gawk' on OpenVMS.
-* OpenVMS Compilation::                 How to compile 'gawk' under
+* OpenVMS Installation::                Installing ‘gawk’ on OpenVMS.
+* OpenVMS Compilation::                 How to compile ‘gawk’ under
                                         OpenVMS.
-* OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions::          Compiling 'gawk' dynamic
+* OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions::          Compiling ‘gawk’ dynamic
                                         extensions on OpenVMS.
-* OpenVMS Installation Details::        How to install 'gawk' under
+* OpenVMS Installation Details::        How to install ‘gawk’ under
                                         OpenVMS.
-* OpenVMS Running::                     How to run 'gawk' under
+* OpenVMS Running::                     How to run ‘gawk’ under
                                         OpenVMS.
 * OpenVMS GNV::                         The OpenVMS GNV Project.
 * Bugs::                                Reporting Problems and Bugs.
@@ -700,16 +700,16 @@ in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the 
section entitled
                                         performance issue.
 * Asking for help::                     Dealing with non-bug questions.
 * Maintainers::                         Maintainers of non-*nix ports.
-* Other Versions::                      Other freely available 'awk'
+* Other Versions::                      Other freely available ‘awk’
                                         implementations.
 * Installation summary::                Summary of installation.
-* Compatibility Mode::                  How to disable certain 'gawk'
+* Compatibility Mode::                  How to disable certain ‘gawk’
                                         extensions.
-* Additions::                           Making Additions To 'gawk'.
+* Additions::                           Making Additions To ‘gawk’.
 * Accessing The Source::                Accessing the Git repository.
 * Adding Code::                         Adding code to the main body of
-                                        'gawk'.
-* New Ports::                           Porting 'gawk' to a new
+                                        ‘gawk’.
+* New Ports::                           Porting ‘gawk’ to a new
                                         operating system.
 * Derived Files::                       Why derived files are kept in the Git
                                         repository.
@@ -742,64 +742,64 @@ Foreword to the Third Edition
 *****************************
 
 Arnold Robbins and I are good friends.  We were introduced in 1990 by
-circumstances--and our favorite programming language, AWK. The
+circumstances—and our favorite programming language, AWK. The
 circumstances started a couple of years earlier.  I was working at a new
 job and noticed an unplugged Unix computer sitting in the corner.  No
 one knew how to use it, and neither did I. However, a couple of days
-later, it was running, and I was 'root' and the one-and-only user.  That
+later, it was running, and I was ‘root’ and the one-and-only user.  That
 day, I began the transition from statistician to Unix programmer.
 
    On one of many trips to the library or bookstore in search of books
 on Unix, I found the gray AWK book, a.k.a. Alfred V. Aho, Brian W.
-Kernighan, and Peter J. Weinberger's 'The AWK Programming Language'
-(Addison-Wesley, 1988).  'awk''s simple programming paradigm--find a
-pattern in the input and then perform an action--often reduced complex
-or tedious data manipulations to a few lines of code.  I was excited to
-try my hand at programming in AWK.
-
-   Alas, the 'awk' on my computer was a limited version of the language
-described in the gray book.  I discovered that my computer had "old
-'awk'" and the book described "new 'awk'."  I learned that this was
+Kernighan, and Peter J. Weinberger’s ‘The AWK Programming Language’
+(Addison-Wesley, 1988).  ‘awk’’s simple programming paradigm—find a
+pattern in the input and then perform an action—often reduced complex or
+tedious data manipulations to a few lines of code.  I was excited to try
+my hand at programming in AWK.
+
+   Alas, the ‘awk’ on my computer was a limited version of the language
+described in the gray book.  I discovered that my computer had “old
+‘awk’” and the book described “new ‘awk’.” I learned that this 
was
 typical; the old version refused to step aside or relinquish its name.
-If a system had a new 'awk', it was invariably called 'nawk', and few
-systems had it.  The best way to get a new 'awk' was to 'ftp' the source
-code for 'gawk' from 'prep.ai.mit.edu'.  'gawk' was a version of new
-'awk' written by David Trueman and Arnold, and available under the GNU
+If a system had a new ‘awk’, it was invariably called ‘nawk’, and few
+systems had it.  The best way to get a new ‘awk’ was to ‘ftp’ the 
source
+code for ‘gawk’ from ‘prep.ai.mit.edu’.  ‘gawk’ was a version of 
new
+‘awk’ written by David Trueman and Arnold, and available under the GNU
 General Public License.
 
-   (Incidentally, it's no longer difficult to find a new 'awk'.  'gawk'
+   (Incidentally, it’s no longer difficult to find a new ‘awk’.  
‘gawk’
 ships with GNU/Linux, and you can download binaries or source code for
-almost any system; my wife uses 'gawk' on her VMS box.)
+almost any system; my wife uses ‘gawk’ on her VMS box.)
 
    My Unix system started out unplugged from the wall; it certainly was
-not plugged into a network.  So, oblivious to the existence of 'gawk'
-and the Unix community in general, and desiring a new 'awk', I wrote my
-own, called 'mawk'.  Before I was finished, I knew about 'gawk', but it
-was too late to stop, so I eventually posted to a 'comp.sources'
+not plugged into a network.  So, oblivious to the existence of ‘gawk’
+and the Unix community in general, and desiring a new ‘awk’, I wrote my
+own, called ‘mawk’.  Before I was finished, I knew about ‘gawk’, but it
+was too late to stop, so I eventually posted to a ‘comp.sources’
 newsgroup.
 
    A few days after my posting, I got a friendly email from Arnold
 introducing himself.  He suggested we share design and algorithms and
-attached a draft of the POSIX standard so that I could update 'mawk' to
-support language extensions added after publication of 'The AWK
-Programming Language'.
+attached a draft of the POSIX standard so that I could update ‘mawk’ to
+support language extensions added after publication of ‘The AWK
+Programming Language’.
 
    Frankly, if our roles had been reversed, I would not have been so
-open and we probably would have never met.  I'm glad we did meet.  He is
-an AWK expert's AWK expert and a genuinely nice person.  Arnold
+open and we probably would have never met.  I’m glad we did meet.  He is
+an AWK expert’s AWK expert and a genuinely nice person.  Arnold
 contributes significant amounts of his expertise and time to the Free
 Software Foundation.
 
-   This book is the 'gawk' reference manual, but at its core it is a
+   This book is the ‘gawk’ reference manual, but at its core it is a
 book about AWK programming that will appeal to a wide audience.  It is a
 definitive reference to the AWK language as defined by the 1987 Bell
 Laboratories release and codified in the 1992 POSIX Utilities standard.
 
    On the other hand, the novice AWK programmer can study a wealth of
-practical programs that emphasize the power of AWK's basic idioms:
+practical programs that emphasize the power of AWK’s basic idioms:
 data-driven control flow, pattern matching with regular expressions, and
 associative arrays.  Those looking for something new can try out
-'gawk''s interface to network protocols via special '/inet' files.
+‘gawk’’s interface to network protocols via special ‘/inet’ files.
 
    The programs in this book make clear that an AWK program is typically
 much smaller and faster to develop than a counterpart written in C.
@@ -808,19 +808,19 @@ design in AWK to get it running quickly and expose 
problems early.
 Often, the interpreted performance is adequate and the AWK prototype
 becomes the product.
 
-   The new 'pgawk' (profiling 'gawk'), produces program execution
+   The new ‘pgawk’ (profiling ‘gawk’), produces program execution
 counts.  I recently experimented with an algorithm that for n lines of
 input, exhibited ~ C n^2 performance, while theory predicted ~ C n log n
-behavior.  A few minutes poring over the 'awkprof.out' profile
-pinpointed the problem to a single line of code.  'pgawk' is a welcome
-addition to my programmer's toolbox.
+behavior.  A few minutes poring over the ‘awkprof.out’ profile
+pinpointed the problem to a single line of code.  ‘pgawk’ is a welcome
+addition to my programmer’s toolbox.
 
    Arnold has distilled over a decade of experience writing and using
-AWK programs, and developing 'gawk', into this book.  If you use AWK or
+AWK programs, and developing ‘gawk’, into this book.  If you use AWK or
 want to learn how, then read this book.
 
      Michael Brennan
-     Author of 'mawk'
+     Author of ‘mawk’
      March 2001
 
 
@@ -829,8 +829,8 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Foreword4,  Next: Preface,  Prev: 
Foreword3,  Up: Top
 Foreword to the Fourth Edition
 ******************************
 
-Some things don't change.  Thirteen years ago I wrote: "If you use AWK
-or want to learn how, then read this book."  True then, and still true
+Some things don’t change.  Thirteen years ago I wrote: “If you use AWK
+or want to learn how, then read this book.” True then, and still true
 today.
 
    Learning to use a programming language is about more than mastering
@@ -845,10 +845,10 @@ performance reasons happens less, because more often the 
prototype is
 fast enough.
 
    Of course, there are computing operations that are best done in C or
-C++.  With 'gawk' 4.1 and later, you do not have to choose between
+C++.  With ‘gawk’ 4.1 and later, you do not have to choose between
 writing your program in AWK or in C/C++.  You can write most of your
 program in AWK and the aspects that require C/C++ capabilities can be
-written in C/C++, and then the pieces glued together when the 'gawk'
+written in C/C++, and then the pieces glued together when the ‘gawk’
 module loads the C/C++ module as a dynamic plug-in.  *note Dynamic
 Extensions::, has all the details, and, as expected, many examples to
 help you learn the ins and outs.
@@ -857,7 +857,7 @@ help you learn the ins and outs.
 think you will too.
 
      Michael Brennan
-     Author of 'mawk'
+     Author of ‘mawk’
      October 2014
 
 
@@ -869,61 +869,61 @@ Preface
 Several kinds of tasks occur repeatedly when working with text files.
 You might want to extract certain lines and discard the rest.  Or you
 may need to make changes wherever certain patterns appear, but leave the
-rest of the file alone.  Such jobs are often easy with 'awk'.  The 'awk'
+rest of the file alone.  Such jobs are often easy with ‘awk’.  The 
‘awk’
 utility interprets a special-purpose programming language that makes it
 easy to handle simple data-reformatting jobs.
 
-   The GNU implementation of 'awk' is called 'gawk'; if you invoke it
+   The GNU implementation of ‘awk’ is called ‘gawk’; if you invoke it
 with the proper options or environment variables, it is fully compatible
-with the POSIX(1) specification of the 'awk' language and with the Unix
-version of 'awk' maintained by Brian Kernighan.  This means that all
-properly written 'awk' programs should work with 'gawk'.  So most of the
-time, we don't distinguish between 'gawk' and other 'awk'
+with the POSIX(1) specification of the ‘awk’ language and with the Unix
+version of ‘awk’ maintained by Brian Kernighan.  This means that all
+properly written ‘awk’ programs should work with ‘gawk’.  So most of 
the
+time, we don’t distinguish between ‘gawk’ and other ‘awk’
 implementations.
 
-   Using 'awk' you can:
+   Using ‘awk’ you can:
 
-   * Manage small, personal databases
+   • Manage small, personal databases
 
-   * Generate reports
+   • Generate reports
 
-   * Validate data
+   • Validate data
 
-   * Produce indexes and perform other document-preparation tasks
+   • Produce indexes and perform other document-preparation tasks
 
-   * Experiment with algorithms that you can adapt later to other
+   • Experiment with algorithms that you can adapt later to other
      computer languages
 
-   In addition, 'gawk' provides facilities that make it easy to:
+   In addition, ‘gawk’ provides facilities that make it easy to:
 
-   * Extract bits and pieces of data for processing
+   • Extract bits and pieces of data for processing
 
-   * Sort data
+   • Sort data
 
-   * Perform simple network communications
+   • Perform simple network communications
 
-   * Profile and debug 'awk' programs
+   • Profile and debug ‘awk’ programs
 
-   * Extend the language with functions written in C or C++
+   • Extend the language with functions written in C or C++
 
-   This Info file teaches you about the 'awk' language and how you can
+   This Info file teaches you about the ‘awk’ language and how you can
 use it effectively.  You should already be familiar with basic system
-commands, such as 'cat' and 'ls',(2) as well as basic shell facilities,
+commands, such as ‘cat’ and ‘ls’,(2) as well as basic shell facilities,
 such as input/output (I/O) redirection and pipes.
 
-   Implementations of the 'awk' language are available for many
+   Implementations of the ‘awk’ language are available for many
 different computing environments.  This Info file, while describing the
-'awk' language in general, also describes the particular implementation
-of 'awk' called 'gawk' (which stands for "GNU 'awk'").  'gawk' runs on a
+‘awk’ language in general, also describes the particular implementation
+of ‘awk’ called ‘gawk’ (which stands for “GNU ‘awk’”).  
‘gawk’ runs on a
 broad range of Unix systems, ranging from Intel-architecture PC-based
-computers up through large-scale systems.  'gawk' has also been ported
+computers up through large-scale systems.  ‘gawk’ has also been ported
 to macOS, z/OS, Microsoft Windows (all versions), and OpenVMS.(3)
 
 * Menu:
 
-* History::                     The history of 'gawk' and
-                                'awk'.
-* Names::                       What name to use to find 'awk'.
+* History::                     The history of ‘gawk’ and
+                                ‘awk’.
+* Names::                       What name to use to find ‘awk’.
 * This Manual::                 Using this Info file. Includes sample
                                 input files that you can use.
 * Conventions::                 Typographical Conventions.
@@ -942,60 +942,60 @@ as on traditional Unix-based systems.  If you are using 
some other
 operating system, you still need to be familiar with the ideas of I/O
 redirection and pipes.
 
-   (3) Some other, obsolete systems to which 'gawk' was once ported are
+   (3) Some other, obsolete systems to which ‘gawk’ was once ported are
 no longer supported and the code for those systems has been removed.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: History,  Next: Names,  Up: Preface
 
-History of 'awk' and 'gawk'
+History of ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’
 ===========================
 
                    Recipe for a Programming Language
 
-          1 part 'egrep'   1 part 'snobol'
-          2 parts 'ed'     3 parts C
+          1 part ‘egrep’   1 part ‘snobol’
+          2 parts ‘ed’     3 parts C
 
-   Blend all parts well using 'lex' and 'yacc'.  Document minimally and
+   Blend all parts well using ‘lex’ and ‘yacc’.  Document minimally and
 release.
 
-   After eight years, add another part 'egrep' and two more parts C.
+   After eight years, add another part ‘egrep’ and two more parts C.
 Document very well and release.
 
-   The name 'awk' comes from the initials of its designers: Alfred V.
+   The name ‘awk’ comes from the initials of its designers: Alfred V.
 Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, and Brian W. Kernighan.  The original version
-of 'awk' was written in 1977 at AT&T Bell Laboratories.  In 1985, a new
+of ‘awk’ was written in 1977 at AT&T Bell Laboratories.  In 1985, a new
 version made the programming language more powerful, introducing
 user-defined functions, multiple input streams, and computed regular
 expressions.  This new version became widely available with Unix System
 V Release 3.1 (1987).  The version in System V Release 4 (1989) added
-some new features and cleaned up the behavior in some of the "dark
-corners" of the language.  The specification for 'awk' in the POSIX
+some new features and cleaned up the behavior in some of the “dark
+corners” of the language.  The specification for ‘awk’ in the POSIX
 Command Language and Utilities standard further clarified the language.
-Both the 'gawk' designers and the original 'awk' designers at Bell
+Both the ‘gawk’ designers and the original ‘awk’ designers at Bell
 Laboratories provided feedback for the POSIX specification.
 
-   Paul Rubin wrote 'gawk' in 1986.  Jay Fenlason completed it, with
+   Paul Rubin wrote ‘gawk’ in 1986.  Jay Fenlason completed it, with
 advice from Richard Stallman.  John Woods contributed parts of the code
 as well.  In 1988 and 1989, David Trueman, with help from me, thoroughly
-reworked 'gawk' for compatibility with the newer 'awk'.  Circa 1994, I
+reworked ‘gawk’ for compatibility with the newer ‘awk’.  Circa 1994, I
 became the primary maintainer.  Current development focuses on bug
 fixes, performance improvements, standards compliance, and,
 occasionally, new features.
 
    In May 1997, Jürgen Kahrs felt the need for network access from
-'awk', and with a little help from me, set about adding features to do
-this for 'gawk'.  At that time, he also wrote the bulk of 'TCP/IP
-Internetworking with 'gawk'' (a separate document, available as part of
-the 'gawk' distribution).  His code finally became part of the main
-'gawk' distribution with 'gawk' version 3.1.
-
-   John Haque rewrote the 'gawk' internals, in the process providing an
-'awk'-level debugger.  This version became available as 'gawk' version
+‘awk’, and with a little help from me, set about adding features to do
+this for ‘gawk’.  At that time, he also wrote the bulk of ‘TCP/IP
+Internetworking with ‘gawk’’ (a separate document, available as part of
+the ‘gawk’ distribution).  His code finally became part of the main
+‘gawk’ distribution with ‘gawk’ version 3.1.
+
+   John Haque rewrote the ‘gawk’ internals, in the process providing an
+‘awk’-level debugger.  This version became available as ‘gawk’ version
 4.0 in 2011.
 
    *Note Contributors:: for a full list of those who have made important
-contributions to 'gawk'.
+contributions to ‘gawk’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Names,  Next: This Manual,  Prev: History,  Up: Preface
@@ -1003,32 +1003,32 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Names,  Next: This Manual,  
Prev: History,  Up: Preface
 A Rose by Any Other Name
 ========================
 
-The 'awk' language has evolved over the years.  Full details are
+The ‘awk’ language has evolved over the years.  Full details are
 provided in *note Language History::.  The language described in this
-Info file is often referred to as "new 'awk'."  By analogy, the original
-version of 'awk' is referred to as "old 'awk'."
+Info file is often referred to as “new ‘awk’.” By analogy, the original
+version of ‘awk’ is referred to as “old ‘awk’.”
 
-   On most current systems, when you run the 'awk' utility you get some
-version of new 'awk'.(1)  If your system's standard 'awk' is the old
+   On most current systems, when you run the ‘awk’ utility you get some
+version of new ‘awk’.(1)  If your system’s standard ‘awk’ is the old
 one, you will see something like this if you try the following test
 program:
 
      $ awk 1 /dev/null
-     error-> awk: syntax error near line 1
-     error-> awk: bailing out near line 1
+     error→ awk: syntax error near line 1
+     error→ awk: bailing out near line 1
 
-In this case, you should find a version of new 'awk', or just install
-'gawk'!
+In this case, you should find a version of new ‘awk’, or just install
+‘gawk’!
 
    Throughout this Info file, whenever we refer to a language feature
-that should be available in any complete implementation of POSIX 'awk',
-we simply use the term 'awk'.  When referring to a feature that is
-specific to the GNU implementation, we use the term 'gawk'.
+that should be available in any complete implementation of POSIX ‘awk’,
+we simply use the term ‘awk’.  When referring to a feature that is
+specific to the GNU implementation, we use the term ‘gawk’.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) Only Solaris systems still use an old 'awk' for the default 'awk'
-utility.  A more modern 'awk' lives in '/usr/xpg6/bin' on these systems.
+   (1) Only Solaris systems still use an old ‘awk’ for the default 
‘awk’
+utility.  A more modern ‘awk’ lives in ‘/usr/xpg6/bin’ on these 
systems.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: This Manual,  Next: Conventions,  Prev: Names,  Up: 
Preface
@@ -1036,151 +1036,151 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: This Manual,  Next: 
Conventions,  Prev: Names,  Up: Pref
 Using This Book
 ===============
 
-The term 'awk' refers to a particular program as well as to the language
+The term ‘awk’ refers to a particular program as well as to the language
 you use to tell this program what to do.  When we need to be careful, we
-call the language "the 'awk' language," and the program "the 'awk'
-utility."  This Info file explains both how to write programs in the
-'awk' language and how to run the 'awk' utility.  The term "'awk'
-program" refers to a program written by you in the 'awk' programming
+call the language “the ‘awk’ language,” and the program “the 
‘awk’
+utility.” This Info file explains both how to write programs in the
+‘awk’ language and how to run the ‘awk’ utility.  The term “‘awk’
+program” refers to a program written by you in the ‘awk’ programming
 language.
 
-   Primarily, this Info file explains the features of 'awk' as defined
-in the POSIX standard.  It does so in the context of the 'gawk'
+   Primarily, this Info file explains the features of ‘awk’ as defined
+in the POSIX standard.  It does so in the context of the ‘gawk’
 implementation.  While doing so, it also attempts to describe important
-differences between 'gawk' and other 'awk' implementations.(1)  Finally,
-it notes any 'gawk' features that are not in the POSIX standard for
-'awk'.
+differences between ‘gawk’ and other ‘awk’ implementations.(1)  
Finally,
+it notes any ‘gawk’ features that are not in the POSIX standard for
+‘awk’.
 
    There are sidebars scattered throughout the Info file.  They add a
 more complete explanation of points that are relevant, but not likely to
 be of interest on first reading.  All appear in the index, under the
-heading "sidebar."
+heading “sidebar.”
 
-   Most of the time, the examples use complete 'awk' programs.  Some of
-the more advanced minor nodes show only the part of the 'awk' program
+   Most of the time, the examples use complete ‘awk’ programs.  Some of
+the more advanced minor nodes show only the part of the ‘awk’ program
 that illustrates the concept being described.
 
    Although this Info file is aimed principally at people who have not
-been exposed to 'awk', there is a lot of information here that even the
-'awk' expert should find useful.  In particular, the description of
-POSIX 'awk' and the example programs in *note Library Functions::, and
+been exposed to ‘awk’, there is a lot of information here that even the
+‘awk’ expert should find useful.  In particular, the description of
+POSIX ‘awk’ and the example programs in *note Library Functions::, and
 in *note Sample Programs::, should be of interest.
 
    This Info file is split into several parts, as follows:
 
-   * Part I describes the 'awk' language and the 'gawk' program in
+   • Part I describes the ‘awk’ language and the ‘gawk’ program in
      detail.  It starts with the basics, and continues through all of
-     the features of 'awk'.  It contains the following chapters:
+     the features of ‘awk’.  It contains the following chapters:
 
-        - *note Getting Started::, provides the essentials you need to
-          know to begin using 'awk'.
+        − *note Getting Started::, provides the essentials you need to
+          know to begin using ‘awk’.
 
-        - *note Invoking Gawk::, describes how to run 'gawk', the
-          meaning of its command-line options, and how it finds 'awk'
+        − *note Invoking Gawk::, describes how to run ‘gawk’, the
+          meaning of its command-line options, and how it finds ‘awk’
           program source files.
 
-        - *note Regexp::, introduces regular expressions in general, and
-          in particular the flavors supported by POSIX 'awk' and 'gawk'.
+        − *note Regexp::, introduces regular expressions in general, and
+          in particular the flavors supported by POSIX ‘awk’ and 
‘gawk’.
 
-        - *note Reading Files::, describes how 'awk' reads your data.
+        − *note Reading Files::, describes how ‘awk’ reads your data.
           It introduces the concepts of records and fields, as well as
-          the 'getline' command.  I/O redirection is first described
+          the ‘getline’ command.  I/O redirection is first described
           here.  Network I/O is also briefly introduced here.
 
-        - *note Printing::, describes how 'awk' programs can produce
-          output with 'print' and 'printf'.
+        − *note Printing::, describes how ‘awk’ programs can produce
+          output with ‘print’ and ‘printf’.
 
-        - *note Expressions::, describes expressions, which are the
+        − *note Expressions::, describes expressions, which are the
           basic building blocks for getting most things done in a
           program.
 
-        - *note Patterns and Actions::, describes how to write patterns
+        − *note Patterns and Actions::, describes how to write patterns
           for matching records, actions for doing something when a
-          record is matched, and the predefined variables 'awk' and
-          'gawk' use.
+          record is matched, and the predefined variables ‘awk’ and
+          ‘gawk’ use.
 
-        - *note Arrays::, covers 'awk''s one-and-only data structure:
+        − *note Arrays::, covers ‘awk’’s one-and-only data structure:
           the associative array.  Deleting array elements and whole
-          arrays is described, as well as sorting arrays in 'gawk'.  The
-          major node also describes how 'gawk' provides arrays of
+          arrays is described, as well as sorting arrays in ‘gawk’.  The
+          major node also describes how ‘gawk’ provides arrays of
           arrays.
 
-        - *note Functions::, describes the built-in functions 'awk' and
-          'gawk' provide, as well as how to define your own functions.
-          It also discusses how 'gawk' lets you call functions
+        − *note Functions::, describes the built-in functions ‘awk’ and
+          ‘gawk’ provide, as well as how to define your own functions.
+          It also discusses how ‘gawk’ lets you call functions
           indirectly.
 
-   * Part II shows how to use 'awk' and 'gawk' for problem solving.
+   • Part II shows how to use ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’ for problem solving.
      There is lots of code here for you to read and learn from.  This
      part contains the following chapters:
 
-        - *note Library Functions::, provides a number of functions
-          meant to be used from main 'awk' programs.
+        − *note Library Functions::, provides a number of functions
+          meant to be used from main ‘awk’ programs.
 
-        - *note Sample Programs::, provides many sample 'awk' programs.
+        − *note Sample Programs::, provides many sample ‘awk’ programs.
 
-     Reading these two chapters allows you to see 'awk' solving real
+     Reading these two chapters allows you to see ‘awk’ solving real
      problems.
 
-   * Part III focuses on features specific to 'gawk'.  It contains the
+   • Part III focuses on features specific to ‘gawk’.  It contains the
      following chapters:
 
-        - *note Advanced Features::, describes a number of advanced
+        − *note Advanced Features::, describes a number of advanced
           features.  Of particular note are the abilities to control the
           order of array traversal, have two-way communications with
           another process, perform TCP/IP networking, and profile your
-          'awk' programs.
+          ‘awk’ programs.
 
-        - *note Internationalization::, describes special features for
+        − *note Internationalization::, describes special features for
           translating program messages into different languages at
           runtime.
 
-        - *note Debugger::, describes the 'gawk' debugger.
+        − *note Debugger::, describes the ‘gawk’ debugger.
 
-        - *note Namespaces::, describes how 'gawk' allows variables
+        − *note Namespaces::, describes how ‘gawk’ allows variables
           and/or functions of the same name to be in different
           namespaces.
 
-        - *note Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic::, describes advanced
+        − *note Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic::, describes advanced
           arithmetic facilities.
 
-        - *note Dynamic Extensions::, describes how to add new variables
-          and functions to 'gawk' by writing extensions in C or C++.
+        − *note Dynamic Extensions::, describes how to add new variables
+          and functions to ‘gawk’ by writing extensions in C or C++.
 
-   * Part IV provides the appendices, the Glossary, and two licenses
-     that cover the 'gawk' source code and this Info file, respectively.
+   • Part IV provides the appendices, the Glossary, and two licenses
+     that cover the ‘gawk’ source code and this Info file, respectively.
      It contains the following appendices:
 
-        - *note Language History::, describes how the 'awk' language has
+        − *note Language History::, describes how the ‘awk’ language has
           evolved since its first release to the present.  It also
-          describes how 'gawk' has acquired features over time.
+          describes how ‘gawk’ has acquired features over time.
 
-        - *note Installation::, describes how to get 'gawk', how to
+        − *note Installation::, describes how to get ‘gawk’, how to
           compile it on POSIX-compatible systems, and how to compile and
           use it on different non-POSIX systems.  It also describes how
-          to report bugs in 'gawk' and where to get other freely
-          available 'awk' implementations.
+          to report bugs in ‘gawk’ and where to get other freely
+          available ‘awk’ implementations.
 
-        - *note Notes::, describes how to disable 'gawk''s extensions,
-          as well as how to contribute new code to 'gawk', and some
-          possible future directions for 'gawk' development.
+        − *note Notes::, describes how to disable ‘gawk’’s extensions,
+          as well as how to contribute new code to ‘gawk’, and some
+          possible future directions for ‘gawk’ development.
 
-        - *note Basic Concepts::, provides some very cursory background
+        − *note Basic Concepts::, provides some very cursory background
           material for those who are completely unfamiliar with computer
           programming.
 
-        - The *note Glossary::, defines most, if not all, of the
+        − The *note Glossary::, defines most, if not all, of the
           significant terms used throughout the Info file.  If you find
-          terms that you aren't familiar with, try looking them up here.
+          terms that you aren’t familiar with, try looking them up here.
 
-        - *note Copying::, and *note GNU Free Documentation License::,
-          present the licenses that cover the 'gawk' source code and
+        − *note Copying::, and *note GNU Free Documentation License::,
+          present the licenses that cover the ‘gawk’ source code and
           this Info file, respectively.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) All such differences appear in the index under the entry
-"differences in 'awk' and 'gawk'."
+“differences in ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’.”
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Conventions,  Next: Manual History,  Prev: This 
Manual,  Up: Preface
@@ -1195,47 +1195,47 @@ both the printed and online versions of the 
documentation.  This minor
 node briefly documents the typographical conventions used in Texinfo.
 
    Examples you would type at the command line are preceded by the
-common shell primary and secondary prompts, '$' and '>', respectively.
-Input that you type is shown 'like this'.  Output from the command is
-preceded by the glyph "-|".  This typically represents the command's
-standard output.  Error messages and other output on the command's
-standard error are preceded by the glyph "error->".  For example:
+common shell primary and secondary prompts, ‘$’ and ‘>’, respectively.
+Input that you type is shown ‘like this’.  Output from the command is
+preceded by the glyph “⊣”.  This typically represents the command’s
+standard output.  Error messages and other output on the command’s
+standard error are preceded by the glyph “error→”.  For example:
 
      $ echo hi on stdout
-     -| hi on stdout
+     ⊣ hi on stdout
      $ echo hello on stderr 1>&2
-     error-> hello on stderr
+     error→ hello on stderr
 
-   Characters that you type at the keyboard look 'like this'.  In
-particular, there are special characters called "control characters."
-These are characters that you type by holding down both the 'CONTROL'
-key and another key, at the same time.  For example, a 'Ctrl-d' is typed
-by first pressing and holding the 'CONTROL' key, next pressing the 'd'
+   Characters that you type at the keyboard look ‘like this’.  In
+particular, there are special characters called “control characters.”
+These are characters that you type by holding down both the ‘CONTROL’
+key and another key, at the same time.  For example, a ‘Ctrl-d’ is typed
+by first pressing and holding the ‘CONTROL’ key, next pressing the ‘d’
 key, and finally releasing both keys.
 
    For the sake of brevity, throughout this Info file, we refer to Brian
-Kernighan's version of 'awk' as "BWK 'awk'."  (*Note Other Versions::
-for information on his and other versions.)
+Kernighan’s version of ‘awk’ as “BWK ‘awk’.” (*Note Other 
Versions:: for
+information on his and other versions.)
 
 Dark Corners
 ------------
 
-     Dark corners are basically fractal--no matter how much you
-     illuminate, there's always a smaller but darker one.
-                         -- _Brian Kernighan_
+     Dark corners are basically fractal—no matter how much you
+     illuminate, there’s always a smaller but darker one.
+                          — _Brian Kernighan_
 
-   Until the POSIX standard (and 'GAWK: Effective AWK Programming'),
-many features of 'awk' were either poorly documented or not documented
-at all.  Descriptions of such features (often called "dark corners") are
-noted in this Info file with "(d.c.)."  They also appear in the index
-under the heading "dark corner."
+   Until the POSIX standard (and ‘GAWK: Effective AWK Programming’),
+many features of ‘awk’ were either poorly documented or not documented
+at all.  Descriptions of such features (often called “dark corners”) are
+noted in this Info file with “(d.c.).” They also appear in the index
+under the heading “dark corner.”
 
    But, as noted by the opening quote, any coverage of dark corners is
 by definition incomplete.
 
-   Extensions to the standard 'awk' language that are supported by more
-than one 'awk' implementation are marked "(c.e.)," and listed in the
-index under "common extensions" and "extensions, common."
+   Extensions to the standard ‘awk’ language that are supported by more
+than one ‘awk’ implementation are marked “(c.e.),” and listed in the
+index under “common extensions” and “extensions, common.”
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Manual History,  Next: How To Contribute,  Prev: 
Conventions,  Up: Preface
@@ -1251,17 +1251,17 @@ editor.  GNU Emacs is the most widely used version of 
Emacs today.
    The GNU(1) Project is an ongoing effort on the part of the Free
 Software Foundation to create a complete, freely distributable,
 POSIX-compliant computing environment.  The FSF uses the GNU General
-Public License (GPL) to ensure that its software's source code is always
+Public License (GPL) to ensure that its software’s source code is always
 available to the end user.  A copy of the GPL is included for your
 reference (*note Copying::).  The GPL applies to the C language source
-code for 'gawk'.  To find out more about the FSF and the GNU Project
-online, see the GNU Project's home page (https://www.gnu.org).  This
-Info file may also be read from GNU's website
+code for ‘gawk’.  To find out more about the FSF and the GNU Project
+online, see the GNU Project’s home page (https://www.gnu.org).  This
+Info file may also be read from GNU’s website
 (https://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/).
 
    A shell, an editor (Emacs), highly portable optimizing C, C++, and
 Objective-C compilers, a symbolic debugger and dozens of large and small
-utilities (such as 'gawk'), have all been completed and are freely
+utilities (such as ‘gawk’), have all been completed and are freely
 available.  The GNU operating system kernel (the HURD), has been
 released but remains in an early stage of development.
 
@@ -1272,20 +1272,20 @@ systems.(2)  Many GNU/Linux distributions are available 
for download
 from the Internet.
 
    The Info file itself has gone through multiple previous editions.
-Paul Rubin wrote the very first draft of 'The GAWK Manual'; it was
+Paul Rubin wrote the very first draft of ‘The GAWK Manual’; it was
 around 40 pages long.  Diane Close and Richard Stallman improved it,
 yielding a version that was around 90 pages and barely described the
-original, "old" version of 'awk'.
+original, “old” version of ‘awk’.
 
    I started working with that version in the fall of 1988.  As work on
 it progressed, the FSF published several preliminary versions (numbered
-0.X).  In 1996, edition 1.0 was released with 'gawk' 3.0.0.  The FSF
-published the first two editions under the title 'The GNU Awk User's
-Guide'.
+0.X).  In 1996, edition 1.0 was released with ‘gawk’ 3.0.0.  The FSF
+published the first two editions under the title ‘The GNU Awk User’s
+Guide’.
 
    This edition maintains the basic structure of the previous editions.
 For FSF edition 4.0, the content was thoroughly reviewed and updated.
-All references to 'gawk' versions prior to 4.0 were removed.  Of
+All references to ‘gawk’ versions prior to 4.0 were removed.  Of
 significant note for that edition was the addition of *note Debugger::.
 
    For FSF edition 5.0, the content has been reorganized into parts, and
@@ -1298,9 +1298,9 @@ on submitting problem reports electronically.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) GNU stands for "GNU's Not Unix."
+   (1) GNU stands for “GNU’s Not Unix.”
 
-   (2) The terminology "GNU/Linux" is explained in the *note Glossary::.
+   (2) The terminology “GNU/Linux” is explained in the *note Glossary::.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: How To Contribute,  Next: Acknowledgments,  Prev: 
Manual History,  Up: Preface
@@ -1308,22 +1308,22 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: How To Contribute,  Next: 
Acknowledgments,  Prev: Manual
 How to Contribute
 =================
 
-As the maintainer of GNU 'awk', I once thought that I would be able to
-manage a collection of publicly available 'awk' programs and I even
+As the maintainer of GNU ‘awk’, I once thought that I would be able to
+manage a collection of publicly available ‘awk’ programs and I even
 solicited contributions.  Making things available on the Internet helps
-keep the 'gawk' distribution down to manageable size.
+keep the ‘gawk’ distribution down to manageable size.
 
    The initial collection of material, such as it is, is still available
 at <ftp://ftp.freefriends.org/arnold/Awkstuff>.
 
-   In the hopes of doing something broader, I acquired the 'awklang.org'
+   In the hopes of doing something broader, I acquired the ‘awklang.org’
 domain.  Late in 2017, a volunteer took on the task of managing it.
 
-   If you have written an interesting 'awk' program that you would like
+   If you have written an interesting ‘awk’ program that you would like
 to share with the rest of the world, please see <http://www.awklang.org>
-and use the "Contact" link.
+and use the “Contact” link.
 
-   If you have written a 'gawk' extension, please see *note
+   If you have written a ‘gawk’ extension, please see *note
 gawkextlib::.
 
 
@@ -1332,15 +1332,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Acknowledgments,  Prev: How To 
Contribute,  Up: Preface
 Acknowledgments
 ===============
 
-The initial draft of 'The GAWK Manual' had the following
+The initial draft of ‘The GAWK Manual’ had the following
 acknowledgments:
 
      Many people need to be thanked for their assistance in producing
      this manual.  Jay Fenlason contributed many ideas and sample
      programs.  Richard Mlynarik and Robert Chassell gave helpful
-     comments on drafts of this manual.  The paper 'A Supplemental
-     Document for AWK' by John W. Pierce of the Chemistry Department at
-     UC San Diego, pinpointed several issues relevant both to 'awk'
+     comments on drafts of this manual.  The paper ‘A Supplemental
+     Document for AWK’ by John W. Pierce of the Chemistry Department at
+     UC San Diego, pinpointed several issues relevant both to ‘awk’
      implementation and to this manual, that would otherwise have
      escaped us.
 
@@ -1354,45 +1354,45 @@ acknowledgements:
      The following people (in alphabetical order) provided helpful
      comments on various versions of this book: Rick Adams, Dr. Nelson
      H.F. Beebe, Karl Berry, Dr. Michael Brennan, Rich Burridge, Claire
-     Cloutier, Diane Close, Scott Deifik, Christopher ("Topher") Eliot,
+     Cloutier, Diane Close, Scott Deifik, Christopher (“Topher”) Eliot,
      Jeffrey Friedl, Dr. Darrel Hankerson, Michal Jaegermann, Dr.
      Richard J. LeBlanc, Michael Lijewski, Pat Rankin, Miriam Robbins,
      Mary Sheehan, and Chuck Toporek.
 
      Robert J. Chassell provided much valuable advice on the use of
      Texinfo.  He also deserves special thanks for convincing me _not_
-     to title this Info file 'How to Gawk Politely'.  Karl Berry helped
+     to title this Info file ‘How to Gawk Politely’.  Karl Berry helped
      significantly with the TeX part of Texinfo.
 
      I would like to thank Marshall and Elaine Hartholz of Seattle and
      Dr. Bert and Rita Schreiber of Detroit for large amounts of quiet
      vacation time in their homes, which allowed me to make significant
-     progress on this Info file and on 'gawk' itself.
+     progress on this Info file and on ‘gawk’ itself.
 
      Phil Hughes of SSC contributed in a very important way by loaning
      me his laptop GNU/Linux system, not once, but twice, which allowed
      me to do a lot of work while away from home.
 
      David Trueman deserves special credit; he has done a yeoman job of
-     evolving 'gawk' so that it performs well and without bugs.
-     Although he is no longer involved with 'gawk', working with him on
+     evolving ‘gawk’ so that it performs well and without bugs.
+     Although he is no longer involved with ‘gawk’, working with him on
      this project was a significant pleasure.
 
      The intrepid members of the GNITS mailing list, and most notably
      Ulrich Drepper, provided invaluable help and feedback for the
      design of the internationalization features.
 
-     Chuck Toporek, Mary Sheehan, and Claire Cloutier of O'Reilly &
+     Chuck Toporek, Mary Sheehan, and Claire Cloutier of O’Reilly &
      Associates contributed significant editorial help for this Info
-     file for the 3.1 release of 'gawk'.
+     file for the 3.1 release of ‘gawk’.
 
    Dr. Nelson Beebe, Andreas Buening, Dr. Manuel Collado, Antonio
 Colombo, Stephen Davies, Scott Deifik, Akim Demaille, Daniel Richard G.,
 Juan Manuel Guerrero, Darrel Hankerson, Michal Jaegermann, Jürgen Kahrs,
 Stepan Kasal, John Malmberg, Chet Ramey, Pat Rankin, Andrew Schorr,
 Corinna Vinschen, and Eli Zaretskii (in alphabetical order) make up the
-current 'gawk' "crack portability team."  Without their hard work and
-help, 'gawk' would not be nearly the robust, portable program it is
+current ‘gawk’ “crack portability team.” Without their hard work and
+help, ‘gawk’ would not be nearly the robust, portable program it is
 today.  It has been and continues to be a pleasure working with this
 team of fine people.
 
@@ -1401,7 +1401,7 @@ people.  *Note Contributors:: for the full list.
 
    Thanks to Michael Brennan for the Forewords.
 
-   Thanks to Patrice Dumas for the new 'makeinfo' program.  Thanks to
+   Thanks to Patrice Dumas for the new ‘makeinfo’ program.  Thanks to
 Karl Berry for his past work on Texinfo, and to Gavin Smith, who
 continues to work to improve the Texinfo markup language.
 
@@ -1410,9 +1410,9 @@ reviewers for the 2015 edition of this Info file.  Their 
feedback helped
 improve the final work.
 
    I would also like to thank Brian Kernighan for his invaluable
-assistance during the testing and debugging of 'gawk', and for his
+assistance during the testing and debugging of ‘gawk’, and for his
 ongoing help and advice in clarifying numerous points about the
-language.  We could not have done nearly as good a job on either 'gawk'
+language.  We could not have done nearly as good a job on either ‘gawk’
 or its documentation without his help.
 
    Brian is in a class by himself as a programmer and technical author.
@@ -1437,33 +1437,33 @@ March, 2020
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Invoking Gawk,  Prev: Preface, 
 Up: Top
 
-1 Getting Started with 'awk'
+1 Getting Started with ‘awk’
 ****************************
 
-The basic function of 'awk' is to search files for lines (or other units
+The basic function of ‘awk’ is to search files for lines (or other units
 of text) that contain certain patterns.  When a line matches one of the
-patterns, 'awk' performs specified actions on that line.  'awk'
+patterns, ‘awk’ performs specified actions on that line.  ‘awk’
 continues to process input lines in this way until it reaches the end of
 the input files.
 
-   Programs in 'awk' are different from programs in most other
-languages, because 'awk' programs are "data driven" (i.e., you describe
+   Programs in ‘awk’ are different from programs in most other
+languages, because ‘awk’ programs are “data driven” (i.e., you describe
 the data you want to work with and then what to do when you find it).
-Most other languages are "procedural"; you have to describe, in great
+Most other languages are “procedural”; you have to describe, in great
 detail, every step the program should take.  When working with
 procedural languages, it is usually much harder to clearly describe the
-data your program will process.  For this reason, 'awk' programs are
+data your program will process.  For this reason, ‘awk’ programs are
 often refreshingly easy to read and write.
 
-   When you run 'awk', you specify an 'awk' "program" that tells 'awk'
-what to do.  The program consists of a series of "rules" (it may also
-contain "function definitions", an advanced feature that we will ignore
+   When you run ‘awk’, you specify an ‘awk’ “program” that tells 
‘awk’
+what to do.  The program consists of a series of “rules” (it may also
+contain “function definitions”, an advanced feature that we will ignore
 for now; *note User-defined::).  Each rule specifies one pattern to
 search for and one action to perform upon finding the pattern.
 
-   Syntactically, a rule consists of a "pattern" followed by an
-"action".  The action is enclosed in braces to separate it from the
-pattern.  Newlines usually separate rules.  Therefore, an 'awk' program
+   Syntactically, a rule consists of a “pattern” followed by an
+“action”.  The action is enclosed in braces to separate it from the
+pattern.  Newlines usually separate rules.  Therefore, an ‘awk’ program
 looks like this:
 
      PATTERN { ACTION }
@@ -1472,9 +1472,9 @@ looks like this:
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Running gawk::                How to run 'gawk' programs; includes
+* Running gawk::                How to run ‘gawk’ programs; includes
                                 command-line syntax.
-* Sample Data Files::           Sample data files for use in the 'awk'
+* Sample Data Files::           Sample data files for use in the ‘awk’
                                 programs illustrated in this Info file.
 * Very Simple::                 A very simple example.
 * Two Rules::                   A less simple one-line example using two
@@ -1482,19 +1482,19 @@ looks like this:
 * More Complex::                A more complex example.
 * Statements/Lines::            Subdividing or combining statements into
                                 lines.
-* Other Features::              Other Features of 'awk'.
-* When::                        When to use 'gawk' and when to use
+* Other Features::              Other Features of ‘awk’.
+* When::                        When to use ‘gawk’ and when to use
                                 other things.
 * Intro Summary::               Summary of the introduction.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Running gawk,  Next: Sample Data Files,  Up: Getting 
Started
 
-1.1 How to Run 'awk' Programs
+1.1 How to Run ‘awk’ Programs
 =============================
 
-There are several ways to run an 'awk' program.  If the program is
-short, it is easiest to include it in the command that runs 'awk', like
+There are several ways to run an ‘awk’ program.  If the program is
+short, it is easiest to include it in the command that runs ‘awk’, like
 this:
 
      awk 'PROGRAM' INPUT-FILE1 INPUT-FILE2 ...
@@ -1509,96 +1509,96 @@ variations of each.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* One-shot::                    Running a short throwaway 'awk'
+* One-shot::                    Running a short throwaway ‘awk’
                                 program.
 * Read Terminal::               Using no input files (input from the keyboard
                                 instead).
-* Long::                        Putting permanent 'awk' programs in
+* Long::                        Putting permanent ‘awk’ programs in
                                 files.
-* Executable Scripts::          Making self-contained 'awk' programs.
-* Comments::                    Adding documentation to 'gawk'
+* Executable Scripts::          Making self-contained ‘awk’ programs.
+* Comments::                    Adding documentation to ‘gawk’
                                 programs.
 * Quoting::                     More discussion of shell quoting issues.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: One-shot,  Next: Read Terminal,  Up: Running gawk
 
-1.1.1 One-Shot Throwaway 'awk' Programs
+1.1.1 One-Shot Throwaway ‘awk’ Programs
 ---------------------------------------
 
-Once you are familiar with 'awk', you will often type in simple programs
+Once you are familiar with ‘awk’, you will often type in simple programs
 the moment you want to use them.  Then you can write the program as the
-first argument of the 'awk' command, like this:
+first argument of the ‘awk’ command, like this:
 
      awk 'PROGRAM' INPUT-FILE1 INPUT-FILE2 ...
 
 where PROGRAM consists of a series of patterns and actions, as described
 earlier.
 
-   This command format instructs the "shell", or command interpreter, to
-start 'awk' and use the PROGRAM to process records in the input file(s).
-There are single quotes around PROGRAM so the shell won't interpret any
-'awk' characters as special shell characters.  The quotes also cause the
-shell to treat all of PROGRAM as a single argument for 'awk', and allow
+   This command format instructs the “shell”, or command interpreter, to
+start ‘awk’ and use the PROGRAM to process records in the input file(s).
+There are single quotes around PROGRAM so the shell won’t interpret any
+‘awk’ characters as special shell characters.  The quotes also cause the
+shell to treat all of PROGRAM as a single argument for ‘awk’, and allow
 PROGRAM to be more than one line long.
 
-   This format is also useful for running short or medium-sized 'awk'
+   This format is also useful for running short or medium-sized ‘awk’
 programs from shell scripts, because it avoids the need for a separate
-file for the 'awk' program.  A self-contained shell script is more
+file for the ‘awk’ program.  A self-contained shell script is more
 reliable because there are no other files to misplace.
 
-   Later in this chapter, in *note Very Simple::, we'll see examples of
+   Later in this chapter, in *note Very Simple::, we’ll see examples of
 several short, self-contained programs.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Read Terminal,  Next: Long,  Prev: One-shot,  Up: 
Running gawk
 
-1.1.2 Running 'awk' Without Input Files
+1.1.2 Running ‘awk’ Without Input Files
 ---------------------------------------
 
-You can also run 'awk' without any input files.  If you type the
+You can also run ‘awk’ without any input files.  If you type the
 following command line:
 
      awk 'PROGRAM'
 
-'awk' applies the PROGRAM to the "standard input", which usually means
+‘awk’ applies the PROGRAM to the “standard input”, which usually means
 whatever you type on the keyboard.  This continues until you indicate
-end-of-file by typing 'Ctrl-d'.  (On non-POSIX operating systems, the
+end-of-file by typing ‘Ctrl-d’.  (On non-POSIX operating systems, the
 end-of-file character may be different.)
 
    As an example, the following program prints a friendly piece of
-advice (from Douglas Adams's 'The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'), to
+advice (from Douglas Adams’s ‘The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy’), 
to
 keep you from worrying about the complexities of computer programming:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "Don\47t Panic!" }'
-     -| Don't Panic!
+     ⊣ Don't Panic!
 
-   'awk' executes statements associated with 'BEGIN' before reading any
+   ‘awk’ executes statements associated with ‘BEGIN’ before reading any
 input.  If there are no other statements in your program, as is the case
-here, 'awk' just stops, instead of trying to read input it doesn't know
-how to process.  The '\47' is a magic way (explained later) of getting a
+here, ‘awk’ just stops, instead of trying to read input it doesn’t know
+how to process.  The ‘\47’ is a magic way (explained later) of getting a
 single quote into the program, without having to engage in ugly shell
 quoting tricks.
 
      NOTE: If you use Bash as your shell, you should execute the command
-     'set +H' before running this program interactively, to disable the
-     C shell-style command history, which treats '!' as a special
+     ‘set +H’ before running this program interactively, to disable the
+     C shell-style command history, which treats ‘!’ as a special
      character.  We recommend putting this command into your personal
      startup file.
 
-   This next simple 'awk' program emulates the 'cat' utility; it copies
+   This next simple ‘awk’ program emulates the ‘cat’ utility; it copies
 whatever you type on the keyboard to its standard output (why this works
 is explained shortly):
 
      $ awk '{ print }'
      Now is the time for all good men
-     -| Now is the time for all good men
+     ⊣ Now is the time for all good men
      to come to the aid of their country.
-     -| to come to the aid of their country.
+     ⊣ to come to the aid of their country.
      Four score and seven years ago, ...
-     -| Four score and seven years ago, ...
+     ⊣ Four score and seven years ago, ...
      What, me worry?
-     -| What, me worry?
+     ⊣ What, me worry?
      Ctrl-d
 
 
@@ -1607,19 +1607,19 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Long,  Next: Executable 
Scripts,  Prev: Read Terminal,
 1.1.3 Running Long Programs
 ---------------------------
 
-Sometimes 'awk' programs are very long.  In these cases, it is more
+Sometimes ‘awk’ programs are very long.  In these cases, it is more
 convenient to put the program into a separate file.  In order to tell
-'awk' to use that file for its program, you type:
+‘awk’ to use that file for its program, you type:
 
      awk -f SOURCE-FILE INPUT-FILE1 INPUT-FILE2 ...
 
-   The '-f' instructs the 'awk' utility to get the 'awk' program from
+   The ‘-f’ instructs the ‘awk’ utility to get the ‘awk’ program 
from
 the file SOURCE-FILE (*note Options::).  Any file name can be used for
 SOURCE-FILE.  For example, you could put the program:
 
      BEGIN { print "Don't Panic!" }
 
-into the file 'advice'.  Then this command:
+into the file ‘advice’.  Then this command:
 
      awk -f advice
 
@@ -1627,119 +1627,119 @@ does the same thing as this one:
 
      awk 'BEGIN { print "Don\47t Panic!" }'
 
-This was explained earlier (*note Read Terminal::).  Note that you don't
+This was explained earlier (*note Read Terminal::).  Note that you don’t
 usually need single quotes around the file name that you specify with
-'-f', because most file names don't contain any of the shell's special
-characters.  Notice that in 'advice', the 'awk' program did not have
+‘-f’, because most file names don’t contain any of the shell’s special
+characters.  Notice that in ‘advice’, the ‘awk’ program did not have
 single quotes around it.  The quotes are only needed for programs that
-are provided on the 'awk' command line.  (Also, placing the program in a
+are provided on the ‘awk’ command line.  (Also, placing the program in a
 file allows us to use a literal single quote in the program text,
-instead of the magic '\47'.)
+instead of the magic ‘\47’.)
 
-   If you want to clearly identify an 'awk' program file as such, you
-can add the extension '.awk' to the file name.  This doesn't affect the
-execution of the 'awk' program but it does make "housekeeping" easier.
+   If you want to clearly identify an ‘awk’ program file as such, you
+can add the extension ‘.awk’ to the file name.  This doesn’t affect the
+execution of the ‘awk’ program but it does make “housekeeping” easier.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Executable Scripts,  Next: Comments,  Prev: Long,  Up: 
Running gawk
 
-1.1.4 Executable 'awk' Programs
+1.1.4 Executable ‘awk’ Programs
 -------------------------------
 
-Once you have learned 'awk', you may want to write self-contained 'awk'
-scripts, using the '#!' script mechanism.  You can do this on many
-systems.(1)  For example, you could update the file 'advice' to look
+Once you have learned ‘awk’, you may want to write self-contained ‘awk’
+scripts, using the ‘#!’ script mechanism.  You can do this on many
+systems.(1)  For example, you could update the file ‘advice’ to look
 like this:
 
      #! /bin/awk -f
 
      BEGIN { print "Don't Panic!" }
 
-After making this file executable (with the 'chmod' utility), simply
-type 'advice' at the shell and the system arranges to run 'awk' as if
-you had typed 'awk -f advice':
+After making this file executable (with the ‘chmod’ utility), simply
+type ‘advice’ at the shell and the system arranges to run ‘awk’ as if
+you had typed ‘awk -f advice’:
 
      $ chmod +x advice
      $ ./advice
-     -| Don't Panic!
+     ⊣ Don't Panic!
 
-Self-contained 'awk' scripts are useful when you want to write a program
+Self-contained ‘awk’ scripts are useful when you want to write a program
 that users can invoke without their having to know that the program is
-written in 'awk'.
+written in ‘awk’.
 
-                          Understanding '#!'
+                          Understanding ‘#!’
 
-   'awk' is an "interpreted" language.  This means that the 'awk'
+   ‘awk’ is an “interpreted” language.  This means that the ‘awk’
 utility reads your program and then processes your data according to the
-instructions in your program.  (This is different from a "compiled"
+instructions in your program.  (This is different from a “compiled”
 language such as C, where your program is first compiled into machine
-code that is executed directly by your system's processor.)  The 'awk'
-utility is thus termed an "interpreter".  Many modern languages are
+code that is executed directly by your system’s processor.)  The ‘awk’
+utility is thus termed an “interpreter”.  Many modern languages are
 interpreted.
 
-   The line beginning with '#!' lists the full file name of an
+   The line beginning with ‘#!’ lists the full file name of an
 interpreter to run and a single optional initial command-line argument
 to pass to that interpreter.  The operating system then runs the
 interpreter with the given argument and the full argument list of the
 executed program.  The first argument in the list is the full file name
-of the 'awk' program.  The rest of the argument list contains either
-options to 'awk', or data files, or both.  (Note that on many systems
-'awk' is found in '/usr/bin' instead of in '/bin'.)
+of the ‘awk’ program.  The rest of the argument list contains either
+options to ‘awk’, or data files, or both.  (Note that on many systems
+‘awk’ is found in ‘/usr/bin’ instead of in ‘/bin’.)
 
    Some systems limit the length of the interpreter name to 32
 characters.  Often, this can be dealt with by using a symbolic link.
 
-   You should not put more than one argument on the '#!' line after the
-path to 'awk'.  It does not work.  The operating system treats the rest
-of the line as a single argument and passes it to 'awk'.  Doing this
-leads to confusing behavior--most likely a usage diagnostic of some sort
-from 'awk'.
+   You should not put more than one argument on the ‘#!’ line after the
+path to ‘awk’.  It does not work.  The operating system treats the rest
+of the line as a single argument and passes it to ‘awk’.  Doing this
+leads to confusing behavior—most likely a usage diagnostic of some sort
+from ‘awk’.
 
-   Finally, the value of 'ARGV[0]' (*note Built-in Variables::) varies
-depending upon your operating system.  Some systems put 'awk' there,
-some put the full pathname of 'awk' (such as '/bin/awk'), and some put
-the name of your script ('advice').  (d.c.)  Don't rely on the value of
-'ARGV[0]' to provide your script name.
+   Finally, the value of ‘ARGV[0]’ (*note Built-in Variables::) varies
+depending upon your operating system.  Some systems put ‘awk’ there,
+some put the full pathname of ‘awk’ (such as ‘/bin/awk’), and some put
+the name of your script (‘advice’).  (d.c.)  Don’t rely on the value of
+‘ARGV[0]’ to provide your script name.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The '#!' mechanism works on GNU/Linux systems, BSD-based systems,
+   (1) The ‘#!’ mechanism works on GNU/Linux systems, BSD-based systems,
 and commercial Unix systems.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Comments,  Next: Quoting,  Prev: Executable Scripts,  
Up: Running gawk
 
-1.1.5 Comments in 'awk' Programs
+1.1.5 Comments in ‘awk’ Programs
 --------------------------------
 
-A "comment" is some text that is included in a program for the sake of
+A “comment” is some text that is included in a program for the sake of
 human readers; it is not really an executable part of the program.
 Comments can explain what the program does and how it works.  Nearly all
 programming languages have provisions for comments, as programs are
 typically hard to understand without them.
 
-   In the 'awk' language, a comment starts with the number sign
-character ('#') and continues to the end of the line.  The '#' does not
-have to be the first character on the line.  The 'awk' language ignores
+   In the ‘awk’ language, a comment starts with the number sign
+character (‘#’) and continues to the end of the line.  The ‘#’ does not
+have to be the first character on the line.  The ‘awk’ language ignores
 the rest of a line following a number sign.  For example, we could have
-put the following into 'advice':
+put the following into ‘advice’:
 
      # This program prints a nice, friendly message.  It helps
      # keep novice users from being afraid of the computer.
      BEGIN    { print "Don't Panic!" }
 
-   You can put comment lines into keyboard-composed throwaway 'awk'
-programs, but this usually isn't very useful; the purpose of a comment
+   You can put comment lines into keyboard-composed throwaway ‘awk’
+programs, but this usually isn’t very useful; the purpose of a comment
 is to help you or another person understand the program when reading it
 at a later time.
 
      CAUTION: As mentioned in *note One-shot::, you can enclose short to
      medium-sized programs in single quotes, in order to keep your shell
-     scripts self-contained.  When doing so, _don't_ put an apostrophe
+     scripts self-contained.  When doing so, _don’t_ put an apostrophe
      (i.e., a single quote) into a comment (or anywhere else in your
      program).  The shell interprets the quote as the closing quote for
      the entire program.  As a result, usually the shell prints a
-     message about mismatched quotes, and if 'awk' actually runs, it
+     message about mismatched quotes, and if ‘awk’ actually runs, it
      will probably print strange messages about syntax errors.  For
      example, look at the following:
 
@@ -1749,16 +1749,16 @@ at a later time.
      The shell sees that the first two quotes match, and that a new
      quoted object begins at the end of the command line.  It therefore
      prompts with the secondary prompt, waiting for more input.  With
-     Unix 'awk', closing the quoted string produces this result:
+     Unix ‘awk’, closing the quoted string produces this result:
 
           $ awk '{ print "hello" } # let's be cute'
           > '
-          error-> awk: can't open file be
-          error->  source line number 1
+          error→ awk: can't open file be
+          error→  source line number 1
 
-     Putting a backslash before the single quote in 'let's' wouldn't
+     Putting a backslash before the single quote in ‘let's’ wouldn’t
      help, because backslashes are not special inside single quotes.
-     The next node describes the shell's quoting rules.
+     The next node describes the shell’s quoting rules.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Quoting,  Prev: Comments,  Up: Running gawk
@@ -1770,8 +1770,8 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Quoting,  Prev: Comments,  Up: 
Running gawk
 
 * DOS Quoting::                 Quoting in Windows Batch Files.
 
-For short to medium-length 'awk' programs, it is most convenient to
-enter the program on the 'awk' command line.  This is best done by
+For short to medium-length ‘awk’ programs, it is most convenient to
+enter the program on the ‘awk’ command line.  This is best done by
 enclosing the entire program in single quotes.  This is true whether you
 are entering the program interactively at the shell prompt, or writing
 it as part of a larger shell script:
@@ -1781,47 +1781,47 @@ it as part of a larger shell script:
    Once you are working with the shell, it is helpful to have a basic
 knowledge of shell quoting rules.  The following rules apply only to
 POSIX-compliant, Bourne-style shells (such as Bash, the GNU Bourne-Again
-Shell).  If you use the C shell, you're on your own.
+Shell).  If you use the C shell, you’re on your own.
 
    Before diving into the rules, we introduce a concept that appears
-throughout this Info file, which is that of the "null", or empty,
+throughout this Info file, which is that of the “null”, or empty,
 string.
 
    The null string is character data that has no value.  In other words,
-it is empty.  It is written in 'awk' programs like this: '""'.  In the
-shell, it can be written using single or double quotes: '""' or ''''.
+it is empty.  It is written in ‘awk’ programs like this: ‘""’.  In the
+shell, it can be written using single or double quotes: ‘""’ or ‘''’.
 Although the null string has no characters in it, it does exist.  For
 example, consider this command:
 
      $ echo ""
 
-Here, the 'echo' utility receives a single argument, even though that
+Here, the ‘echo’ utility receives a single argument, even though that
 argument has no characters in it.  In the rest of this Info file, we use
-the terms "null string" and "empty string" interchangeably.  Now, on to
+the terms “null string” and “empty string” interchangeably.  Now, on to
 the quoting rules:
 
-   * Quoted items can be concatenated with nonquoted items as well as
+   • Quoted items can be concatenated with nonquoted items as well as
      with other quoted items.  The shell turns everything into one
      argument for the command.
 
-   * Preceding any single character with a backslash ('\') quotes that
+   • Preceding any single character with a backslash (‘\’) quotes that
      character.  The shell removes the backslash and passes the quoted
      character on to the command.
 
-   * Single quotes protect everything between the opening and closing
+   • Single quotes protect everything between the opening and closing
      quotes.  The shell does no interpretation of the quoted text,
      passing it on verbatim to the command.  It is _impossible_ to embed
      a single quote inside single-quoted text.  Refer back to *note
      Comments:: for an example of what happens if you try.
 
-   * Double quotes protect most things between the opening and closing
+   • Double quotes protect most things between the opening and closing
      quotes.  The shell does at least variable and command substitution
      on the quoted text.  Different shells may do additional kinds of
      processing on double-quoted text.
 
      Because certain characters within double-quoted text are processed
-     by the shell, they must be "escaped" within the text.  Of note are
-     the characters '$', '`', '\', and '"', all of which must be
+     by the shell, they must be “escaped” within the text.  Of note are
+     the characters ‘$’, ‘`’, ‘\’, and ‘"’, all of which must 
be
      preceded by a backslash within double-quoted text if they are to be
      passed on literally to the program.  (The leading backslash is
      stripped first.)  Thus, the example seen in *note Read Terminal:::
@@ -1831,23 +1831,23 @@ the quoting rules:
      could instead be written this way:
 
           $ awk "BEGIN { print \"Don't Panic!\" }"
-          -| Don't Panic!
+          ⊣ Don't Panic!
 
      Note that the single quote is not special within double quotes.
 
-   * Null strings are removed when they occur as part of a non-null
+   • Null strings are removed when they occur as part of a non-null
      command-line argument, while explicit null objects are kept.  For
-     example, to specify that the field separator 'FS' should be set to
+     example, to specify that the field separator ‘FS’ should be set to
      the null string, use:
 
           awk -F "" 'PROGRAM' FILES # correct
 
-     Don't use this:
+     Don’t use this:
 
           awk -F"" 'PROGRAM' FILES  # wrong!
 
-     In the second case, 'awk' attempts to use the text of the program
-     as the value of 'FS', and the first file name as the text of the
+     In the second case, ‘awk’ attempts to use the text of the program
+     as the value of ‘FS’, and the first file name as the text of the
      program!  This results in syntax errors at best, and confusing
      behavior at worst.
 
@@ -1855,35 +1855,35 @@ the quoting rules:
 shell quoting tricks, like this:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "Here is a single quote <'"'"'>" }'
-     -| Here is a single quote <'>
+     ⊣ Here is a single quote <'>
 
 This program consists of three concatenated quoted strings.  The first
 and the third are single-quoted, and the second is double-quoted.
 
-   This can be "simplified" to:
+   This can be “simplified” to:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "Here is a single quote <'\''>" }'
-     -| Here is a single quote <'>
+     ⊣ Here is a single quote <'>
 
 Judge for yourself which of these two is the more readable.
 
    Another option is to use double quotes, escaping the embedded,
-'awk'-level double quotes:
+‘awk’-level double quotes:
 
      $ awk "BEGIN { print \"Here is a single quote <'>\" }"
-     -| Here is a single quote <'>
+     ⊣ Here is a single quote <'>
 
 This option is also painful, because double quotes, backslashes, and
-dollar signs are very common in more advanced 'awk' programs.
+dollar signs are very common in more advanced ‘awk’ programs.
 
    A third option is to use the octal escape sequence equivalents (*note
 Escape Sequences::) for the single- and double-quote characters, like
 so:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "Here is a single quote <\47>" }'
-     -| Here is a single quote <'>
+     ⊣ Here is a single quote <'>
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "Here is a double quote <\42>" }'
-     -| Here is a double quote <">
+     ⊣ Here is a double quote <">
 
 This works nicely, but you should comment clearly what the escape
 sequences mean.
@@ -1892,14 +1892,14 @@ sequences mean.
 this:
 
      $ awk -v sq="'" 'BEGIN { print "Here is a single quote <" sq ">" }'
-     -| Here is a single quote <'>
+     ⊣ Here is a single quote <'>
 
-   (Here, the two string constants and the value of 'sq' are
-concatenated into a single string that is printed by 'print'.)
+   (Here, the two string constants and the value of ‘sq’ are
+concatenated into a single string that is printed by ‘print’.)
 
-   If you really need both single and double quotes in your 'awk'
+   If you really need both single and double quotes in your ‘awk’
 program, it is probably best to move it into a separate file, where the
-shell won't be part of the picture and you can say what you mean.
+shell won’t be part of the picture and you can say what you mean.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: DOS Quoting,  Up: Quoting
@@ -1911,7 +1911,7 @@ Although this Info file generally only worries about 
POSIX systems and
 the POSIX shell, the following issue arises often enough for many users
 that it is worth addressing.
 
-   The "shells" on Microsoft Windows systems use the double-quote
+   The “shells” on Microsoft Windows systems use the double-quote
 character for quoting, and make it difficult or impossible to include an
 escaped double-quote character in a command-line script.  The following
 example, courtesy of Jeroen Brink, shows how to escape the double quotes
@@ -1925,8 +1925,8 @@ as follows:
 
      gawk "{ print \"\042\" $0 \"\042\" }" FILE
 
-   In this example the '\042' is the octal code for a double-quote;
-'gawk' converts it into a real double-quote for output by the 'print'
+   In this example the ‘\042’ is the octal code for a double-quote;
+‘gawk’ converts it into a real double-quote for output by the ‘print’
 statement.
 
    In MS-Windows escaping double-quotes is a little tricky because you
@@ -1944,14 +1944,14 @@ MS-Windows rule for double-quoting a string is the 
following:
 
   3. Surround the resulting string by double-quotes.
 
-   So to double-quote the one-liner script '{ print "\"" $0 "\"" }' from
+   So to double-quote the one-liner script ‘{ print "\"" $0 "\"" }’ from
 the previous example you would do it this way:
 
      gawk "{ print \"\\\"\" $0 \"\\\"\" }" FILE
 
-However, the use of '\042' instead of '\\\"' is also possible and easier
+However, the use of ‘\042’ instead of ‘\\\"’ is also possible and 
easier
 to read, because backslashes that are not followed by a double-quote
-don't need duplication.
+don’t need duplication.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Sample Data Files,  Next: Very Simple,  Prev: Running 
gawk,  Up: Getting Started
@@ -1960,17 +1960,17 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Sample Data Files,  Next: Very 
Simple,  Prev: Running ga
 ===============================
 
 Many of the examples in this Info file take their input from two sample
-data files.  The first, 'mail-list', represents a list of peoples' names
+data files.  The first, ‘mail-list’, represents a list of peoples’ names
 together with their email addresses and information about those people.
-The second data file, called 'inventory-shipped', contains information
+The second data file, called ‘inventory-shipped’, contains information
 about monthly shipments.  In both files, each line is considered to be
-one "record".
+one “record”.
 
-   In 'mail-list', each record contains the name of a person, his/her
+   In ‘mail-list’, each record contains the name of a person, his/her
 phone number, his/her email address, and a code for his/her relationship
 with the author of the list.  The columns are aligned using spaces.  An
-'A' in the last column means that the person is an acquaintance.  An 'F'
-in the last column means that the person is a friend.  An 'R' means that
+‘A’ in the last column means that the person is an acquaintance.  An 
‘F’
+in the last column means that the person is a friend.  An ‘R’ means that
 the person is a relative:
 
      Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
@@ -1985,7 +1985,7 @@ the person is a relative:
      Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
      Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
 
-   The data file 'inventory-shipped' represents information about
+   The data file ‘inventory-shipped’ represents information about
 shipments during the year.  Each record contains the month, the number
 of green crates shipped, the number of red boxes shipped, the number of
 orange bags shipped, and the number of blue packages shipped,
@@ -2011,8 +2011,8 @@ the data for the two years:
      Mar  24  75  70 495
      Apr  21  70  74 514
 
-   The sample files are included in the 'gawk' distribution, in the
-directory 'awklib/eg/data'.
+   The sample files are included in the ‘gawk’ distribution, in the
+directory ‘awklib/eg/data’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Very Simple,  Next: Two Rules,  Prev: Sample Data 
Files,  Up: Getting Started
@@ -2020,57 +2020,57 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Very Simple,  Next: Two Rules,  
Prev: Sample Data Files,
 1.3 Some Simple Examples
 ========================
 
-The following command runs a simple 'awk' program that searches the
-input file 'mail-list' for the character string 'li' (a grouping of
-characters is usually called a "string"; the term "string" is based on
-similar usage in English, such as "a string of pearls" or "a string of
-cars in a train"):
+The following command runs a simple ‘awk’ program that searches the
+input file ‘mail-list’ for the character string ‘li’ (a grouping of
+characters is usually called a “string”; the term “string” is based on
+similar usage in English, such as “a string of pearls” or “a string of
+cars in a train”):
 
      awk '/li/ { print $0 }' mail-list
 
-When lines containing 'li' are found, they are printed because
-'print $0' means print the current line.  (Just 'print' by itself means
+When lines containing ‘li’ are found, they are printed because
+‘print $0’ means print the current line.  (Just ‘print’ by itself means
 the same thing, so we could have written that instead.)
 
-   You will notice that slashes ('/') surround the string 'li' in the
-'awk' program.  The slashes indicate that 'li' is the pattern to search
-for.  This type of pattern is called a "regular expression", which is
+   You will notice that slashes (‘/’) surround the string ‘li’ in the
+‘awk’ program.  The slashes indicate that ‘li’ is the pattern to search
+for.  This type of pattern is called a “regular expression”, which is
 covered in more detail later (*note Regexp::).  The pattern is allowed
-to match parts of words.  There are single quotes around the 'awk'
-program so that the shell won't interpret any of it as special shell
+to match parts of words.  There are single quotes around the ‘awk’
+program so that the shell won’t interpret any of it as special shell
 characters.
 
    Here is what this program prints:
 
      $ awk '/li/ { print $0 }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
-     -| Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliquotiens@yahoo.com R
-     -| Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
-     -| Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
+     ⊣ Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
+     ⊣ Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliquotiens@yahoo.com R
+     ⊣ Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
+     ⊣ Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
 
-   In an 'awk' rule, either the pattern or the action can be omitted,
+   In an ‘awk’ rule, either the pattern or the action can be omitted,
 but not both.  If the pattern is omitted, then the action is performed
 for _every_ input line.  If the action is omitted, the default action is
 to print all lines that match the pattern.
 
-   Thus, we could leave out the action (the 'print' statement and the
-braces) in the previous example and the result would be the same: 'awk'
-prints all lines matching the pattern 'li'.  By comparison, omitting the
-'print' statement but retaining the braces makes an empty action that
+   Thus, we could leave out the action (the ‘print’ statement and the
+braces) in the previous example and the result would be the same: ‘awk’
+prints all lines matching the pattern ‘li’.  By comparison, omitting the
+‘print’ statement but retaining the braces makes an empty action that
 does nothing (i.e., no lines are printed).
 
-   Many practical 'awk' programs are just a line or two long.  Following
+   Many practical ‘awk’ programs are just a line or two long.  Following
 is a collection of useful, short programs to get you started.  Some of
-these programs contain constructs that haven't been covered yet.  (The
+these programs contain constructs that haven’t been covered yet.  (The
 description of the program will give you a good idea of what is going
-on, but you'll need to read the rest of the Info file to become an 'awk'
-expert!)  Most of the examples use a data file named 'data'.  This is
+on, but you’ll need to read the rest of the Info file to become an ‘awk’
+expert!)  Most of the examples use a data file named ‘data’.  This is
 just a placeholder; if you use these programs yourself, substitute your
-own file names for 'data'.
+own file names for ‘data’.
 
-   Some of the following examples use the output of 'ls -l' as input.
-'ls' is a system command that gives you a listing of the files in a
-directory.  With the '-l' option, this listing includes each file's size
+   Some of the following examples use the output of ‘ls -l’ as input.
+‘ls’ is a system command that gives you a listing of the files in a
+directory.  With the ‘-l’ option, this listing includes each file’s size
 and the date the file was last modified.  Its output looks like this:
 
      -rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user   1933 Nov  7 13:05 Makefile
@@ -2084,43 +2084,43 @@ and the date the file was last modified.  Its output 
looks like this:
 
 The first field contains read-write permissions, the second field
 contains the number of links to the file, and the third field identifies
-the file's owner.  The fourth field identifies the file's group.  The
-fifth field contains the file's size in bytes.  The sixth, seventh, and
+the file’s owner.  The fourth field identifies the file’s group.  The
+fifth field contains the file’s size in bytes.  The sixth, seventh, and
 eighth fields contain the month, day, and time, respectively, that the
 file was last modified.  Finally, the ninth field contains the file
 name.
 
    For future reference, note that there is often more than one way to
-do things in 'awk'.  At some point, you may want to look back at these
+do things in ‘awk’.  At some point, you may want to look back at these
 examples and see if you can come up with different ways to do the same
 things shown here:
 
-   * Print every line that is longer than 80 characters:
+   • Print every line that is longer than 80 characters:
 
           awk 'length($0) > 80' data
 
      The sole rule has a relational expression as its pattern and has no
-     action--so it uses the default action, printing the record.
+     action—so it uses the default action, printing the record.
 
-   * Print the length of the longest input line:
+   • Print the length of the longest input line:
 
           awk '{ if (length($0) > max) max = length($0) }
                END { print max }' data
 
-     The code associated with 'END' executes after all input has been
-     read; it's the other side of the coin to 'BEGIN'.
+     The code associated with ‘END’ executes after all input has been
+     read; it’s the other side of the coin to ‘BEGIN’.
 
-   * Print the length of the longest line in 'data':
+   • Print the length of the longest line in ‘data’:
 
           expand data | awk '{ if (x < length($0)) x = length($0) }
                              END { print "maximum line length is " x }'
 
      This example differs slightly from the previous one: the input is
-     processed by the 'expand' utility to change TABs into spaces, so
+     processed by the ‘expand’ utility to change TABs into spaces, so
      the widths compared are actually the right-margin columns, as
      opposed to the number of input characters on each line.
 
-   * Print every line that has at least one field:
+   • Print every line that has at least one field:
 
           awk 'NF > 0' data
 
@@ -2128,34 +2128,34 @@ things shown here:
      to create a new file similar to the old file but from which the
      blank lines have been removed).
 
-   * Print seven random numbers from 0 to 100, inclusive:
+   • Print seven random numbers from 0 to 100, inclusive:
 
           awk 'BEGIN { for (i = 1; i <= 7; i++)
                            print int(101 * rand()) }'
 
-   * Print the total number of bytes used by FILES:
+   • Print the total number of bytes used by FILES:
 
           ls -l FILES | awk '{ x += $5 }
                              END { print "total bytes: " x }'
 
-   * Print the total number of kilobytes used by FILES:
+   • Print the total number of kilobytes used by FILES:
 
           ls -l FILES | awk '{ x += $5 }
              END { print "total K-bytes:", x / 1024 }'
 
-   * Print a sorted list of the login names of all users:
+   • Print a sorted list of the login names of all users:
 
           awk -F: '{ print $1 }' /etc/passwd | sort
 
-   * Count the lines in a file:
+   • Count the lines in a file:
 
           awk 'END { print NR }' data
 
-   * Print the even-numbered lines in the data file:
+   • Print the even-numbered lines in the data file:
 
           awk 'NR % 2 == 0' data
 
-     If you used the expression 'NR % 2 == 1' instead, the program would
+     If you used the expression ‘NR % 2 == 1’ instead, the program would
      print the odd-numbered lines.
 
 
@@ -2164,43 +2164,43 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Two Rules,  Next: More Complex, 
 Prev: Very Simple,  Up:
 1.4 An Example with Two Rules
 =============================
 
-The 'awk' utility reads the input files one line at a time.  For each
-line, 'awk' tries the patterns of each rule.  If several patterns match,
+The ‘awk’ utility reads the input files one line at a time.  For each
+line, ‘awk’ tries the patterns of each rule.  If several patterns match,
 then several actions execute in the order in which they appear in the
-'awk' program.  If no patterns match, then no actions run.
+‘awk’ program.  If no patterns match, then no actions run.
 
    After processing all the rules that match the line (and perhaps there
-are none), 'awk' reads the next line.  (However, *note Next Statement::
+are none), ‘awk’ reads the next line.  (However, *note Next Statement::
 and also *note Nextfile Statement::.)  This continues until the program
-reaches the end of the file.  For example, the following 'awk' program
+reaches the end of the file.  For example, the following ‘awk’ program
 contains two rules:
 
      /12/  { print $0 }
      /21/  { print $0 }
 
-The first rule has the string '12' as the pattern and 'print $0' as the
-action.  The second rule has the string '21' as the pattern and also has
-'print $0' as the action.  Each rule's action is enclosed in its own
+The first rule has the string ‘12’ as the pattern and ‘print $0’ as the
+action.  The second rule has the string ‘21’ as the pattern and also has
+‘print $0’ as the action.  Each rule’s action is enclosed in its own
 pair of braces.
 
-   This program prints every line that contains the string '12' _or_ the
-string '21'.  If a line contains both strings, it is printed twice, once
+   This program prints every line that contains the string ‘12’ _or_ the
+string ‘21’.  If a line contains both strings, it is printed twice, once
 by each rule.
 
    This is what happens if we run this program on our two sample data
-files, 'mail-list' and 'inventory-shipped':
+files, ‘mail-list’ and ‘inventory-shipped’:
 
      $ awk '/12/ { print $0 }
      >      /21/ { print $0 }' mail-list inventory-shipped
-     -| Anthony      555-3412     anthony.asserturo@hotmail.com   A
-     -| Camilla      555-2912     camilla.infusarum@skynet.be     R
-     -| Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
-     -| Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
-     -| Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
-     -| Jan  21  36  64 620
-     -| Apr  21  70  74 514
-
-Note how the line beginning with 'Jean-Paul' in 'mail-list' was printed
+     ⊣ Anthony      555-3412     anthony.asserturo@hotmail.com   A
+     ⊣ Camilla      555-2912     camilla.infusarum@skynet.be     R
+     ⊣ Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
+     ⊣ Jan  21  36  64 620
+     ⊣ Apr  21  70  74 514
+
+Note how the line beginning with ‘Jean-Paul’ in ‘mail-list’ was printed
 twice, once for each rule.
 
 
@@ -2209,10 +2209,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: More Complex,  Next: 
Statements/Lines,  Prev: Two Rules,
 1.5 A More Complex Example
 ==========================
 
-Now that we've mastered some simple tasks, let's look at what typical
-'awk' programs do.  This example shows how 'awk' can be used to
+Now that we’ve mastered some simple tasks, let’s look at what typical
+‘awk’ programs do.  This example shows how ‘awk’ can be used to
 summarize, select, and rearrange the output of another utility.  It uses
-features that haven't been covered yet, so don't worry if you don't
+features that haven’t been covered yet, so don’t worry if you don’t
 understand all the details:
 
      ls -l | awk '$6 == "Nov" { sum += $5 }
@@ -2221,49 +2221,49 @@ understand all the details:
    This command prints the total number of bytes in all the files in the
 current directory that were last modified in November (of any year).
 
-   As a reminder, the output of 'ls -l' gives you a listing of the files
-in a directory, including each file's size and the date the file was
+   As a reminder, the output of ‘ls -l’ gives you a listing of the files
+in a directory, including each file’s size and the date the file was
 last modified.  The first field contains read-write permissions, the
 second field contains the number of links to the file, and the third
-field identifies the file's owner.  The fourth field identifies the
-file's group.  The fifth field contains the file's size in bytes.  The
+field identifies the file’s owner.  The fourth field identifies the
+file’s group.  The fifth field contains the file’s size in bytes.  The
 sixth, seventh, and eighth fields contain the month, day, and time,
 respectively, that the file was last modified.  Finally, the ninth field
 contains the file name.
 
-   The '$6 == "Nov"' in our 'awk' program is an expression that tests
-whether the sixth field of the output from 'ls -l' matches the string
-'Nov'.  Each time a line has the string 'Nov' for its sixth field, 'awk'
-performs the action 'sum += $5'.  This adds the fifth field (the file's
-size) to the variable 'sum'.  As a result, when 'awk' has finished
-reading all the input lines, 'sum' is the total of the sizes of the
-files whose lines matched the pattern.  (This works because 'awk'
+   The ‘$6 == "Nov"’ in our ‘awk’ program is an expression that tests
+whether the sixth field of the output from ‘ls -l’ matches the string
+‘Nov’.  Each time a line has the string ‘Nov’ for its sixth field, 
‘awk’
+performs the action ‘sum += $5’.  This adds the fifth field (the file’s
+size) to the variable ‘sum’.  As a result, when ‘awk’ has finished
+reading all the input lines, ‘sum’ is the total of the sizes of the
+files whose lines matched the pattern.  (This works because ‘awk’
 variables are automatically initialized to zero.)
 
-   After the last line of output from 'ls' has been processed, the 'END'
-rule executes and prints the value of 'sum'.  In this example, the value
-of 'sum' is 80600.
+   After the last line of output from ‘ls’ has been processed, the 
‘END’
+rule executes and prints the value of ‘sum’.  In this example, the value
+of ‘sum’ is 80600.
 
-   These more advanced 'awk' techniques are covered in later minor nodes
+   These more advanced ‘awk’ techniques are covered in later minor nodes
 (*note Action Overview::).  Before you can move on to more advanced
-'awk' programming, you have to know how 'awk' interprets your input and
-displays your output.  By manipulating fields and using 'print'
+‘awk’ programming, you have to know how ‘awk’ interprets your input and
+displays your output.  By manipulating fields and using ‘print’
 statements, you can produce some very useful and impressive-looking
 reports.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Statements/Lines,  Next: Other Features,  Prev: More 
Complex,  Up: Getting Started
 
-1.6 'awk' Statements Versus Lines
+1.6 ‘awk’ Statements Versus Lines
 =================================
 
-Most often, each line in an 'awk' program is a separate statement or
+Most often, each line in an ‘awk’ program is a separate statement or
 separate rule, like this:
 
      awk '/12/  { print $0 }
           /21/  { print $0 }' mail-list inventory-shipped
 
-   However, 'gawk' ignores newlines after any of the following symbols
+   However, ‘gawk’ ignores newlines after any of the following symbols
 and keywords:
 
      ,    {    ?    :    ||    &&    do    else
@@ -2271,8 +2271,8 @@ and keywords:
 A newline at any other point is considered the end of the statement.(1)
 
    If you would like to split a single statement into two lines at a
-point where a newline would terminate it, you can "continue" it by
-ending the first line with a backslash character ('\').  The backslash
+point where a newline would terminate it, you can “continue” it by
+ending the first line with a backslash character (‘\’).  The backslash
 must be the final character on the line in order to be recognized as a
 continuation character.  A backslash followed by a newline is allowed
 anywhere in the statement, even in the middle of a string or regular
@@ -2282,37 +2282,37 @@ expression.  For example:
       on the next line/ { print $1 }'
 
 We have generally not used backslash continuation in our sample
-programs.  'gawk' places no limit on the length of a line, so backslash
+programs.  ‘gawk’ places no limit on the length of a line, so backslash
 continuation is never strictly necessary; it just makes programs more
 readable.  For this same reason, as well as for clarity, we have kept
 most statements short in the programs presented throughout the Info
 file.
 
-   Backslash continuation is most useful when your 'awk' program is in a
+   Backslash continuation is most useful when your ‘awk’ program is in a
 separate source file instead of entered from the command line.  You
-should also note that many 'awk' implementations are more particular
+should also note that many ‘awk’ implementations are more particular
 about where you may use backslash continuation.  For example, they may
 not allow you to split a string constant using backslash continuation.
-Thus, for maximum portability of your 'awk' programs, it is best not to
+Thus, for maximum portability of your ‘awk’ programs, it is best not to
 split your lines in the middle of a regular expression or a string.
 
      CAUTION: _Backslash continuation does not work as described with
-     the C shell._  It works for 'awk' programs in files and for
+     the C shell._  It works for ‘awk’ programs in files and for
      one-shot programs, _provided_ you are using a POSIX-compliant
      shell, such as the Unix Bourne shell or Bash.  But the C shell
      behaves differently!  There you must use two backslashes in a row,
      followed by a newline.  Note also that when using the C shell,
-     _every_ newline in your 'awk' program must be escaped with a
+     _every_ newline in your ‘awk’ program must be escaped with a
      backslash.  To illustrate:
 
           % awk 'BEGIN { \
           ?   print \\
           ?       "hello, world" \
           ? }'
-          -| hello, world
+          ⊣ hello, world
 
-     Here, the '%' and '?' are the C shell's primary and secondary
-     prompts, analogous to the standard shell's '$' and '>'.
+     Here, the ‘%’ and ‘?’ are the C shell’s primary and secondary
+     prompts, analogous to the standard shell’s ‘$’ and ‘>’.
 
      Compare the previous example to how it is done with a
      POSIX-compliant shell:
@@ -2321,72 +2321,72 @@ split your lines in the middle of a regular expression 
or a string.
           >   print \
           >       "hello, world"
           > }'
-          -| hello, world
+          ⊣ hello, world
 
-   'awk' is a line-oriented language.  Each rule's action has to begin
+   ‘awk’ is a line-oriented language.  Each rule’s action has to begin
 on the same line as the pattern.  To have the pattern and action on
 separate lines, you _must_ use backslash continuation; there is no other
 option.
 
    Another thing to keep in mind is that backslash continuation and
-comments do not mix.  As soon as 'awk' sees the '#' that starts a
+comments do not mix.  As soon as ‘awk’ sees the ‘#’ that starts a
 comment, it ignores _everything_ on the rest of the line.  For example:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "dont panic" # a friendly \
      >                                    BEGIN rule
      > }'
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:2:                BEGIN rule
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:2:                ^ syntax error
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:2:                BEGIN rule
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:2:                ^ syntax error
 
 In this case, it looks like the backslash would continue the comment
 onto the next line.  However, the backslash-newline combination is never
-even noticed because it is "hidden" inside the comment.  Thus, the
-'BEGIN' is noted as a syntax error.
+even noticed because it is “hidden” inside the comment.  Thus, the
+‘BEGIN’ is noted as a syntax error.
 
-   If you're interested, see
+   If you’re interested, see
 <https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-gawk/2022-10/msg00025.html> for
 a source code patch that allows lines to be continued when inside
-parentheses.  This patch was not added to 'gawk' since it would quietly
-decrease the portability of 'awk' programs.
+parentheses.  This patch was not added to ‘gawk’ since it would quietly
+decrease the portability of ‘awk’ programs.
 
-   When 'awk' statements within one rule are short, you might want to
+   When ‘awk’ statements within one rule are short, you might want to
 put more than one of them on a line.  This is accomplished by separating
-the statements with a semicolon (';').  This also applies to the rules
+the statements with a semicolon (‘;’).  This also applies to the rules
 themselves.  Thus, the program shown at the start of this minor node
 could also be written this way:
 
      /12/ { print $0 } ; /21/ { print $0 }
 
      NOTE: The requirement that states that rules on the same line must
-     be separated with a semicolon was not in the original 'awk'
+     be separated with a semicolon was not in the original ‘awk’
      language; it was added for consistency with the treatment of
      statements within an action.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The '?' and ':' referred to here is the three-operand conditional
+   (1) The ‘?’ and ‘:’ referred to here is the three-operand 
conditional
 expression described in *note Conditional Exp::.  Splitting lines after
-'?' and ':' is a minor 'gawk' extension; if '--posix' is specified
+‘?’ and ‘:’ is a minor ‘gawk’ extension; if ‘--posix’ is 
specified
 (*note Options::), then this extension is disabled.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Other Features,  Next: When,  Prev: Statements/Lines,  
Up: Getting Started
 
-1.7 Other Features of 'awk'
+1.7 Other Features of ‘awk’
 ===========================
 
-The 'awk' language provides a number of predefined, or "built-in",
-variables that your programs can use to get information from 'awk'.
+The ‘awk’ language provides a number of predefined, or “built-in”,
+variables that your programs can use to get information from ‘awk’.
 There are other variables your program can set as well to control how
-'awk' processes your data.
+‘awk’ processes your data.
 
-   In addition, 'awk' provides a number of built-in functions for doing
-common computational and string-related operations.  'gawk' provides
+   In addition, ‘awk’ provides a number of built-in functions for doing
+common computational and string-related operations.  ‘gawk’ provides
 built-in functions for working with timestamps, performing bit
 manipulation, for runtime string translation (internationalization),
 determining the type of a variable, and array sorting.
 
-   As we develop our presentation of the 'awk' language, we will
+   As we develop our presentation of the ‘awk’ language, we will
 introduce most of the variables and many of the functions.  They are
 described systematically in *note Built-in Variables:: and in *note
 Built-in::.
@@ -2394,31 +2394,31 @@ Built-in::.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: When,  Next: Intro Summary,  Prev: Other Features,  
Up: Getting Started
 
-1.8 When to Use 'awk'
+1.8 When to Use ‘awk’
 =====================
 
-Now that you've seen some of what 'awk' can do, you might wonder how
-'awk' could be useful for you.  By using utility programs, advanced
+Now that you’ve seen some of what ‘awk’ can do, you might wonder how
+‘awk’ could be useful for you.  By using utility programs, advanced
 patterns, field separators, arithmetic statements, and other selection
-criteria, you can produce much more complex output.  The 'awk' language
+criteria, you can produce much more complex output.  The ‘awk’ language
 is very useful for producing reports from large amounts of raw data,
 such as summarizing information from the output of other utility
-programs like 'ls'.  (*Note More Complex::.)
+programs like ‘ls’.  (*Note More Complex::.)
 
-   Programs written with 'awk' are usually much smaller than they would
-be in other languages.  This makes 'awk' programs easy to compose and
-use.  Often, 'awk' programs can be quickly composed at your keyboard,
-used once, and thrown away.  Because 'awk' programs are interpreted, you
+   Programs written with ‘awk’ are usually much smaller than they would
+be in other languages.  This makes ‘awk’ programs easy to compose and
+use.  Often, ‘awk’ programs can be quickly composed at your keyboard,
+used once, and thrown away.  Because ‘awk’ programs are interpreted, you
 can avoid the (usually lengthy) compilation part of the typical
 edit-compile-test-debug cycle of software development.
 
-   Complex programs have been written in 'awk', including a complete
+   Complex programs have been written in ‘awk’, including a complete
 retargetable assembler for eight-bit microprocessors (*note Glossary::,
 for more information), and a microcode assembler for a special-purpose
-Prolog computer.  The original 'awk''s capabilities were strained by
+Prolog computer.  The original ‘awk’’s capabilities were strained by
 tasks of such complexity, but modern versions are more capable.
 
-   If you find yourself writing 'awk' scripts of more than, say, a few
+   If you find yourself writing ‘awk’ scripts of more than, say, a few
 hundred lines, you might consider using a different programming
 language.  The shell is good at string and pattern matching; in
 addition, it allows powerful use of the system utilities.  Python offers
@@ -2435,53 +2435,53 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Intro Summary,  Prev: When,  
Up: Getting Started
 1.9 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * Programs in 'awk' consist of PATTERN-ACTION pairs.
+   • Programs in ‘awk’ consist of PATTERN–ACTION pairs.
 
-   * An ACTION without a PATTERN always runs.  The default ACTION for a
-     pattern without one is '{ print $0 }'.
+   • An ACTION without a PATTERN always runs.  The default ACTION for a
+     pattern without one is ‘{ print $0 }’.
 
-   * Use either 'awk 'PROGRAM' FILES' or 'awk -f PROGRAM-FILE FILES' to
-     run 'awk'.
+   • Use either ‘awk 'PROGRAM' FILES’ or ‘awk -f PROGRAM-FILE FILES’ 
to
+     run ‘awk’.
 
-   * You may use the special '#!' header line to create 'awk' programs
+   • You may use the special ‘#!’ header line to create ‘awk’ 
programs
      that are directly executable.
 
-   * Comments in 'awk' programs start with '#' and continue to the end
+   • Comments in ‘awk’ programs start with ‘#’ and continue to the 
end
      of the same line.
 
-   * Be aware of quoting issues when writing 'awk' programs as part of a
+   • Be aware of quoting issues when writing ‘awk’ programs as part of a
      larger shell script (or MS-Windows batch file).
 
-   * You may use backslash continuation to continue a source line.
+   • You may use backslash continuation to continue a source line.
      Lines are automatically continued after a comma, open brace,
-     question mark, colon, '||', '&&', 'do', and 'else'.
+     question mark, colon, ‘||’, ‘&&’, ‘do’, and ‘else’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Invoking Gawk,  Next: Regexp,  Prev: Getting Started,  
Up: Top
 
-2 Running 'awk' and 'gawk'
+2 Running ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’
 **************************
 
-This major node covers how to run 'awk', both POSIX-standard and
-'gawk'-specific command-line options, and what 'awk' and 'gawk' do with
-nonoption arguments.  It then proceeds to cover how 'gawk' searches for
-source files, reading standard input along with other files, 'gawk''s
-environment variables, 'gawk''s exit status, using include files, and
+This major node covers how to run ‘awk’, both POSIX-standard and
+‘gawk’-specific command-line options, and what ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’ do 
with
+nonoption arguments.  It then proceeds to cover how ‘gawk’ searches for
+source files, reading standard input along with other files, ‘gawk’’s
+environment variables, ‘gawk’’s exit status, using include files, and
 obsolete and undocumented options and/or features.
 
    Many of the options and features described here are discussed in more
 detail later in the Info file; feel free to skip over things in this
-major node that don't interest you right now.
+major node that don’t interest you right now.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Command Line::                How to run 'awk'.
+* Command Line::                How to run ‘awk’.
 * Options::                     Command-line options and their meanings.
 * Other Arguments::             Input file names and variable assignments.
 * Naming Standard Input::       How to specify standard input with other
                                 files.
-* Environment Variables::       The environment variables 'gawk' uses.
-* Exit Status::                 'gawk''s exit status.
+* Environment Variables::       The environment variables ‘gawk’ uses.
+* Exit Status::                 ‘gawk’’s exit status.
 * Include Files::               Including other files into your program.
 * Loading Shared Libraries::    Loading shared libraries into your program.
 * Obsolete::                    Obsolete Options and/or features.
@@ -2491,26 +2491,26 @@ major node that don't interest you right now.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Command Line,  Next: Options,  Up: Invoking Gawk
 
-2.1 Invoking 'awk'
+2.1 Invoking ‘awk’
 ==================
 
-There are two ways to run 'awk'--with an explicit program or with one or
+There are two ways to run ‘awk’—with an explicit program or with one or
 more program files.  Here are templates for both of them; items enclosed
 in [...] in these templates are optional:
 
-     'awk' [OPTIONS] '-f' PROGFILE ['--'] FILE ...
-     'awk' [OPTIONS] ['--'] ''PROGRAM'' FILE ...
+     ‘awk’ [OPTIONS] ‘-f’ PROGFILE [‘--’] FILE ...
+     ‘awk’ [OPTIONS] [‘--’] ‘'PROGRAM'’ FILE ...
 
-   In addition to traditional one-letter POSIX-style options, 'gawk'
+   In addition to traditional one-letter POSIX-style options, ‘gawk’
 also supports GNU long options.
 
-   It is possible to invoke 'awk' with an empty program:
+   It is possible to invoke ‘awk’ with an empty program:
 
      awk '' datafile1 datafile2
 
-Doing so makes little sense, though; 'awk' exits silently when given an
-empty program.  (d.c.)  If '--lint' has been specified on the command
-line, 'gawk' issues a warning that the program is empty.
+Doing so makes little sense, though; ‘awk’ exits silently when given an
+empty program.  (d.c.)  If ‘--lint’ has been specified on the command
+line, ‘gawk’ issues a warning that the program is empty.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Options,  Next: Other Arguments,  Prev: Command Line,  
Up: Invoking Gawk
@@ -2522,124 +2522,124 @@ Options begin with a dash and consist of a single 
character.  GNU-style
 long options consist of two dashes and a keyword.  The keyword can be
 abbreviated, as long as the abbreviation allows the option to be
 uniquely identified.  If the option takes an argument, either the
-keyword is immediately followed by an equals sign ('=') and the
-argument's value, or the keyword and the argument's value are separated
+keyword is immediately followed by an equals sign (‘=’) and the
+argument’s value, or the keyword and the argument’s value are separated
 by whitespace (spaces or TABs).  If a particular option with a value is
 given more than once, it is (usually) the last value that counts.
 
-   Each long option for 'gawk' has a corresponding POSIX-style short
+   Each long option for ‘gawk’ has a corresponding POSIX-style short
 option.  The long and short options are interchangeable in all contexts.
 The following list describes options mandated by the POSIX standard:
 
-'-F FS'
-'--field-separator FS'
-     Set the 'FS' variable to FS (*note Field Separators::).
+‘-F FS’
+‘--field-separator FS’
+     Set the ‘FS’ variable to FS (*note Field Separators::).
 
-'-f SOURCE-FILE'
-'--file SOURCE-FILE'
-     Read the 'awk' program source from SOURCE-FILE instead of in the
+‘-f SOURCE-FILE’
+‘--file SOURCE-FILE’
+     Read the ‘awk’ program source from SOURCE-FILE instead of in the
      first nonoption argument.  This option may be given multiple times;
-     the 'awk' program consists of the concatenation of the contents of
+     the ‘awk’ program consists of the concatenation of the contents of
      each specified SOURCE-FILE.
 
-     Files named with '-f' are treated as if they had '@namespace "awk"'
+     Files named with ‘-f’ are treated as if they had ‘@namespace 
"awk"’
      at their beginning.  *Note Changing The Namespace::, for more
      information on this advanced feature.
 
-'-v VAR=VAL'
-'--assign VAR=VAL'
+‘-v VAR=VAL’
+‘--assign VAR=VAL’
      Set the variable VAR to the value VAL _before_ execution of the
      program begins.  Such variable values are available inside the
-     'BEGIN' rule (*note Other Arguments::).
+     ‘BEGIN’ rule (*note Other Arguments::).
 
-     The '-v' option can only set one variable, but it can be used more
-     than once, setting another variable each time, like this: 'awk
-     -v foo=1 -v bar=2 ...'.
+     The ‘-v’ option can only set one variable, but it can be used more
+     than once, setting another variable each time, like this: ‘awk
+     -v foo=1 -v bar=2 ...’.
 
-          CAUTION: Using '-v' to set the values of the built-in
-          variables may lead to surprising results.  'awk' will reset
+          CAUTION: Using ‘-v’ to set the values of the built-in
+          variables may lead to surprising results.  ‘awk’ will reset
           the values of those variables as it needs to, possibly
           ignoring any initial value you may have given.
 
-'-W GAWK-OPT'
+‘-W GAWK-OPT’
      Provide an implementation-specific option.  This is the POSIX
      convention for providing implementation-specific options.  These
      options also have corresponding GNU-style long options.  Note that
      the long options may be abbreviated, as long as the abbreviations
-     remain unique.  The full list of 'gawk'-specific options is
+     remain unique.  The full list of ‘gawk’-specific options is
      provided next.
 
-'--'
+‘--’
      Signal the end of the command-line options.  The following
-     arguments are not treated as options even if they begin with '-'.
-     This interpretation of '--' follows the POSIX argument parsing
+     arguments are not treated as options even if they begin with ‘-’.
+     This interpretation of ‘--’ follows the POSIX argument parsing
      conventions.
 
-     This is useful if you have file names that start with '-', or in
+     This is useful if you have file names that start with ‘-’, or in
      shell scripts, if you have file names that will be specified by the
-     user that could start with '-'.  It is also useful for passing
-     options on to the 'awk' program; see *note Getopt Function::.
+     user that could start with ‘-’.  It is also useful for passing
+     options on to the ‘awk’ program; see *note Getopt Function::.
 
-   The following list describes 'gawk'-specific options:
+   The following list describes ‘gawk’-specific options:
 
-'-b'
-'--characters-as-bytes'
-     Cause 'gawk' to treat all input data as single-byte characters.  In
-     addition, all output written with 'print' or 'printf' is treated as
+‘-b’
+‘--characters-as-bytes’
+     Cause ‘gawk’ to treat all input data as single-byte characters.  In
+     addition, all output written with ‘print’ or ‘printf’ is treated 
as
      single-byte characters.
 
-     Normally, 'gawk' follows the POSIX standard and attempts to process
+     Normally, ‘gawk’ follows the POSIX standard and attempts to process
      its input data according to the current locale (*note Locales::).
      This can often involve converting multibyte characters into wide
      characters (internally), and can lead to problems or confusion if
      the input data does not contain valid multibyte characters.  This
-     option is an easy way to tell 'gawk', "Hands off my data!"
+     option is an easy way to tell ‘gawk’, “Hands off my data!”
 
-'-c'
-'--traditional'
-     Specify "compatibility mode", in which the GNU extensions to the
-     'awk' language are disabled, so that 'gawk' behaves just like BWK
-     'awk'.  *Note POSIX/GNU::, which summarizes the extensions.  Also
+‘-c’
+‘--traditional’
+     Specify “compatibility mode”, in which the GNU extensions to the
+     ‘awk’ language are disabled, so that ‘gawk’ behaves just like BWK
+     ‘awk’.  *Note POSIX/GNU::, which summarizes the extensions.  Also
      see *note Compatibility Mode::.
 
-'-C'
-'--copyright'
+‘-C’
+‘--copyright’
      Print the short version of the General Public License and then
      exit.
 
-'-d'[FILE]
-'--dump-variables'['='FILE]
+‘-d’[FILE]
+‘--dump-variables’[‘=’FILE]
      Print a sorted list of global variables, their types, and final
      values to FILE.  If no FILE is provided, print this list to a file
-     named 'awkvars.out' in the current directory.  No space is allowed
-     between the '-d' and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
+     named ‘awkvars.out’ in the current directory.  No space is allowed
+     between the ‘-d’ and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
 
      Having a list of all global variables is a good way to look for
      typographical errors in your programs.  You would also use this
      option if you have a large program with a lot of functions, and you
-     want to be sure that your functions don't inadvertently use global
+     want to be sure that your functions don’t inadvertently use global
      variables that you meant to be local.  (This is a particularly easy
-     mistake to make with simple variable names like 'i', 'j', etc.)
+     mistake to make with simple variable names like ‘i’, ‘j’, etc.)
 
-'-D'[FILE]
-'--debug'['='FILE]
-     Enable debugging of 'awk' programs (*note Debugging::).  By
+‘-D’[FILE]
+‘--debug’[‘=’FILE]
+     Enable debugging of ‘awk’ programs (*note Debugging::).  By
      default, the debugger reads commands interactively from the
      keyboard (standard input).  The optional FILE argument allows you
      to specify a file with a list of commands for the debugger to
-     execute noninteractively.  No space is allowed between the '-D' and
+     execute noninteractively.  No space is allowed between the ‘-D’ and
      FILE, if FILE is supplied.
 
-'-e' PROGRAM-TEXT
-'--source' PROGRAM-TEXT
+‘-e’ PROGRAM-TEXT
+‘--source’ PROGRAM-TEXT
      Provide program source code in the PROGRAM-TEXT.  This option
      allows you to mix source code in files with source code that you
      enter on the command line.  This is particularly useful when you
      have library functions that you want to use from your command-line
      programs (*note AWKPATH Variable::).
 
-     Note that 'gawk' treats each string as if it ended with a newline
-     character (even if it doesn't).  This makes building the total
+     Note that ‘gawk’ treats each string as if it ended with a newline
+     character (even if it doesn’t).  This makes building the total
      program easier.
 
           CAUTION: Prior to version 5.0, there was no requirement that
@@ -2647,288 +2647,288 @@ The following list describes options mandated by the 
POSIX standard:
           following worked:
 
                $ gawk -e 'BEGIN { a = 5 ;' -e 'print a }'
-               -| 5
+               ⊣ 5
 
           However, this is no longer true.  If you have any scripts that
           rely upon this feature, you should revise them.
 
           This is because each PROGRAM-TEXT is treated as if it had
-          '@namespace "awk"' at its beginning.  *Note Changing The
+          ‘@namespace "awk"’ at its beginning.  *Note Changing The
           Namespace::, for more information.
 
-'-E' FILE
-'--exec' FILE
-     Similar to '-f', read 'awk' program text from FILE.  There are two
-     differences from '-f':
+‘-E’ FILE
+‘--exec’ FILE
+     Similar to ‘-f’, read ‘awk’ program text from FILE.  There are two
+     differences from ‘-f’:
 
-        * This option terminates option processing; anything else on the
-          command line is passed on directly to the 'awk' program.
+        • This option terminates option processing; anything else on the
+          command line is passed on directly to the ‘awk’ program.
 
-        * Command-line variable assignments of the form 'VAR=VALUE' are
+        • Command-line variable assignments of the form ‘VAR=VALUE’ are
           disallowed.
 
      This option is particularly necessary for World Wide Web CGI
      applications that pass arguments through the URL; using this option
      prevents a malicious (or other) user from passing in options,
-     assignments, or 'awk' source code (via '-e') to the CGI
-     application.(1)  This option should be used with '#!' scripts
+     assignments, or ‘awk’ source code (via ‘-e’) to the CGI
+     application.(1)  This option should be used with ‘#!’ scripts
      (*note Executable Scripts::), like so:
 
           #! /usr/local/bin/gawk -E
 
           AWK PROGRAM HERE ...
 
-'-g'
-'--gen-pot'
-     Analyze the source program and generate a GNU 'gettext' portable
+‘-g’
+‘--gen-pot’
+     Analyze the source program and generate a GNU ‘gettext’ portable
      object template file on standard output for all string constants
      that have been marked for translation.  *Note
      Internationalization::, for information about this option.
 
-'-h'
-'--help'
-     Print a "usage" message summarizing the short- and long-style
-     options that 'gawk' accepts and then exit.
-
-'-i' SOURCE-FILE
-'--include' SOURCE-FILE
-     Read an 'awk' source library from SOURCE-FILE.  This option is
-     completely equivalent to using the '@include' directive inside your
-     program.  It is very similar to the '-f' option, but there are two
-     important differences.  First, when '-i' is used, the program
+‘-h’
+‘--help’
+     Print a “usage” message summarizing the short- and long-style
+     options that ‘gawk’ accepts and then exit.
+
+‘-i’ SOURCE-FILE
+‘--include’ SOURCE-FILE
+     Read an ‘awk’ source library from SOURCE-FILE.  This option is
+     completely equivalent to using the ‘@include’ directive inside your
+     program.  It is very similar to the ‘-f’ option, but there are two
+     important differences.  First, when ‘-i’ is used, the program
      source is not loaded if it has been previously loaded, whereas with
-     '-f', 'gawk' always loads the file.  Second, because this option is
-     intended to be used with code libraries, 'gawk' does not recognize
+     ‘-f’, ‘gawk’ always loads the file.  Second, because this option 
is
+     intended to be used with code libraries, ‘gawk’ does not recognize
      such files as constituting main program input.  Thus, after
-     processing an '-i' argument, 'gawk' still expects to find the main
-     source code via the '-f' option or on the command line.
+     processing an ‘-i’ argument, ‘gawk’ still expects to find the main
+     source code via the ‘-f’ option or on the command line.
 
-     Files named with '-i' are treated as if they had '@namespace "awk"'
+     Files named with ‘-i’ are treated as if they had ‘@namespace 
"awk"’
      at their beginning.  *Note Changing The Namespace::, for more
      information.
 
-'-I'
-'--trace'
+‘-I’
+‘--trace’
      Print the internal byte code names as they are executed when
      running the program.  The trace is printed to standard error.  Each
-     "op code" is preceded by a '+' sign in the output.
+     “op code” is preceded by a ‘+’ sign in the output.
 
-'-l' EXT
-'--load' EXT
+‘-l’ EXT
+‘--load’ EXT
      Load a dynamic extension named EXT.  Extensions are stored as
      system shared libraries.  This option searches for the library
-     using the 'AWKLIBPATH' environment variable.  The correct library
+     using the ‘AWKLIBPATH’ environment variable.  The correct library
      suffix for your platform will be supplied by default, so it need
      not be specified in the extension name.  The extension
-     initialization routine should be named 'dl_load()'.  An alternative
-     is to use the '@load' keyword inside the program to load a shared
+     initialization routine should be named ‘dl_load()’.  An alternative
+     is to use the ‘@load’ keyword inside the program to load a shared
      library.  This advanced feature is described in detail in *note
      Dynamic Extensions::.
 
-'-L'[VALUE]
-'--lint'['='VALUE]
+‘-L’[VALUE]
+‘--lint’[‘=’VALUE]
      Warn about constructs that are dubious or nonportable to other
-     'awk' implementations.  No space is allowed between the '-L' and
-     VALUE, if VALUE is supplied.  Some warnings are issued when 'gawk'
+     ‘awk’ implementations.  No space is allowed between the ‘-L’ and
+     VALUE, if VALUE is supplied.  Some warnings are issued when ‘gawk’
      first reads your program.  Others are issued at runtime, as your
      program executes.  The optional argument may be one of the
      following:
 
-     'fatal'
+     ‘fatal’
           Cause lint warnings become fatal errors.  This may be drastic,
           but its use will certainly encourage the development of
-          cleaner 'awk' programs.
+          cleaner ‘awk’ programs.
 
-     'invalid'
+     ‘invalid’
           Only issue warnings about things that are actually invalid are
           issued.  (This is not fully implemented yet.)
 
-     'no-ext'
-          Disable warnings about 'gawk' extensions.
+     ‘no-ext’
+          Disable warnings about ‘gawk’ extensions.
 
      Some warnings are only printed once, even if the dubious constructs
-     they warn about occur multiple times in your 'awk' program.  Thus,
-     when eliminating problems pointed out by '--lint', you should take
+     they warn about occur multiple times in your ‘awk’ program.  Thus,
+     when eliminating problems pointed out by ‘--lint’, you should take
      care to search for all occurrences of each inappropriate construct.
-     As 'awk' programs are usually short, doing so is not burdensome.
+     As ‘awk’ programs are usually short, doing so is not burdensome.
 
-'-M'
-'--bignum'
+‘-M’
+‘--bignum’
      Select arbitrary-precision arithmetic on numbers.  This option has
-     no effect if 'gawk' is not compiled to use the GNU MPFR and MP
+     no effect if ‘gawk’ is not compiled to use the GNU MPFR and MP
      libraries (*note Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic::).
 
      As of version 5.2, the arbitrary precision arithmetic features in
-     'gawk' are "on parole."  The primary maintainer is no longer
-     willing to support this feature, but another member of the
-     development team has stepped up to take it over.  As long as this
-     situation remains stable, MPFR will be supported.  If it changes,
-     the MPFR support will be removed from 'gawk'.
-
-'-n'
-'--non-decimal-data'
+     ‘gawk’ are “on parole.” The primary maintainer is no longer 
willing
+     to support this feature, but another member of the development team
+     has stepped up to take it over.  As long as this situation remains
+     stable, MPFR will be supported.  If it changes, the MPFR support
+     will be removed from ‘gawk’.
+
+‘-n’
+‘--non-decimal-data’
      Enable automatic interpretation of octal and hexadecimal values in
      input data (*note Nondecimal Data::).
 
           CAUTION: This option can severely break old programs.  Use
           with care.  Also note that this option may disappear in a
-          future version of 'gawk'.
+          future version of ‘gawk’.
 
-'-N'
-'--use-lc-numeric'
-     Force the use of the locale's decimal point character when parsing
+‘-N’
+‘--use-lc-numeric’
+     Force the use of the locale’s decimal point character when parsing
      numeric input data (*note Locales::).
 
-'-o'[FILE]
-'--pretty-print'['='FILE]
-     Enable pretty-printing of 'awk' programs.  Implies '--no-optimize'.
+‘-o’[FILE]
+‘--pretty-print’[‘=’FILE]
+     Enable pretty-printing of ‘awk’ programs.  Implies 
‘--no-optimize’.
      By default, the output program is created in a file named
-     'awkprof.out' (*note Profiling::).  The optional FILE argument
+     ‘awkprof.out’ (*note Profiling::).  The optional FILE argument
      allows you to specify a different file name for the output.  No
-     space is allowed between the '-o' and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
+     space is allowed between the ‘-o’ and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
 
           NOTE: In the past, this option would also execute your
           program.  This is no longer the case.
 
-'-O'
-'--optimize'
-     Enable 'gawk''s default optimizations on the internal
+‘-O’
+‘--optimize’
+     Enable ‘gawk’’s default optimizations on the internal
      representation of the program.  At the moment, this includes just
      simple constant folding.
 
      Optimization is enabled by default.  This option remains primarily
      for backwards compatibility.  However, it may be used to cancel the
-     effect of an earlier '-s' option (see later in this list).
+     effect of an earlier ‘-s’ option (see later in this list).
 
-'-p'[FILE]
-'--profile'['='FILE]
-     Enable profiling of 'awk' programs (*note Profiling::).  Implies
-     '--no-optimize'.  By default, profiles are created in a file named
-     'awkprof.out'.  The optional FILE argument allows you to specify a
+‘-p’[FILE]
+‘--profile’[‘=’FILE]
+     Enable profiling of ‘awk’ programs (*note Profiling::).  Implies
+     ‘--no-optimize’.  By default, profiles are created in a file named
+     ‘awkprof.out’.  The optional FILE argument allows you to specify a
      different file name for the profile file.  No space is allowed
-     between the '-p' and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
+     between the ‘-p’ and FILE, if FILE is supplied.
 
      The profile contains execution counts for each statement in the
      program in the left margin, and function call counts for each
      function.
 
-'-P'
-'--posix'
-     Operate in strict POSIX mode.  This disables all 'gawk' extensions
-     (just like '--traditional') and disables all extensions not allowed
+‘-P’
+‘--posix’
+     Operate in strict POSIX mode.  This disables all ‘gawk’ extensions
+     (just like ‘--traditional’) and disables all extensions not allowed
      by POSIX. *Note Common Extensions:: for a summary of the extensions
-     in 'gawk' that are disabled by this option.  Also, the following
+     in ‘gawk’ that are disabled by this option.  Also, the following
      additional restrictions apply:
 
-        * Newlines are not allowed after '?' or ':' (*note Conditional
+        • Newlines are not allowed after ‘?’ or ‘:’ (*note 
Conditional
           Exp::).
 
-        * Specifying '-Ft' on the command line does not set the value of
-          'FS' to be a single TAB character (*note Field Separators::).
+        • Specifying ‘-Ft’ on the command line does not set the value of
+          ‘FS’ to be a single TAB character (*note Field Separators::).
 
-        * The locale's decimal point character is used for parsing input
+        • The locale’s decimal point character is used for parsing input
           data (*note Locales::).
 
-     If you supply both '--traditional' and '--posix' on the command
-     line, '--posix' takes precedence.  'gawk' issues a warning if both
+     If you supply both ‘--traditional’ and ‘--posix’ on the command
+     line, ‘--posix’ takes precedence.  ‘gawk’ issues a warning if both
      options are supplied.
 
-'-r'
-'--re-interval'
+‘-r’
+‘--re-interval’
      Allow interval expressions (*note Regexp Operators::) in regexps.
-     This is now 'gawk''s default behavior.  Nevertheless, this option
+     This is now ‘gawk’’s default behavior.  Nevertheless, this option
      remains for backward compatibility.
 
-'-s'
-'--no-optimize'
-     Disable 'gawk''s default optimizations on the internal
+‘-s’
+‘--no-optimize’
+     Disable ‘gawk’’s default optimizations on the internal
      representation of the program.
 
-'-S'
-'--sandbox'
-     Disable the 'system()' function, input redirections with 'getline',
-     output redirections with 'print' and 'printf', and dynamic
-     extensions.  Also, disallow adding file names to 'ARGV' that were
-     not there when 'gawk' started running.  This is particularly useful
-     when you want to run 'awk' scripts from questionable sources and
-     need to make sure the scripts can't access your system (other than
+‘-S’
+‘--sandbox’
+     Disable the ‘system()’ function, input redirections with 
‘getline’,
+     output redirections with ‘print’ and ‘printf’, and dynamic
+     extensions.  Also, disallow adding file names to ‘ARGV’ that were
+     not there when ‘gawk’ started running.  This is particularly useful
+     when you want to run ‘awk’ scripts from questionable sources and
+     need to make sure the scripts can’t access your system (other than
      the specified input data files).
 
-'-t'
-'--lint-old'
+‘-t’
+‘--lint-old’
      Warn about constructs that are not available in the original
-     version of 'awk' from Version 7 Unix (*note V7/SVR3.1::).
+     version of ‘awk’ from Version 7 Unix (*note V7/SVR3.1::).
 
-'-V'
-'--version'
-     Print version information for this particular copy of 'gawk'.  This
-     allows you to determine if your copy of 'gawk' is up to date with
+‘-V’
+‘--version’
+     Print version information for this particular copy of ‘gawk’.  This
+     allows you to determine if your copy of ‘gawk’ is up to date with
      respect to whatever the Free Software Foundation is currently
      distributing.  It is also useful for bug reports (*note Bugs::).
 
-'--'
+‘--’
      Mark the end of all options.  Any command-line arguments following
-     '--' are placed in 'ARGV', even if they start with a minus sign.
+     ‘--’ are placed in ‘ARGV’, even if they start with a minus sign.
 
    In compatibility mode, as long as program text has been supplied, any
 other options are flagged as invalid with a warning message but are
 otherwise ignored.
 
    In compatibility mode, as a special case, if the value of FS supplied
-to the '-F' option is 't', then 'FS' is set to the TAB character
-('"\t"').  This is true only for '--traditional' and not for '--posix'
+to the ‘-F’ option is ‘t’, then ‘FS’ is set to the TAB character
+(‘"\t"’).  This is true only for ‘--traditional’ and not for 
‘--posix’
 (*note Field Separators::).
 
-   The '-f' option may be used more than once on the command line.  If
-it is, 'awk' reads its program source from all of the named files, as if
+   The ‘-f’ option may be used more than once on the command line.  If
+it is, ‘awk’ reads its program source from all of the named files, as if
 they had been concatenated together into one big file.  This is useful
-for creating libraries of 'awk' functions.  These functions can be
+for creating libraries of ‘awk’ functions.  These functions can be
 written once and then retrieved from a standard place, instead of having
-to be included in each individual program.  The '-i' option is similar
+to be included in each individual program.  The ‘-i’ option is similar
 in this regard.  (As mentioned in *note Definition Syntax::, function
 names must be unique.)
 
-   With standard 'awk', library functions can still be used, even if the
-program is entered at the keyboard, by specifying '-f /dev/tty'.  After
-typing your program, type 'Ctrl-d' (the end-of-file character) to
-terminate it.  (You may also use '-f -' to read program source from the
+   With standard ‘awk’, library functions can still be used, even if the
+program is entered at the keyboard, by specifying ‘-f /dev/tty’.  After
+typing your program, type ‘Ctrl-d’ (the end-of-file character) to
+terminate it.  (You may also use ‘-f -’ to read program source from the
 standard input, but then you will not be able to also use the standard
 input as a source of data.)
 
-   Because it is clumsy using the standard 'awk' mechanisms to mix
-source file and command-line 'awk' programs, 'gawk' provides the '-e'
+   Because it is clumsy using the standard ‘awk’ mechanisms to mix
+source file and command-line ‘awk’ programs, ‘gawk’ provides the 
‘-e’
 option.  This does not require you to preempt the standard input for
 your source code, and it allows you to easily mix command-line and
-library source code (*note AWKPATH Variable::).  As with '-f', the '-e'
-and '-i' options may also be used multiple times on the command line.
+library source code (*note AWKPATH Variable::).  As with ‘-f’, the ‘-e’
+and ‘-i’ options may also be used multiple times on the command line.
 
-   If no '-f' option (or '-e' option for 'gawk') is specified, then
-'awk' uses the first nonoption command-line argument as the text of the
+   If no ‘-f’ option (or ‘-e’ option for ‘gawk’) is specified, then
+‘awk’ uses the first nonoption command-line argument as the text of the
 program source code.  Arguments on the command line that follow the
-program text are entered into the 'ARGV' array; 'awk' does _not_
+program text are entered into the ‘ARGV’ array; ‘awk’ does _not_
 continue to parse the command line looking for options.
 
-   If the environment variable 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' exists, then 'gawk'
-behaves in strict POSIX mode, exactly as if you had supplied '--posix'.
+   If the environment variable ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’ exists, then ‘gawk’
+behaves in strict POSIX mode, exactly as if you had supplied ‘--posix’.
 Many GNU programs look for this environment variable to suppress
-extensions that conflict with POSIX, but 'gawk' behaves differently: it
+extensions that conflict with POSIX, but ‘gawk’ behaves differently: it
 suppresses all extensions, even those that do not conflict with POSIX,
-and behaves in strict POSIX mode.  If '--lint' is supplied on the
-command line and 'gawk' turns on POSIX mode because of
-'POSIXLY_CORRECT', then it issues a warning message indicating that
+and behaves in strict POSIX mode.  If ‘--lint’ is supplied on the
+command line and ‘gawk’ turns on POSIX mode because of
+‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’, then it issues a warning message indicating that
 POSIX mode is in effect.  You would typically set this variable in your
-shell's startup file.  For a Bourne-compatible shell (such as Bash), you
-would add these lines to the '.profile' file in your home directory:
+shell’s startup file.  For a Bourne-compatible shell (such as Bash), you
+would add these lines to the ‘.profile’ file in your home directory:
 
      POSIXLY_CORRECT=true
      export POSIXLY_CORRECT
 
    For a C shell-compatible shell,(2) you would add this line to the
-'.login' file in your home directory:
+‘.login’ file in your home directory:
 
      setenv POSIXLY_CORRECT true
 
-   Having 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' set is not recommended for daily use, but it
+   Having ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’ set is not recommended for daily use, but it
 is good for testing the portability of your programs to other
 environments.
 
@@ -2936,7 +2936,7 @@ environments.
 
    (1) For more detail, please see Section 4.4 of RFC 3875
 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3875).  Also see the explanatory note sent
-to the 'gawk' bug mailing list
+to the ‘gawk’ bug mailing list
 (https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-gawk/2014-11/msg00022.html).
 
    (2) Not recommended.
@@ -2949,58 +2949,58 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Other Arguments,  Next: Naming 
Standard Input,  Prev: Op
 
 Any additional arguments on the command line are normally treated as
 input files to be processed in the order specified.  However, an
-argument that has the form 'VAR=VALUE', assigns the value VALUE to the
-variable VAR--it does not specify a file at all.  (See *note Assignment
-Options::.)  In the following example, 'count=1' is a variable
+argument that has the form ‘VAR=VALUE’, assigns the value VALUE to the
+variable VAR—it does not specify a file at all.  (See *note Assignment
+Options::.)  In the following example, ‘count=1’ is a variable
 assignment, not a file name:
 
      awk -f program.awk file1 count=1 file2
 
-As a side point, should you really need to have 'awk' process a file
-named 'count=1' (or any file whose name looks like a variable
-assignment), precede the file name with './', like so:
+As a side point, should you really need to have ‘awk’ process a file
+named ‘count=1’ (or any file whose name looks like a variable
+assignment), precede the file name with ‘./’, like so:
 
      awk -f program.awk file1 ./count=1 file2
 
-   All the command-line arguments are made available to your 'awk'
-program in the 'ARGV' array (*note Built-in Variables::).  Command-line
-options and the program text (if present) are omitted from 'ARGV'.  All
+   All the command-line arguments are made available to your ‘awk’
+program in the ‘ARGV’ array (*note Built-in Variables::).  Command-line
+options and the program text (if present) are omitted from ‘ARGV’.  All
 other arguments, including variable assignments, are included.  As each
-element of 'ARGV' is processed, 'gawk' sets 'ARGIND' to the index in
-'ARGV' of the current element.  ('gawk' makes the full command line,
-including program text and options, available in 'PROCINFO["argv"]';
+element of ‘ARGV’ is processed, ‘gawk’ sets ‘ARGIND’ to the index 
in
+‘ARGV’ of the current element.  (‘gawk’ makes the full command line,
+including program text and options, available in ‘PROCINFO["argv"]’;
 *note Auto-set::.)
 
-   Changing 'ARGC' and 'ARGV' in your 'awk' program lets you control how
-'awk' processes the input files; this is described in more detail in
+   Changing ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’ in your ‘awk’ program lets you 
control how
+‘awk’ processes the input files; this is described in more detail in
 *note ARGC and ARGV::.
 
    The distinction between file name arguments and variable-assignment
-arguments is made when 'awk' is about to open the next input file.  At
+arguments is made when ‘awk’ is about to open the next input file.  At
 that point in execution, it checks the file name to see whether it is
-really a variable assignment; if so, 'awk' sets the variable instead of
+really a variable assignment; if so, ‘awk’ sets the variable instead of
 reading a file.
 
    Therefore, the variables actually receive the given values after all
 previously specified files have been read.  In particular, the values of
-variables assigned in this fashion are _not_ available inside a 'BEGIN'
-rule (*note BEGIN/END::), because such rules are run before 'awk' begins
+variables assigned in this fashion are _not_ available inside a ‘BEGIN’
+rule (*note BEGIN/END::), because such rules are run before ‘awk’ begins
 scanning the argument list.
 
    The variable values given on the command line are processed for
 escape sequences (*note Escape Sequences::).  (d.c.)
 
-   In some very early implementations of 'awk', when a variable
+   In some very early implementations of ‘awk’, when a variable
 assignment occurred before any file names, the assignment would happen
-_before_ the 'BEGIN' rule was executed.  'awk''s behavior was thus
+_before_ the ‘BEGIN’ rule was executed.  ‘awk’’s behavior was thus
 inconsistent; some command-line assignments were available inside the
-'BEGIN' rule, while others were not.  Unfortunately, some applications
-came to depend upon this "feature."  When 'awk' was changed to be more
-consistent, the '-v' option was added to accommodate applications that
+‘BEGIN’ rule, while others were not.  Unfortunately, some applications
+came to depend upon this “feature.” When ‘awk’ was changed to be more
+consistent, the ‘-v’ option was added to accommodate applications that
 depended upon the old behavior.
 
    The variable assignment feature is most useful for assigning to
-variables such as 'RS', 'OFS', and 'ORS', which control input and output
+variables such as ‘RS’, ‘OFS’, and ‘ORS’, which control input and 
output
 formats, before scanning the data files.  It is also useful for
 controlling state if multiple passes are needed over a data file.  For
 example:
@@ -3008,32 +3008,32 @@ example:
      awk 'pass == 1  { PASS 1 STUFF }
           pass == 2  { PASS 2 STUFF }' pass=1 mydata pass=2 mydata
 
-   Given the variable assignment feature, the '-F' option for setting
-the value of 'FS' is not strictly necessary.  It remains for historical
+   Given the variable assignment feature, the ‘-F’ option for setting
+the value of ‘FS’ is not strictly necessary.  It remains for historical
 compatibility.
 
-           Quoting Shell Variables On The 'awk' Command Line
+           Quoting Shell Variables On The ‘awk’ Command Line
 
-   Small 'awk' programs are often embedded in larger shell scripts, so
-it's worthwhile to understand some shell basics.  Consider the
+   Small ‘awk’ programs are often embedded in larger shell scripts, so
+it’s worthwhile to understand some shell basics.  Consider the
 following:
 
      f=""
      awk '{ print("hi") }' $f
 
-   In this case, 'awk' reads from standard input instead of trying to
-open any command line files.  To the unwary, this looks like 'awk' is
+   In this case, ‘awk’ reads from standard input instead of trying to
+open any command line files.  To the unwary, this looks like ‘awk’ is
 hanging.
 
-   However 'awk' doesn't see an explicit empty string.  When a variable
-expansion is the null string, _and_ it's not quoted, the shell simply
+   However ‘awk’ doesn’t see an explicit empty string.  When a variable
+expansion is the null string, _and_ it’s not quoted, the shell simply
 removes it from the command line.  To demonstrate:
 
      $ f=""
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print ARGC }' $f
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ 1
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print ARGC }' "$f"
-     -| 2
+     ⊣ 2
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Naming Standard Input,  Next: Environment Variables,  
Prev: Other Arguments,  Up: Invoking Gawk
@@ -3045,160 +3045,160 @@ Often, you may wish to read standard input together 
with other files.
 For example, you may wish to read one file, read standard input coming
 from a pipe, and then read another file.
 
-   The way to name the standard input, with all versions of 'awk', is to
-use a single, standalone minus sign or dash, '-'.  For example:
+   The way to name the standard input, with all versions of ‘awk’, is to
+use a single, standalone minus sign or dash, ‘-’.  For example:
 
      SOME_COMMAND | awk -f myprog.awk file1 - file2
 
-Here, 'awk' first reads 'file1', then it reads the output of
-SOME_COMMAND, and finally it reads 'file2'.
+Here, ‘awk’ first reads ‘file1’, then it reads the output of
+SOME_COMMAND, and finally it reads ‘file2’.
 
-   You may also use '"-"' to name standard input when reading files with
-'getline' (*note Getline/File::).  And, you can even use '"-"' with the
-'-f' option to read program source code from standard input (*note
+   You may also use ‘"-"’ to name standard input when reading files with
+‘getline’ (*note Getline/File::).  And, you can even use ‘"-"’ with the
+‘-f’ option to read program source code from standard input (*note
 Options::).
 
-   In addition, 'gawk' allows you to specify the special file name
-'/dev/stdin', both on the command line and with 'getline'.  Some other
-versions of 'awk' also support this, but it is not standard.  (Some
-operating systems provide a '/dev/stdin' file in the filesystem;
-however, 'gawk' always processes this file name itself.)
+   In addition, ‘gawk’ allows you to specify the special file name
+‘/dev/stdin’, both on the command line and with ‘getline’.  Some other
+versions of ‘awk’ also support this, but it is not standard.  (Some
+operating systems provide a ‘/dev/stdin’ file in the filesystem;
+however, ‘gawk’ always processes this file name itself.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Environment Variables,  Next: Exit Status,  Prev: 
Naming Standard Input,  Up: Invoking Gawk
 
-2.5 The Environment Variables 'gawk' Uses
+2.5 The Environment Variables ‘gawk’ Uses
 =========================================
 
-A number of environment variables influence how 'gawk' behaves.
+A number of environment variables influence how ‘gawk’ behaves.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* AWKPATH Variable::            Searching directories for 'awk'
+* AWKPATH Variable::            Searching directories for ‘awk’
                                 programs.
-* AWKLIBPATH Variable::         Searching directories for 'awk' shared
+* AWKLIBPATH Variable::         Searching directories for ‘awk’ shared
                                 libraries.
 * Other Environment Variables:: The environment variables.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: AWKPATH Variable,  Next: AWKLIBPATH Variable,  Up: 
Environment Variables
 
-2.5.1 The 'AWKPATH' Environment Variable
+2.5.1 The ‘AWKPATH’ Environment Variable
 ----------------------------------------
 
-The previous minor node described how 'awk' program files can be named
-on the command line with the '-f' option.  In most 'awk'
+The previous minor node described how ‘awk’ program files can be named
+on the command line with the ‘-f’ option.  In most ‘awk’
 implementations, you must supply a precise pathname for each program
-file, unless the file is in the current directory.  But with 'gawk', if
-the file name supplied to the '-f' or '-i' options does not contain a
-directory separator '/', then 'gawk' searches a list of directories
-(called the "search path") one by one, looking for a file with the
+file, unless the file is in the current directory.  But with ‘gawk’, if
+the file name supplied to the ‘-f’ or ‘-i’ options does not contain a
+directory separator ‘/’, then ‘gawk’ searches a list of directories
+(called the “search path”) one by one, looking for a file with the
 specified name.
 
    The search path is a string consisting of directory names separated
-by colons.(1)  'gawk' gets its search path from the 'AWKPATH'
+by colons.(1)  ‘gawk’ gets its search path from the ‘AWKPATH’
 environment variable.  If that variable does not exist, or if it has an
-empty value, 'gawk' uses a default path (described shortly).
+empty value, ‘gawk’ uses a default path (described shortly).
 
    The search path feature is particularly helpful for building
-libraries of useful 'awk' functions.  The library files can be placed in
+libraries of useful ‘awk’ functions.  The library files can be placed in
 a standard directory in the default path and then specified on the
 command line with a short file name.  Otherwise, you would have to type
 the full file name for each file.
 
-   By using the '-i' or '-f' options, your command-line 'awk' programs
-can use facilities in 'awk' library files (*note Library Functions::).
-Path searching is not done if 'gawk' is in compatibility mode.  This is
-true for both '--traditional' and '--posix'.  *Note Options::.
+   By using the ‘-i’ or ‘-f’ options, your command-line ‘awk’ 
programs
+can use facilities in ‘awk’ library files (*note Library Functions::).
+Path searching is not done if ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode.  This is
+true for both ‘--traditional’ and ‘--posix’.  *Note Options::.
 
    If the source code file is not found after the initial search, the
-path is searched again after adding the suffix '.awk' to the file name.
+path is searched again after adding the suffix ‘.awk’ to the file name.
 
-   'gawk''s path search mechanism is similar to the shell's.  (See 'The
-Bourne-Again SHell manual' (https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/).)
+   ‘gawk’’s path search mechanism is similar to the shell’s.  (See 
‘The
+Bourne-Again SHell manual’ (https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/).)
 It treats a null entry in the path as indicating the current directory.
 (A null entry is indicated by starting or ending the path with a colon
-or by placing two colons next to each other ['::'].)
+or by placing two colons next to each other [‘::’].)
 
      NOTE: To include the current directory in the path, either place
-     '.' as an entry in the path or write a null entry in the path.
+     ‘.’ as an entry in the path or write a null entry in the path.
 
-     Different past versions of 'gawk' would also look explicitly in the
+     Different past versions of ‘gawk’ would also look explicitly in the
      current directory, either before or after the path search.  As of
      version 4.1.2, this no longer happens; if you wish to look in the
-     current directory, you must include '.' either as a separate entry
+     current directory, you must include ‘.’ either as a separate entry
      or as a null entry in the search path.
 
-   The default value for 'AWKPATH' is '.:/usr/local/share/awk'.(2)
-Since '.' is included at the beginning, 'gawk' searches first in the
-current directory and then in '/usr/local/share/awk'.  In practice, this
-means that you will rarely need to change the value of 'AWKPATH'.
+   The default value for ‘AWKPATH’ is ‘.:/usr/local/share/awk’.(2)
+Since ‘.’ is included at the beginning, ‘gawk’ searches first in the
+current directory and then in ‘/usr/local/share/awk’.  In practice, this
+means that you will rarely need to change the value of ‘AWKPATH’.
 
    *Note Shell Startup Files::, for information on functions that help
-to manipulate the 'AWKPATH' variable.
+to manipulate the ‘AWKPATH’ variable.
 
-   'gawk' places the value of the search path that it used into
-'ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]'.  This provides access to the actual search path
-value from within an 'awk' program.
+   ‘gawk’ places the value of the search path that it used into
+‘ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]’.  This provides access to the actual search path
+value from within an ‘awk’ program.
 
-   Although you can change 'ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]' within your 'awk'
-program, this has no effect on the running program's behavior.  This
-makes sense: the 'AWKPATH' environment variable is used to find the
+   Although you can change ‘ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]’ within your ‘awk’
+program, this has no effect on the running program’s behavior.  This
+makes sense: the ‘AWKPATH’ environment variable is used to find the
 program source files.  Once your program is running, all the files have
-been found, and 'gawk' no longer needs to use 'AWKPATH'.
+been found, and ‘gawk’ no longer needs to use ‘AWKPATH’.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Semicolons on MS-Windows.
 
-   (2) Your version of 'gawk' may use a different directory; it will
-depend upon how 'gawk' was built and installed.  The actual directory is
-the value of '$(pkgdatadir)' generated when 'gawk' was configured.  (For
-more detail, see the 'INSTALL' file in the source distribution, and see
-*note Quick Installation::.  You probably don't need to worry about
+   (2) Your version of ‘gawk’ may use a different directory; it will
+depend upon how ‘gawk’ was built and installed.  The actual directory is
+the value of ‘$(pkgdatadir)’ generated when ‘gawk’ was configured.  
(For
+more detail, see the ‘INSTALL’ file in the source distribution, and see
+*note Quick Installation::.  You probably don’t need to worry about
 this, though.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: AWKLIBPATH Variable,  Next: Other Environment 
Variables,  Prev: AWKPATH Variable,  Up: Environment Variables
 
-2.5.2 The 'AWKLIBPATH' Environment Variable
+2.5.2 The ‘AWKLIBPATH’ Environment Variable
 -------------------------------------------
 
-The 'AWKLIBPATH' environment variable is similar to the 'AWKPATH'
+The ‘AWKLIBPATH’ environment variable is similar to the ‘AWKPATH’
 variable, but it is used to search for loadable extensions (stored as
-system shared libraries) specified with the '-l' option rather than for
+system shared libraries) specified with the ‘-l’ option rather than for
 source files.  If the extension is not found, the path is searched again
 after adding the appropriate shared library suffix for the platform.
-For example, on GNU/Linux systems, the suffix '.so' is used.  The search
-path specified is also used for extensions loaded via the '@load'
+For example, on GNU/Linux systems, the suffix ‘.so’ is used.  The search
+path specified is also used for extensions loaded via the ‘@load’
 keyword (*note Loading Shared Libraries::).
 
-   If 'AWKLIBPATH' does not exist in the environment, or if it has an
-empty value, 'gawk' uses a default path; this is typically
-'/usr/local/lib/gawk', although it can vary depending upon how 'gawk'
+   If ‘AWKLIBPATH’ does not exist in the environment, or if it has an
+empty value, ‘gawk’ uses a default path; this is typically
+‘/usr/local/lib/gawk’, although it can vary depending upon how ‘gawk’
 was built.(1)
 
    *Note Shell Startup Files::, for information on functions that help
-to manipulate the 'AWKLIBPATH' variable.
+to manipulate the ‘AWKLIBPATH’ variable.
 
-   'gawk' places the value of the search path that it used into
-'ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]'.  This provides access to the actual search path
-value from within an 'awk' program.
+   ‘gawk’ places the value of the search path that it used into
+‘ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]’.  This provides access to the actual search path
+value from within an ‘awk’ program.
 
-   Although you can change 'ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]' within your 'awk'
-program, this has no effect on the running program's behavior.  This
-makes sense: the 'AWKLIBPATH' environment variable is used to find any
+   Although you can change ‘ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]’ within your ‘awk’
+program, this has no effect on the running program’s behavior.  This
+makes sense: the ‘AWKLIBPATH’ environment variable is used to find any
 requested extensions, and they are loaded before the program starts to
 run.  Once your program is running, all the extensions have been found,
-and 'gawk' no longer needs to use 'AWKLIBPATH'.
+and ‘gawk’ no longer needs to use ‘AWKLIBPATH’.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) Your version of 'gawk' may use a different directory; it will
-depend upon how 'gawk' was built and installed.  The actual directory is
-the value of '$(pkgextensiondir)' generated when 'gawk' was configured.
-(For more detail, see the 'INSTALL' file in the source distribution, and
-see *note Quick Installation::.  You probably don't need to worry about
+   (1) Your version of ‘gawk’ may use a different directory; it will
+depend upon how ‘gawk’ was built and installed.  The actual directory is
+the value of ‘$(pkgextensiondir)’ generated when ‘gawk’ was configured.
+(For more detail, see the ‘INSTALL’ file in the source distribution, and
+see *note Quick Installation::.  You probably don’t need to worry about
 this, though.)
 
 
@@ -3207,117 +3207,117 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Other Environment Variables,  
Prev: AWKLIBPATH Variable,
 2.5.3 Other Environment Variables
 ---------------------------------
 
-A number of other environment variables affect 'gawk''s behavior, but
+A number of other environment variables affect ‘gawk’’s behavior, but
 they are more specialized.  Those in the following list are meant to be
 used by regular users:
 
-'GAWK_MSEC_SLEEP'
+‘GAWK_MSEC_SLEEP’
      Specifies the interval between connection retries, in milliseconds.
-     On systems that do not support the 'usleep()' system call, the
+     On systems that do not support the ‘usleep()’ system call, the
      value is rounded up to an integral number of seconds.
 
-'GAWK_PERSIST_FILE'
+‘GAWK_PERSIST_FILE’
      Specifies the backing file to use for persistent storage of
-     'gawk''s variables and arrays.  *Note Persistent Memory::.
+     ‘gawk’’s variables and arrays.  *Note Persistent Memory::.
 
-'GAWK_READ_TIMEOUT'
-     Specifies the time, in milliseconds, for 'gawk' to wait for input
+‘GAWK_READ_TIMEOUT’
+     Specifies the time, in milliseconds, for ‘gawk’ to wait for input
      before returning with an error.  *Note Read Timeout::.
 
-'GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES'
-     Controls the number of times 'gawk' attempts to retry a two-way
+‘GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES’
+     Controls the number of times ‘gawk’ attempts to retry a two-way
      TCP/IP (socket) connection before giving up.  *Note TCP/IP
      Networking::.  Note that when nonfatal I/O is enabled (*note
-     Nonfatal::), 'gawk' only tries to open a TCP/IP socket once.
+     Nonfatal::), ‘gawk’ only tries to open a TCP/IP socket once.
 
-'PMA_VERBOSITY'
+‘PMA_VERBOSITY’
      Controls the verbosity of the persistent memory allocator.  *Note
      Persistent Memory::.
 
-'POSIXLY_CORRECT'
-     Causes 'gawk' to switch to POSIX-compatibility mode, disabling all
+‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’
+     Causes ‘gawk’ to switch to POSIX-compatibility mode, disabling all
      traditional and GNU extensions.  *Note Options::.
 
    The environment variables in the following list are meant for use by
-the 'gawk' developers for testing and tuning.  They are subject to
+the ‘gawk’ developers for testing and tuning.  They are subject to
 change.  The variables are:
 
-'AWKBUFSIZE'
-     This variable only affects 'gawk' on POSIX-compliant systems.  With
-     a value of 'exact', 'gawk' uses the size of each input file as the
+‘AWKBUFSIZE’
+     This variable only affects ‘gawk’ on POSIX-compliant systems.  With
+     a value of ‘exact’, ‘gawk’ uses the size of each input file as the
      size of the memory buffer to allocate for I/O. Otherwise, the value
-     should be a number, and 'gawk' uses that number as the size of the
-     buffer to allocate.  (When this variable is not set, 'gawk' uses
-     the smaller of the file's size and the "default" blocksize, which
-     is usually the filesystem's I/O blocksize.)
+     should be a number, and ‘gawk’ uses that number as the size of the
+     buffer to allocate.  (When this variable is not set, ‘gawk’ uses
+     the smaller of the file’s size and the “default” blocksize, which
+     is usually the filesystem’s I/O blocksize.)
 
-'AWK_HASH'
-     If this variable exists with a value of 'gst', 'gawk' switches to
+‘AWK_HASH’
+     If this variable exists with a value of ‘gst’, ‘gawk’ switches to
      using the hash function from GNU Smalltalk for managing arrays.
-     With a value of 'fnv1a', 'gawk' uses the FNV1-A hash function
+     With a value of ‘fnv1a’, ‘gawk’ uses the FNV1-A hash function
      (http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/fnv/index.html).  These
      functions may be marginally faster than the standard function.
 
-'AWKREADFUNC'
-     If this variable exists, 'gawk' switches to reading source files
+‘AWKREADFUNC’
+     If this variable exists, ‘gawk’ switches to reading source files
      one line at a time, instead of reading in blocks.  This exists for
      debugging problems on filesystems on non-POSIX operating systems
      where I/O is performed in records, not in blocks.
 
-'GAWK_MSG_SRC'
-     If this variable exists, 'gawk' includes the file name and line
-     number within the 'gawk' source code from which warning and/or
+‘GAWK_MSG_SRC’
+     If this variable exists, ‘gawk’ includes the file name and line
+     number within the ‘gawk’ source code from which warning and/or
      fatal messages are generated.  Its purpose is to help isolate the
      source of a message, as there are multiple places that produce the
      same warning or error message.
 
-'GAWK_LOCALE_DIR'
-     Specifies the location of compiled message object files for 'gawk'
-     itself.  This is passed to the 'bindtextdomain()' function when
-     'gawk' starts up.
+‘GAWK_LOCALE_DIR’
+     Specifies the location of compiled message object files for ‘gawk’
+     itself.  This is passed to the ‘bindtextdomain()’ function when
+     ‘gawk’ starts up.
 
-'GAWK_NO_DFA'
-     If this variable exists, 'gawk' does not use the DFA regexp matcher
-     for "does it match" kinds of tests.  This can cause 'gawk' to be
+‘GAWK_NO_DFA’
+     If this variable exists, ‘gawk’ does not use the DFA regexp matcher
+     for “does it match” kinds of tests.  This can cause ‘gawk’ to be
      slower.  Its purpose is to help isolate differences between the two
-     regexp matchers that 'gawk' uses internally.  (There aren't
+     regexp matchers that ‘gawk’ uses internally.  (There aren’t
      supposed to be differences, but occasionally theory and practice
-     don't coordinate with each other.)
+     don’t coordinate with each other.)
 
-'GAWK_STACKSIZE'
-     This specifies the amount by which 'gawk' should grow its internal
+‘GAWK_STACKSIZE’
+     This specifies the amount by which ‘gawk’ should grow its internal
      evaluation stack, when needed.
 
-'INT_CHAIN_MAX'
-     This specifies intended maximum number of items 'gawk' will
+‘INT_CHAIN_MAX’
+     This specifies intended maximum number of items ‘gawk’ will
      maintain on a hash chain for managing arrays indexed by integers.
 
-'STR_CHAIN_MAX'
-     This specifies intended maximum number of items 'gawk' will
+‘STR_CHAIN_MAX’
+     This specifies intended maximum number of items ‘gawk’ will
      maintain on a hash chain for managing arrays indexed by strings.
 
-'TIDYMEM'
-     If this variable exists, 'gawk' uses the 'mtrace()' library calls
+‘TIDYMEM’
+     If this variable exists, ‘gawk’ uses the ‘mtrace()’ library calls
      from the GNU C library to help track down possible memory leaks.
      This cannot be used together with the persistent memory allocator.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Exit Status,  Next: Include Files,  Prev: Environment 
Variables,  Up: Invoking Gawk
 
-2.6 'gawk''s Exit Status
+2.6 ‘gawk’’s Exit Status
 ========================
 
-If the 'exit' statement is used with a value (*note Exit Statement::),
-then 'gawk' exits with the numeric value given to it.
+If the ‘exit’ statement is used with a value (*note Exit Statement::),
+then ‘gawk’ exits with the numeric value given to it.
 
-   Otherwise, if there were no problems during execution, 'gawk' exits
-with the value of the C constant 'EXIT_SUCCESS'.  This is usually zero.
+   Otherwise, if there were no problems during execution, ‘gawk’ exits
+with the value of the C constant ‘EXIT_SUCCESS’.  This is usually zero.
 
-   If an error occurs, 'gawk' exits with the value of the C constant
-'EXIT_FAILURE'.  This is usually one.
+   If an error occurs, ‘gawk’ exits with the value of the C constant
+‘EXIT_FAILURE’.  This is usually one.
 
-   If 'gawk' exits because of a fatal error, the exit status is two.  On
-non-POSIX systems, this value may be mapped to 'EXIT_FAILURE'.
+   If ‘gawk’ exits because of a fatal error, the exit status is two.  On
+non-POSIX systems, this value may be mapped to ‘EXIT_FAILURE’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Include Files,  Next: Loading Shared Libraries,  Prev: 
Exit Status,  Up: Invoking Gawk
@@ -3325,41 +3325,41 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Include Files,  Next: Loading 
Shared Libraries,  Prev: E
 2.7 Including Other Files into Your Program
 ===========================================
 
-This minor node describes a feature that is specific to 'gawk'.
+This minor node describes a feature that is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
-   The '@include' keyword can be used to read external 'awk' source
-files.  This gives you the ability to split large 'awk' source files
+   The ‘@include’ keyword can be used to read external ‘awk’ source
+files.  This gives you the ability to split large ‘awk’ source files
 into smaller, more manageable pieces, and also lets you reuse common
-'awk' code from various 'awk' scripts.  In other words, you can group
-together 'awk' functions used to carry out specific tasks into external
+‘awk’ code from various ‘awk’ scripts.  In other words, you can group
+together ‘awk’ functions used to carry out specific tasks into external
 files.  These files can be used just like function libraries, using the
-'@include' keyword in conjunction with the 'AWKPATH' environment
-variable.  Note that source files may also be included using the '-i'
+‘@include’ keyword in conjunction with the ‘AWKPATH’ environment
+variable.  Note that source files may also be included using the ‘-i’
 option.
 
-   Let's see an example.  We'll start with two (trivial) 'awk' scripts,
-namely 'test1' and 'test2'.  Here is the 'test1' script:
+   Let’s see an example.  We’ll start with two (trivial) ‘awk’ scripts,
+namely ‘test1’ and ‘test2’.  Here is the ‘test1’ script:
 
      BEGIN {
          print "This is script test1."
      }
 
-and here is 'test2':
+and here is ‘test2’:
 
      @include "test1"
      BEGIN {
          print "This is script test2."
      }
 
-   Running 'gawk' with 'test2' produces the following result:
+   Running ‘gawk’ with ‘test2’ produces the following result:
 
      $ gawk -f test2
-     -| This is script test1.
-     -| This is script test2.
+     ⊣ This is script test1.
+     ⊣ This is script test2.
 
-   'gawk' runs the 'test2' script, which includes 'test1' using the
-'@include' keyword.  So, to include external 'awk' source files, you
-just use '@include' followed by the name of the file to be included,
+   ‘gawk’ runs the ‘test2’ script, which includes ‘test1’ using the
+‘@include’ keyword.  So, to include external ‘awk’ source files, you
+just use ‘@include’ followed by the name of the file to be included,
 enclosed in double quotes.
 
      NOTE: Keep in mind that this is a language construct and the file
@@ -3367,19 +3367,19 @@ enclosed in double quotes.
      constant in double quotes.
 
    The files to be included may be nested; e.g., given a third script,
-namely 'test3':
+namely ‘test3’:
 
      @include "test2"
      BEGIN {
          print "This is script test3."
      }
 
-Running 'gawk' with the 'test3' script produces the following results:
+Running ‘gawk’ with the ‘test3’ script produces the following results:
 
      $ gawk -f test3
-     -| This is script test1.
-     -| This is script test2.
-     -| This is script test3.
+     ⊣ This is script test1.
+     ⊣ This is script test2.
+     ⊣ This is script test3.
 
    The file name can, of course, be a pathname.  For example:
 
@@ -3389,33 +3389,33 @@ and:
 
      @include "/usr/awklib/network"
 
-are both valid.  The 'AWKPATH' environment variable can be of great
-value when using '@include'.  The same rules for the use of the
-'AWKPATH' variable in command-line file searches (*note AWKPATH
-Variable::) apply to '@include' also.
+are both valid.  The ‘AWKPATH’ environment variable can be of great
+value when using ‘@include’.  The same rules for the use of the
+‘AWKPATH’ variable in command-line file searches (*note AWKPATH
+Variable::) apply to ‘@include’ also.
 
-   This is very helpful in constructing 'gawk' function libraries.  If
-you have a large script with useful, general-purpose 'awk' functions,
+   This is very helpful in constructing ‘gawk’ function libraries.  If
+you have a large script with useful, general-purpose ‘awk’ functions,
 you can break it down into library files and put those files in a
-special directory.  You can then include those "libraries," either by
-using the full pathnames of the files, or by setting the 'AWKPATH'
-environment variable accordingly and then using '@include' with just the
+special directory.  You can then include those “libraries,” either by
+using the full pathnames of the files, or by setting the ‘AWKPATH’
+environment variable accordingly and then using ‘@include’ with just the
 file part of the full pathname.  Of course, you can keep library files
 in more than one directory; the more complex the working environment is,
 the more directories you may need to organize the files to be included.
 
-   Given the ability to specify multiple '-f' options, the '@include'
-mechanism is not strictly necessary.  However, the '@include' keyword
-can help you in constructing self-contained 'gawk' programs, thus
+   Given the ability to specify multiple ‘-f’ options, the ‘@include’
+mechanism is not strictly necessary.  However, the ‘@include’ keyword
+can help you in constructing self-contained ‘gawk’ programs, thus
 reducing the need for writing complex and tedious command lines.  In
-particular, '@include' is very useful for writing CGI scripts to be run
+particular, ‘@include’ is very useful for writing CGI scripts to be run
 from web pages.
 
    The rules for finding a source file described in *note AWKPATH
-Variable:: also apply to files loaded with '@include'.
+Variable:: also apply to files loaded with ‘@include’.
 
-   Finally, files included with '@include' are treated as if they had
-'@namespace "awk"' at their beginning.  *Note Changing The Namespace::,
+   Finally, files included with ‘@include’ are treated as if they had
+‘@namespace "awk"’ at their beginning.  *Note Changing The Namespace::,
 for more information.
 
 
@@ -3424,35 +3424,35 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Loading Shared Libraries,  
Next: Obsolete,  Prev: Includ
 2.8 Loading Dynamic Extensions into Your Program
 ================================================
 
-This minor node describes a feature that is specific to 'gawk'.
+This minor node describes a feature that is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
-   The '@load' keyword can be used to read external 'awk' extensions
+   The ‘@load’ keyword can be used to read external ‘awk’ extensions
 (stored as system shared libraries).  This allows you to link in
 compiled code that may offer superior performance and/or give you access
-to extended capabilities not supported by the 'awk' language.  The
-'AWKLIBPATH' variable is used to search for the extension.  Using
-'@load' is completely equivalent to using the '-l' command-line option.
+to extended capabilities not supported by the ‘awk’ language.  The
+‘AWKLIBPATH’ variable is used to search for the extension.  Using
+‘@load’ is completely equivalent to using the ‘-l’ command-line option.
 
-   If the extension is not initially found in 'AWKLIBPATH', another
-search is conducted after appending the platform's default shared
+   If the extension is not initially found in ‘AWKLIBPATH’, another
+search is conducted after appending the platform’s default shared
 library suffix to the file name.  For example, on GNU/Linux systems, the
-suffix '.so' is used:
+suffix ‘.so’ is used:
 
      $ gawk '@load "ordchr"; BEGIN {print chr(65)}'
-     -| A
+     ⊣ A
 
 This is equivalent to the following example:
 
      $ gawk -lordchr 'BEGIN {print chr(65)}'
-     -| A
+     ⊣ A
 
-For command-line usage, the '-l' option is more convenient, but '@load'
-is useful for embedding inside an 'awk' source file that requires access
+For command-line usage, the ‘-l’ option is more convenient, but ‘@load’
+is useful for embedding inside an ‘awk’ source file that requires access
 to an extension.
 
    *note Dynamic Extensions::, describes how to write extensions (in C
-or C++) that can be loaded with either '@load' or the '-l' option.  It
-also describes the 'ordchr' extension.
+or C++) that can be loaded with either ‘@load’ or the ‘-l’ option.  It
+also describes the ‘ordchr’ extension.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Obsolete,  Next: Undocumented,  Prev: Loading Shared 
Libraries,  Up: Invoking Gawk
@@ -3461,12 +3461,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Obsolete,  Next: Undocumented,  
Prev: Loading Shared Lib
 ====================================
 
 This minor node describes features and/or command-line options from
-previous releases of 'gawk' that either are not available in the current
+previous releases of ‘gawk’ that either are not available in the current
 version or are still supported but deprecated (meaning that they will
 _not_ be in a future release).
 
-   The arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is deprecated as of 'gawk'
-version 5.2.  Use of '-M'/'--bignum' produces a warning message.  The
+   The arbitrary precision arithmetic feature is deprecated as of ‘gawk’
+version 5.2.  Use of ‘-M’/‘--bignum’ produces a warning message.  The
 feature will be removed in the release of 2024.
 
 
@@ -3476,7 +3476,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Undocumented,  Next: Invoking 
Summary,  Prev: Obsolete,
 ======================================
 
      Use the Source, Luke!
-                             -- _Obi-Wan_
+                              — _Obi-Wan_
 
    This minor node intentionally left blank.
 
@@ -3486,63 +3486,63 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Invoking Summary,  Prev: 
Undocumented,  Up: Invoking Gaw
 2.11 Summary
 ============
 
-   * 'gawk' parses arguments on the command line, left to right, to
+   • ‘gawk’ parses arguments on the command line, left to right, to
      determine if they should be treated as options or as non-option
      arguments.
 
-   * 'gawk' recognizes several options which control its operation, as
-     described in *note Options::.  All options begin with '-'.
+   • ‘gawk’ recognizes several options which control its operation, as
+     described in *note Options::.  All options begin with ‘-’.
 
-   * Any argument that is not recognized as an option is treated as a
-     non-option argument, even if it begins with '-'.
+   • Any argument that is not recognized as an option is treated as a
+     non-option argument, even if it begins with ‘-’.
 
-        - However, when an option itself requires an argument, and the
+        − However, when an option itself requires an argument, and the
           option is separated from that argument on the command line by
           at least one space, the space is ignored, and the argument is
           considered to be related to the option.  Thus, in the
-          invocation, 'gawk -F x', the 'x' is treated as belonging to
-          the '-F' option, not as a separate non-option argument.
+          invocation, ‘gawk -F x’, the ‘x’ is treated as belonging to
+          the ‘-F’ option, not as a separate non-option argument.
 
-   * Once 'gawk' finds a non-option argument, it stops looking for
+   • Once ‘gawk’ finds a non-option argument, it stops looking for
      options.  Therefore, all following arguments are also non-option
      arguments, even if they resemble recognized options.
 
-   * If no '-e' or '-f' options are present, 'gawk' expects the program
+   • If no ‘-e’ or ‘-f’ options are present, ‘gawk’ expects the 
program
      text to be in the first non-option argument.
 
-   * All non-option arguments, except program text provided in the first
-     non-option argument, are placed in 'ARGV' as explained in *note
+   • All non-option arguments, except program text provided in the first
+     non-option argument, are placed in ‘ARGV’ as explained in *note
      ARGC and ARGV::, and are processed as described in *note Other
-     Arguments::.  Adjusting 'ARGC' and 'ARGV' affects how 'awk'
+     Arguments::.  Adjusting ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’ affects how ‘awk’
      processes input.
 
-   * The three standard options for all versions of 'awk' are '-f',
-     '-F', and '-v'.  'gawk' supplies these and many others, as well as
+   • The three standard options for all versions of ‘awk’ are ‘-f’,
+     ‘-F’, and ‘-v’.  ‘gawk’ supplies these and many others, as 
well as
      corresponding GNU-style long options.
 
-   * Nonoption command-line arguments are usually treated as file names,
-     unless they have the form 'VAR=VALUE', in which case they are taken
+   • Nonoption command-line arguments are usually treated as file names,
+     unless they have the form ‘VAR=VALUE’, in which case they are taken
      as variable assignments to be performed at that point in processing
      the input.
 
-   * You can use a single minus sign ('-') to refer to standard input on
-     the command line.  'gawk' also lets you use the special file name
-     '/dev/stdin'.
+   • You can use a single minus sign (‘-’) to refer to standard input on
+     the command line.  ‘gawk’ also lets you use the special file name
+     ‘/dev/stdin’.
 
-   * 'gawk' pays attention to a number of environment variables.
-     'AWKPATH', 'AWKLIBPATH', and 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' are the most
+   • ‘gawk’ pays attention to a number of environment variables.
+     ‘AWKPATH’, ‘AWKLIBPATH’, and ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’ are the most
      important ones.
 
-   * 'gawk''s exit status conveys information to the program that
-     invoked it.  Use the 'exit' statement from within an 'awk' program
+   • ‘gawk’’s exit status conveys information to the program that
+     invoked it.  Use the ‘exit’ statement from within an ‘awk’ program
      to set the exit status.
 
-   * 'gawk' allows you to include other 'awk' source files into your
-     program using the '@include' statement and/or the '-i' and '-f'
+   • ‘gawk’ allows you to include other ‘awk’ source files into your
+     program using the ‘@include’ statement and/or the ‘-i’ and 
‘-f’
      command-line options.
 
-   * 'gawk' allows you to load additional functions written in C or C++
-     using the '@load' statement and/or the '-l' option.  (This advanced
+   • ‘gawk’ allows you to load additional functions written in C or C++
+     using the ‘@load’ statement and/or the ‘-l’ option.  (This 
advanced
      feature is described later, in *note Dynamic Extensions::.)
 
 
@@ -3551,17 +3551,17 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp,  Next: Reading Files,  
Prev: Invoking Gawk,  Up:
 3 Regular Expressions
 *********************
 
-A "regular expression", or "regexp", is a way of describing a set of
+A “regular expression”, or “regexp”, is a way of describing a set of
 strings.  Because regular expressions are such a fundamental part of
-'awk' programming, their format and use deserve a separate major node.
+‘awk’ programming, their format and use deserve a separate major node.
 
-   A regular expression enclosed in slashes ('/') is an 'awk' pattern
+   A regular expression enclosed in slashes (‘/’) is an ‘awk’ pattern
 that matches every input record whose text belongs to that set.  The
 simplest regular expression is a sequence of letters, numbers, or both.
 Such a regexp matches any string that contains that sequence.  Thus, the
-regexp 'foo' matches any string containing 'foo'.  Thus, the pattern
-'/foo/' matches any input record containing the three adjacent
-characters 'foo' _anywhere_ in the record.  Other kinds of regexps let
+regexp ‘foo’ matches any string containing ‘foo’.  Thus, the pattern
+‘/foo/’ matches any input record containing the three adjacent
+characters ‘foo’ _anywhere_ in the record.  Other kinds of regexps let
 you specify more complicated classes of strings.
 
 * Menu:
@@ -3569,7 +3569,7 @@ you specify more complicated classes of strings.
 * Regexp Usage::                How to Use Regular Expressions.
 * Escape Sequences::            How to write nonprinting characters.
 * Regexp Operators::            Regular Expression Operators.
-* Bracket Expressions::         What can go between '[...]'.
+* Bracket Expressions::         What can go between ‘[...]’.
 * Leftmost Longest::            How much text matches.
 * Computed Regexps::            Using Dynamic Regexps.
 * GNU Regexp Operators::        Operators specific to GNU software.
@@ -3586,33 +3586,33 @@ A regular expression can be used as a pattern by 
enclosing it in
 slashes.  Then the regular expression is tested against the entire text
 of each record.  (Normally, it only needs to match some part of the text
 in order to succeed.)  For example, the following prints the second
-field of each record where the string 'li' appears anywhere in the
+field of each record where the string ‘li’ appears anywhere in the
 record:
 
      $ awk '/li/ { print $2 }' mail-list
-     -| 555-5553
-     -| 555-0542
-     -| 555-6699
-     -| 555-3430
+     ⊣ 555-5553
+     ⊣ 555-0542
+     ⊣ 555-6699
+     ⊣ 555-3430
 
    Regular expressions can also be used in matching expressions.  These
 expressions allow you to specify the string to match against; it need
-not be the entire current input record.  The two operators '~' and '!~'
+not be the entire current input record.  The two operators ‘~’ and ‘!~’
 perform regular expression comparisons.  Expressions using these
-operators can be used as patterns, or in 'if', 'while', 'for', and 'do'
+operators can be used as patterns, or in ‘if’, ‘while’, ‘for’, and 
‘do’
 statements.  (*Note Statements::.)  For example, the following is true
 if the expression EXP (taken as a string) matches REGEXP:
 
      EXP ~ /REGEXP/
 
 This example matches, or selects, all input records with the uppercase
-letter 'J' somewhere in the first field:
+letter ‘J’ somewhere in the first field:
 
      $ awk '$1 ~ /J/' inventory-shipped
-     -| Jan  13  25  15 115
-     -| Jun  31  42  75 492
-     -| Jul  24  34  67 436
-     -| Jan  21  36  64 620
+     ⊣ Jan  13  25  15 115
+     ⊣ Jun  31  42  75 492
+     ⊣ Jul  24  34  67 436
+     ⊣ Jan  21  36  64 620
 
    So does this:
 
@@ -3624,17 +3624,17 @@ string) does _not_ match REGEXP:
      EXP !~ /REGEXP/
 
    The following example matches, or selects, all input records whose
-first field _does not_ contain the uppercase letter 'J':
+first field _does not_ contain the uppercase letter ‘J’:
 
      $ awk '$1 !~ /J/' inventory-shipped
-     -| Feb  15  32  24 226
-     -| Mar  15  24  34 228
-     -| Apr  31  52  63 420
-     -| May  16  34  29 208
+     ⊣ Feb  15  32  24 226
+     ⊣ Mar  15  24  34 228
+     ⊣ Apr  31  52  63 420
+     ⊣ May  16  34  29 208
      ...
 
-   When a regexp is enclosed in slashes, such as '/foo/', we call it a
-"regexp constant", much like '5.27' is a numeric constant and '"foo"' is
+   When a regexp is enclosed in slashes, such as ‘/foo/’, we call it a
+“regexp constant”, much like ‘5.27’ is a numeric constant and 
‘"foo"’ is
 a string constant.
 
 
@@ -3644,101 +3644,101 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Escape Sequences,  Next: 
Regexp Operators,  Prev: Regexp
 ====================
 
 Some characters cannot be included literally in string constants
-('"foo"') or regexp constants ('/foo/').  Instead, they should be
-represented with "escape sequences", which are character sequences
-beginning with a backslash ('\').  One use of an escape sequence is to
+(‘"foo"’) or regexp constants (‘/foo/’).  Instead, they should be
+represented with “escape sequences”, which are character sequences
+beginning with a backslash (‘\’).  One use of an escape sequence is to
 include a double-quote character in a string constant.  Because a plain
-double quote ends the string, you must use '\"' to represent an actual
+double quote ends the string, you must use ‘\"’ to represent an actual
 double-quote character as a part of the string.  For example:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "He said \"hi!\" to her." }'
-     -| He said "hi!" to her.
+     ⊣ He said "hi!" to her.
 
    The backslash character itself is another character that cannot be
-included normally; you must write '\\' to put one backslash in the
+included normally; you must write ‘\\’ to put one backslash in the
 string or regexp.  Thus, the string whose contents are the two
-characters '"' and '\' must be written '"\"\\"'.
+characters ‘"’ and ‘\’ must be written ‘"\"\\"’.
 
    Other escape sequences represent unprintable characters such as TAB
 or newline.  There is nothing to stop you from entering most unprintable
 characters directly in a string constant or regexp constant, but they
 may look ugly.
 
-   The following list presents all the escape sequences used in 'awk'
+   The following list presents all the escape sequences used in ‘awk’
 and what they represent.  Unless noted otherwise, all these escape
 sequences apply to both string constants and regexp constants:
 
-'\\'
-     A literal backslash, '\'.
+‘\\’
+     A literal backslash, ‘\’.
 
-'\a'
-     The "alert" character, 'Ctrl-g', ASCII code 7 (BEL). (This often
+‘\a’
+     The “alert” character, ‘Ctrl-g’, ASCII code 7 (BEL). (This often
      makes some sort of audible noise.)
 
-'\b'
-     Backspace, 'Ctrl-h', ASCII code 8 (BS).
+‘\b’
+     Backspace, ‘Ctrl-h’, ASCII code 8 (BS).
 
-'\f'
-     Formfeed, 'Ctrl-l', ASCII code 12 (FF).
+‘\f’
+     Formfeed, ‘Ctrl-l’, ASCII code 12 (FF).
 
-'\n'
-     Newline, 'Ctrl-j', ASCII code 10 (LF).
+‘\n’
+     Newline, ‘Ctrl-j’, ASCII code 10 (LF).
 
-'\r'
-     Carriage return, 'Ctrl-m', ASCII code 13 (CR).
+‘\r’
+     Carriage return, ‘Ctrl-m’, ASCII code 13 (CR).
 
-'\t'
-     Horizontal TAB, 'Ctrl-i', ASCII code 9 (HT).
+‘\t’
+     Horizontal TAB, ‘Ctrl-i’, ASCII code 9 (HT).
 
-'\v'
-     Vertical TAB, 'Ctrl-k', ASCII code 11 (VT).
+‘\v’
+     Vertical TAB, ‘Ctrl-k’, ASCII code 11 (VT).
 
-'\NNN'
-     The octal value NNN, where NNN stands for 1 to 3 digits between '0'
-     and '7'.  For example, the code for the ASCII ESC (escape)
-     character is '\033'.
+‘\NNN’
+     The octal value NNN, where NNN stands for 1 to 3 digits between ‘0’
+     and ‘7’.  For example, the code for the ASCII ESC (escape)
+     character is ‘\033’.
 
-'\xHH...'
+‘\xHH...’
      The hexadecimal value HH, where HH stands for a sequence of
-     hexadecimal digits ('0'-'9', and either 'A'-'F' or 'a'-'f').  A
-     maximum of two digits are allowed after the '\x'.  Any further
+     hexadecimal digits (‘0’–‘9’, and either ‘A’–‘F’ or 
‘a’–‘f’).  A
+     maximum of two digits are allowed after the ‘\x’.  Any further
      hexadecimal digits are treated as simple letters or numbers.
-     (c.e.)  (The '\x' escape sequence is not allowed in POSIX awk.)
+     (c.e.)  (The ‘\x’ escape sequence is not allowed in POSIX awk.)
 
           CAUTION: In ISO C, the escape sequence continues until the
-          first nonhexadecimal digit is seen.  For many years, 'gawk'
+          first nonhexadecimal digit is seen.  For many years, ‘gawk’
           would continue incorporating hexadecimal digits into the value
           until a non-hexadecimal digit or the end of the string was
           encountered.  However, using more than two hexadecimal digits
           produced undefined results.  As of version 4.2, only two
           digits are processed.
 
-'\/'
+‘\/’
      A literal slash (should be used for regexp constants only).  This
      sequence is used when you want to write a regexp constant that
-     contains a slash (such as '/.*:\/home\/[[:alnum:]]+:.*/'; the
-     '[[:alnum:]]' notation is discussed in *note Bracket
+     contains a slash (such as ‘/.*:\/home\/[[:alnum:]]+:.*/’; the
+     ‘[[:alnum:]]’ notation is discussed in *note Bracket
      Expressions::).  Because the regexp is delimited by slashes, you
      need to escape any slash that is part of the pattern, in order to
-     tell 'awk' to keep processing the rest of the regexp.
+     tell ‘awk’ to keep processing the rest of the regexp.
 
-'\"'
+‘\"’
      A literal double quote (should be used for string constants only).
      This sequence is used when you want to write a string constant that
-     contains a double quote (such as '"He said \"hi!\" to her."').
+     contains a double quote (such as ‘"He said \"hi!\" to her."’).
      Because the string is delimited by double quotes, you need to
-     escape any quote that is part of the string, in order to tell 'awk'
+     escape any quote that is part of the string, in order to tell ‘awk’
      to keep processing the rest of the string.
 
-   In 'gawk', a number of additional two-character sequences that begin
+   In ‘gawk’, a number of additional two-character sequences that begin
 with a backslash have special meaning in regexps.  *Note GNU Regexp
 Operators::.
 
    In a regexp, a backslash before any character that is not in the
 previous list and not listed in *note GNU Regexp Operators:: means that
 the next character should be taken literally, even if it would normally
-be a regexp operator.  For example, '/a\+b/' matches the three
-characters 'a+b'.
+be a regexp operator.  For example, ‘/a\+b/’ matches the three
+characters ‘a+b’.
 
    For complete portability, do not use a backslash before any character
 not shown in the previous list or that is not an operator.
@@ -3746,46 +3746,46 @@ not shown in the previous list or that is not an 
operator.
                   Backslash Before Regular Characters
 
    If you place a backslash in a string constant before something that
-is not one of the characters previously listed, POSIX 'awk' purposely
+is not one of the characters previously listed, POSIX ‘awk’ purposely
 leaves what happens as undefined.  There are two choices:
 
 Strip the backslash out
-     This is what BWK 'awk' and 'gawk' both do.  For example, '"a\qc"'
-     is the same as '"aqc"'.  (Because this is such an easy bug both to
-     introduce and to miss, 'gawk' warns you about it.)  Consider 'FS =
-     "[ \t]+\|[ \t]+"' to use vertical bars surrounded by whitespace as
+     This is what BWK ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’ both do.  For example, 
‘"a\qc"’
+     is the same as ‘"aqc"’.  (Because this is such an easy bug both to
+     introduce and to miss, ‘gawk’ warns you about it.)  Consider ‘FS =
+     "[ \t]+\|[ \t]+"’ to use vertical bars surrounded by whitespace as
      the field separator.  There should be two backslashes in the
-     string: 'FS = "[ \t]+\\|[ \t]+"'.)
+     string: ‘FS = "[ \t]+\\|[ \t]+"’.)
 
 Leave the backslash alone
-     Some other 'awk' implementations do this.  In such implementations,
-     typing '"a\qc"' is the same as typing '"a\\qc"'.
+     Some other ‘awk’ implementations do this.  In such implementations,
+     typing ‘"a\qc"’ is the same as typing ‘"a\\qc"’.
 
    To summarize:
 
-   * The escape sequences in the preceding list are always processed
+   • The escape sequences in the preceding list are always processed
      first, for both string constants and regexp constants.  This
-     happens very early, as soon as 'awk' reads your program.
+     happens very early, as soon as ‘awk’ reads your program.
 
-   * 'gawk' processes both regexp constants and dynamic regexps (*note
+   • ‘gawk’ processes both regexp constants and dynamic regexps (*note
      Computed Regexps::), for the special operators listed in *note GNU
      Regexp Operators::.
 
-   * A backslash before any other character means to treat that
+   • A backslash before any other character means to treat that
      character literally.
 
                   Escape Sequences for Metacharacters
 
    Suppose you use an octal or hexadecimal escape to represent a regexp
-metacharacter.  (See *note Regexp Operators::.)  Does 'awk' treat the
+metacharacter.  (See *note Regexp Operators::.)  Does ‘awk’ treat the
 character as a literal character or as a regexp operator?
 
    Historically, such characters were taken literally.  (d.c.)  However,
 the POSIX standard indicates that they should be treated as real
-metacharacters, which is what 'gawk' does.  In compatibility mode (*note
-Options::), 'gawk' treats the characters represented by octal and
+metacharacters, which is what ‘gawk’ does.  In compatibility mode (*note
+Options::), ‘gawk’ treats the characters represented by octal and
 hexadecimal escape sequences literally when used in regexp constants.
-Thus, '/a\52b/' is equivalent to '/a\*b/'.
+Thus, ‘/a\52b/’ is equivalent to ‘/a\*b/’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Operators,  Next: Bracket Expressions,  Prev: 
Escape Sequences,  Up: Regexp
@@ -3794,7 +3794,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Operators,  Next: Bracket 
Expressions,  Prev: Esc
 ================================
 
 You can combine regular expressions with special characters, called
-"regular expression operators" or "metacharacters", to increase the
+“regular expression operators” or “metacharacters”, to increase the
 power and versatility of regular expressions.
 
 * Menu:
@@ -3805,86 +3805,86 @@ power and versatility of regular expressions.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Operator Details,  Next: Interval Expressions,  
Up: Regexp Operators
 
-3.3.1 Regexp Operators in 'awk'
+3.3.1 Regexp Operators in ‘awk’
 -------------------------------
 
 The escape sequences described in *note Escape Sequences:: are valid
-inside a regexp.  They are introduced by a '\' and are recognized and
+inside a regexp.  They are introduced by a ‘\’ and are recognized and
 converted into corresponding real characters as the very first step in
 processing regexps.
 
    Here is a list of metacharacters.  All characters that are not escape
 sequences and that are not listed here stand for themselves:
 
-'\'
+‘\’
      This suppresses the special meaning of a character when matching.
-     For example, '\$' matches the character '$'.
+     For example, ‘\$’ matches the character ‘$’.
 
-'^'
-     This matches the beginning of a string.  '^@chapter' matches
-     '@chapter' at the beginning of a string, for example, and can be
+‘^’
+     This matches the beginning of a string.  ‘^@chapter’ matches
+     ‘@chapter’ at the beginning of a string, for example, and can be
      used to identify chapter beginnings in Texinfo source files.  The
-     '^' is known as an "anchor", because it anchors the pattern to
+     ‘^’ is known as an “anchor”, because it anchors the pattern to
      match only at the beginning of the string.
 
-     It is important to realize that '^' does not match the beginning of
-     a line (the point right after a '\n' newline character) embedded in
+     It is important to realize that ‘^’ does not match the beginning of
+     a line (the point right after a ‘\n’ newline character) embedded in
      a string.  The condition is not true in the following example:
 
           if ("line1\nLINE 2" ~ /^L/) ...
 
-'$'
-     This is similar to '^', but it matches only at the end of a string.
-     For example, 'p$' matches a record that ends with a 'p'.  The '$'
+‘$’
+     This is similar to ‘^’, but it matches only at the end of a string.
+     For example, ‘p$’ matches a record that ends with a ‘p’.  The 
‘$’
      is an anchor and does not match the end of a line (the point right
-     before a '\n' newline character) embedded in a string.  The
+     before a ‘\n’ newline character) embedded in a string.  The
      condition in the following example is not true:
 
           if ("line1\nLINE 2" ~ /1$/) ...
 
-'.' (period)
+‘.’ (period)
      This matches any single character, _including_ the newline
-     character.  For example, '.P' matches any single character followed
-     by a 'P' in a string.  Using concatenation, we can make a regular
-     expression such as 'U.A', which matches any three-character
-     sequence that begins with 'U' and ends with 'A'.
+     character.  For example, ‘.P’ matches any single character followed
+     by a ‘P’ in a string.  Using concatenation, we can make a regular
+     expression such as ‘U.A’, which matches any three-character
+     sequence that begins with ‘U’ and ends with ‘A’.
 
-     In strict POSIX mode (*note Options::), '.' does not match the NUL
+     In strict POSIX mode (*note Options::), ‘.’ does not match the NUL
      character, which is a character with all bits equal to zero.
-     Otherwise, NUL is just another character.  Other versions of 'awk'
+     Otherwise, NUL is just another character.  Other versions of ‘awk’
      may not be able to match the NUL character.
 
-'['...']'
-     This is called a "bracket expression".(1)  It matches any _one_ of
+‘[’...‘]’
+     This is called a “bracket expression”.(1)  It matches any _one_ of
      the characters that are enclosed in the square brackets.  For
-     example, '[MVX]' matches any one of the characters 'M', 'V', or 'X'
+     example, ‘[MVX]’ matches any one of the characters ‘M’, ‘V’, 
or ‘X’
      in a string.  A full discussion of what can be inside the square
      brackets of a bracket expression is given in *note Bracket
      Expressions::.
 
-'[^'...']'
-     This is a "complemented bracket expression".  The first character
-     after the '[' _must_ be a '^'.  It matches any characters _except_
-     those in the square brackets.  For example, '[^awk]' matches any
-     character that is not an 'a', 'w', or 'k'.
-
-'|'
-     This is the "alternation operator" and it is used to specify
-     alternatives.  The '|' has the lowest precedence of all the regular
-     expression operators.  For example, '^P|[aeiouy]' matches any
-     string that matches either '^P' or '[aeiouy]'.  This means it
-     matches any string that starts with 'P' or contains (anywhere
+‘[^’...‘]’
+     This is a “complemented bracket expression”.  The first character
+     after the ‘[’ _must_ be a ‘^’.  It matches any characters _except_
+     those in the square brackets.  For example, ‘[^awk]’ matches any
+     character that is not an ‘a’, ‘w’, or ‘k’.
+
+‘|’
+     This is the “alternation operator” and it is used to specify
+     alternatives.  The ‘|’ has the lowest precedence of all the regular
+     expression operators.  For example, ‘^P|[aeiouy]’ matches any
+     string that matches either ‘^P’ or ‘[aeiouy]’.  This means it
+     matches any string that starts with ‘P’ or contains (anywhere
      within it) a lowercase English vowel.
 
      The alternation applies to the largest possible regexps on either
      side.
 
-'('...')'
+‘(’...‘)’
      Parentheses are used for grouping in regular expressions, as in
      arithmetic.  They can be used to concatenate regular expressions
-     containing the alternation operator, '|'.  For example,
-     '@(samp|code)\{[^}]+\}' matches both '@code{foo}' and '@samp{bar}'.
-     (These are Texinfo formatting control sequences.  The '+' is
+     containing the alternation operator, ‘|’.  For example,
+     ‘@(samp|code)\{[^}]+\}’ matches both ‘@code{foo}’ and 
‘@samp{bar}’.
+     (These are Texinfo formatting control sequences.  The ‘+’ is
      explained further on in this list.)
 
      The left or opening parenthesis is always a metacharacter; to match
@@ -3893,75 +3893,75 @@ sequences and that are not listed here stand for 
themselves:
      parenthesis; an unpaired right parenthesis is (silently) treated as
      a regular character.
 
-'*'
+‘*’
      This symbol means that the preceding regular expression should be
      repeated as many times as necessary to find a match.  For example,
-     'ph*' applies the '*' symbol to the preceding 'h' and looks for
-     matches of one 'p' followed by any number of 'h's.  This also
-     matches just 'p' if no 'h's are present.
-
-     There are two subtle points to understand about how '*' works.
-     First, the '*' applies only to the single preceding regular
-     expression component (e.g., in 'ph*', it applies just to the 'h').
-     To cause '*' to apply to a larger subexpression, use parentheses:
-     '(ph)*' matches 'ph', 'phph', 'phphph', and so on.
-
-     Second, '*' finds as many repetitions as possible.  If the text to
-     be matched is 'phhhhhhhhhhhhhhooey', 'ph*' matches all of the 'h's.
-
-'+'
-     This symbol is similar to '*', except that the preceding expression
-     must be matched at least once.  This means that 'wh+y' would match
-     'why' and 'whhy', but not 'wy', whereas 'wh*y' would match all
+     ‘ph*’ applies the ‘*’ symbol to the preceding ‘h’ and looks 
for
+     matches of one ‘p’ followed by any number of ‘h’s.  This also
+     matches just ‘p’ if no ‘h’s are present.
+
+     There are two subtle points to understand about how ‘*’ works.
+     First, the ‘*’ applies only to the single preceding regular
+     expression component (e.g., in ‘ph*’, it applies just to the ‘h’).
+     To cause ‘*’ to apply to a larger subexpression, use parentheses:
+     ‘(ph)*’ matches ‘ph’, ‘phph’, ‘phphph’, and so on.
+
+     Second, ‘*’ finds as many repetitions as possible.  If the text to
+     be matched is ‘phhhhhhhhhhhhhhooey’, ‘ph*’ matches all of the 
‘h’s.
+
+‘+’
+     This symbol is similar to ‘*’, except that the preceding expression
+     must be matched at least once.  This means that ‘wh+y’ would match
+     ‘why’ and ‘whhy’, but not ‘wy’, whereas ‘wh*y’ would 
match all
      three.
 
-'?'
-     This symbol is similar to '*', except that the preceding expression
-     can be matched either once or not at all.  For example, 'fe?d'
-     matches 'fed' and 'fd', but nothing else.
+‘?’
+     This symbol is similar to ‘*’, except that the preceding expression
+     can be matched either once or not at all.  For example, ‘fe?d’
+     matches ‘fed’ and ‘fd’, but nothing else.
 
-'{'N'}'
-'{'N',}'
-'{'N','M'}'
-     One or two numbers inside braces denote an "interval expression".
+‘{’N‘}’
+‘{’N‘,}’
+‘{’N‘,’M‘}’
+     One or two numbers inside braces denote an “interval expression”.
      If there is one number in the braces, the preceding regexp is
      repeated N times.  If there are two numbers separated by a comma,
      the preceding regexp is repeated N to M times.  If there is one
      number followed by a comma, then the preceding regexp is repeated
      at least N times:
 
-     'wh{3}y'
-          Matches 'whhhy', but not 'why' or 'whhhhy'.
+     ‘wh{3}y’
+          Matches ‘whhhy’, but not ‘why’ or ‘whhhhy’.
 
-     'wh{3,5}y'
-          Matches 'whhhy', 'whhhhy', or 'whhhhhy' only.
+     ‘wh{3,5}y’
+          Matches ‘whhhy’, ‘whhhhy’, or ‘whhhhhy’ only.
 
-     'wh{2,}y'
-          Matches 'whhy', 'whhhy', and so on.
+     ‘wh{2,}y’
+          Matches ‘whhy’, ‘whhhy’, and so on.
 
-   In regular expressions, the '*', '+', and '?' operators, as well as
-the braces '{' and '}', have the highest precedence, followed by
-concatenation, and finally by '|'.  As in arithmetic, parentheses can
+   In regular expressions, the ‘*’, ‘+’, and ‘?’ operators, as 
well as
+the braces ‘{’ and ‘}’, have the highest precedence, followed by
+concatenation, and finally by ‘|’.  As in arithmetic, parentheses can
 change how operators are grouped.
 
-   In POSIX 'awk' and 'gawk', the '*', '+', and '?' operators stand for
+   In POSIX ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’, the ‘*’, ‘+’, and ‘?’ 
operators stand for
 themselves when there is nothing in the regexp that precedes them.  For
-example, '/+/' matches a literal plus sign.  However, many other
-versions of 'awk' treat such a usage as a syntax error.
+example, ‘/+/’ matches a literal plus sign.  However, many other
+versions of ‘awk’ treat such a usage as a syntax error.
 
                      What About The Empty Regexp?
 
    We describe here an advanced regexp usage.  Feel free to skip it upon
 first reading.
 
-   You can supply an empty regexp constant ('//') in all places where a
+   You can supply an empty regexp constant (‘//’) in all places where a
 regexp is expected.  Is this useful?  What does it match?
 
    It is useful.  It matches the (invisible) empty string at the start
 and end of a string of characters, as well as the empty string between
-characters.  This is best illustrated with the 'gsub()' function, which
+characters.  This is best illustrated with the ‘gsub()’ function, which
 makes global substitutions in a string (*note String Functions::).
-Normal usage of 'gsub()' is like so:
+Normal usage of ‘gsub()’ is like so:
 
      $ awk '
      > BEGIN {
@@ -3969,9 +3969,9 @@ Normal usage of 'gsub()' is like so:
      >     gsub(/B/, "bb", x)
      >     print x
      > }'
-     -| AbbC_CbbA
+     ⊣ AbbC_CbbA
 
-   We can use 'gsub()' to see where the empty strings are that match the
+   We can use ‘gsub()’ to see where the empty strings are that match the
 empty regexp:
 
      $ awk '
@@ -3980,12 +3980,12 @@ empty regexp:
      >     gsub(//, "x", x)
      >     print x
      > }'
-     -| xAxBxCx
+     ⊣ xAxBxCx
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) In other literature, you may see a bracket expression referred to
-as either a "character set", a "character class", or a "character list".
+as either a “character set”, a “character class”, or a “character 
list”.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Interval Expressions,  Prev: Regexp Operator Details,  
Up: Regexp Operators
@@ -3993,52 +3993,52 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Interval Expressions,  Prev: 
Regexp Operator Details,  U
 3.3.2 Some Notes On Interval Expressions
 ----------------------------------------
 
-Interval expressions were not traditionally available in 'awk'.  They
-were added as part of the POSIX standard to make 'awk' and 'egrep'
+Interval expressions were not traditionally available in ‘awk’.  They
+were added as part of the POSIX standard to make ‘awk’ and ‘egrep’
 consistent with each other.
 
-   Initially, because old programs may use '{' and '}' in regexp
-constants, 'gawk' did _not_ match interval expressions in regexps.
+   Initially, because old programs may use ‘{’ and ‘}’ in regexp
+constants, ‘gawk’ did _not_ match interval expressions in regexps.
 
-   However, beginning with version 4.0, 'gawk' does match interval
+   However, beginning with version 4.0, ‘gawk’ does match interval
 expressions by default.  This is because compatibility with POSIX has
-become more important to most 'gawk' users than compatibility with old
+become more important to most ‘gawk’ users than compatibility with old
 programs.
 
-   For programs that use '{' and '}' in regexp constants, it is good
+   For programs that use ‘{’ and ‘}’ in regexp constants, it is good
 practice to always escape them with a backslash.  Then the regexp
 constants are valid and work the way you want them to, using any version
-of 'awk'.(1)
+of ‘awk’.(1)
 
-   When '{' and '}' appear in regexp constants in a way that cannot be
-interpreted as an interval expression (such as '/q{a}/'), then they
+   When ‘{’ and ‘}’ appear in regexp constants in a way that cannot be
+interpreted as an interval expression (such as ‘/q{a}/’), then they
 stand for themselves.
 
    As mentioned, interval expressions were not traditionally available
-in 'awk'.  In March of 2019, BWK 'awk' (finally) acquired them.
-Starting with version 5.2, 'gawk''s '--traditional' option no longer
+in ‘awk’.  In March of 2019, BWK ‘awk’ (finally) acquired them.
+Starting with version 5.2, ‘gawk’’s ‘--traditional’ option no longer
 disables interval expressions in regular expressions.
 
    POSIX says that interval expressions containing repetition counts
 greater than 255 produce unspecified results.
 
-   In the manual for GNU 'grep', Paul Eggert notes the following:
+   In the manual for GNU ‘grep’, Paul Eggert notes the following:
 
      Interval expressions may be implemented internally via repetition.
-     For example, '^(a|bc){2,4}$' might be implemented as
-     '^(a|bc)(a|bc)((a|bc)(a|bc)?)?$'.  A large repetition count may
+     For example, ‘^(a|bc){2,4}$’ might be implemented as
+     ‘^(a|bc)(a|bc)((a|bc)(a|bc)?)?$’.  A large repetition count may
      exhaust memory or greatly slow matching.  Even small counts can
-     cause problems if cascaded; for example, 'grep -E
-     ".*{10,}{10,}{10,}{10,}{10,}"' is likely to overflow a stack.
+     cause problems if cascaded; for example, ‘grep -E
+     ".*{10,}{10,}{10,}{10,}{10,}"’ is likely to overflow a stack.
      Fortunately, regular expressions like these are typically
      artificial, and cascaded repetitions do not conform to POSIX so
      cannot be used in portable programs anyway.
 
-This same caveat applies to 'gawk'.
+This same caveat applies to ‘gawk’.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) Use two backslashes if you're using a string constant with a
+   (1) Use two backslashes if you’re using a string constant with a
 regexp operator or function.
 
 
@@ -4050,38 +4050,38 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Bracket Expressions,  Next: 
Leftmost Longest,  Prev: Reg
 As mentioned earlier, a bracket expression matches any character among
 those listed between the opening and closing square brackets.
 
-   Within a bracket expression, a "range expression" consists of two
+   Within a bracket expression, a “range expression” consists of two
 characters separated by a hyphen.  It matches any single character that
-sorts between the two characters, based upon the system's native
-character set.  For example, '[0-9]' is equivalent to '[0123456789]'.
+sorts between the two characters, based upon the system’s native
+character set.  For example, ‘[0-9]’ is equivalent to ‘[0123456789]’.
 (See *note Ranges and Locales:: for an explanation of how the POSIX
-standard and 'gawk' have changed over time.  This is mainly of
+standard and ‘gawk’ have changed over time.  This is mainly of
 historical interest.)
 
    With the increasing popularity of the Unicode character standard
 (http://www.unicode.org), there is an additional wrinkle to consider.
 Octal and hexadecimal escape sequences inside bracket expressions are
 taken to represent only single-byte characters (characters whose values
-fit within the range 0-256).  To match a range of characters where the
+fit within the range 0–256).  To match a range of characters where the
 endpoints of the range are larger than 256, enter the multibyte
 encodings of the characters directly.
 
-   To include one of the characters '\', ']', '-', or '^' in a bracket
-expression, put a '\' in front of it.  For example:
+   To include one of the characters ‘\’, ‘]’, ‘-’, or ‘^’ in a 
bracket
+expression, put a ‘\’ in front of it.  For example:
 
      [d\]]
 
-matches either 'd' or ']'.  Additionally, if you place ']' right after
-the opening '[', the closing bracket is treated as one of the characters
+matches either ‘d’ or ‘]’.  Additionally, if you place ‘]’ right 
after
+the opening ‘[’, the closing bracket is treated as one of the characters
 to be matched.
 
-   The treatment of '\' in bracket expressions is compatible with other
-'awk' implementations and is also mandated by POSIX. The regular
-expressions in 'awk' are a superset of the POSIX specification for
+   The treatment of ‘\’ in bracket expressions is compatible with other
+‘awk’ implementations and is also mandated by POSIX. The regular
+expressions in ‘awk’ are a superset of the POSIX specification for
 Extended Regular Expressions (EREs).  POSIX EREs are based on the
-regular expressions accepted by the traditional 'egrep' utility.
+regular expressions accepted by the traditional ‘egrep’ utility.
 
-   "Character classes" are a feature introduced in the POSIX standard.
+   “Character classes” are a feature introduced in the POSIX standard.
 A character class is a special notation for describing lists of
 characters that have a specific attribute, but the actual characters can
 vary from country to country and/or from character set to character set.
@@ -4089,79 +4089,79 @@ For example, the notion of what is an alphabetic 
character differs
 between the United States and France.
 
    A character class is only valid in a regexp _inside_ the brackets of
-a bracket expression.  Character classes consist of '[:', a keyword
-denoting the class, and ':]'.  *note Table 3.1: table-char-classes.
+a bracket expression.  Character classes consist of ‘[:’, a keyword
+denoting the class, and ‘:]’.  *note Table 3.1: table-char-classes.
 lists the character classes defined by the POSIX standard.
 
 
 Class       Meaning
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-'[:alnum:]' Alphanumeric characters
-'[:alpha:]' Alphabetic characters
-'[:blank:]' Space and TAB characters
-'[:cntrl:]' Control characters
-'[:digit:]' Numeric characters
-'[:graph:]' Characters that are both printable and visible (a space is
-            printable but not visible, whereas an 'a' is both)
-'[:lower:]' Lowercase alphabetic characters
-'[:print:]' Printable characters (characters that are not control
+‘[:alnum:]’ Alphanumeric characters
+‘[:alpha:]’ Alphabetic characters
+‘[:blank:]’ Space and TAB characters
+‘[:cntrl:]’ Control characters
+‘[:digit:]’ Numeric characters
+‘[:graph:]’ Characters that are both printable and visible (a space is
+            printable but not visible, whereas an ‘a’ is both)
+‘[:lower:]’ Lowercase alphabetic characters
+‘[:print:]’ Printable characters (characters that are not control
             characters)
-'[:punct:]' Punctuation characters (characters that are not letters,
+‘[:punct:]’ Punctuation characters (characters that are not letters,
             digits, control characters, or space characters)
-'[:space:]' Space characters (these are: space, TAB, newline, carriage
+‘[:space:]’ Space characters (these are: space, TAB, newline, carriage
             return, formfeed and vertical tab)
-'[:upper:]' Uppercase alphabetic characters
-'[:xdigit:]'Characters that are hexadecimal digits
+‘[:upper:]’ Uppercase alphabetic characters
+‘[:xdigit:]’Characters that are hexadecimal digits
 
 Table 3.1: POSIX character classes
 
    For example, before the POSIX standard, you had to write
-'/[A-Za-z0-9]/' to match alphanumeric characters.  If your character set
+‘/[A-Za-z0-9]/’ to match alphanumeric characters.  If your character set
 had other alphabetic characters in it, this would not match them.  With
-the POSIX character classes, you can write '/[[:alnum:]]/' to match the
+the POSIX character classes, you can write ‘/[[:alnum:]]/’ to match the
 alphabetic and numeric characters in your character set.
 
    Some utilities that match regular expressions provide a nonstandard
-'[:ascii:]' character class; 'awk' does not.  However, you can simulate
-such a construct using '[\x00-\x7F]'.  This matches all values
+‘[:ascii:]’ character class; ‘awk’ does not.  However, you can simulate
+such a construct using ‘[\x00-\x7F]’.  This matches all values
 numerically between zero and 127, which is the defined range of the
-ASCII character set.  Use a complemented character list ('[^\x00-\x7F]')
+ASCII character set.  Use a complemented character list (‘[^\x00-\x7F]’)
 to match any single-byte characters that are not in the ASCII range.
 
-     NOTE: Some older versions of Unix 'awk' treat '[:blank:]' like
-     '[:space:]', incorrectly matching more characters than they should.
+     NOTE: Some older versions of Unix ‘awk’ treat ‘[:blank:]’ like
+     ‘[:space:]’, incorrectly matching more characters than they should.
      Caveat Emptor.
 
    Two additional special sequences can appear in bracket expressions.
 These apply to non-ASCII character sets, which can have single symbols
-(called "collating elements") that are represented with more than one
+(called “collating elements”) that are represented with more than one
 character.  They can also have several characters that are equivalent
-for "collating", or sorting, purposes.  (For example, in French, a plain
-"e" and a grave-accented "è" are equivalent.)  These sequences are:
+for “collating”, or sorting, purposes.  (For example, in French, a plain
+“e” and a grave-accented “è” are equivalent.)  These sequences are:
 
 Collating symbols
-     Multicharacter collating elements enclosed between '[.' and '.]'.
-     For example, if 'ch' is a collating element, then '[[.ch.]]' is a
-     regexp that matches this collating element, whereas '[ch]' is a
-     regexp that matches either 'c' or 'h'.
+     Multicharacter collating elements enclosed between ‘[.’ and ‘.]’.
+     For example, if ‘ch’ is a collating element, then ‘[[.ch.]]’ is a
+     regexp that matches this collating element, whereas ‘[ch]’ is a
+     regexp that matches either ‘c’ or ‘h’.
 
 Equivalence classes
      Locale-specific names for a list of characters that are equal.  The
-     name is enclosed between '[=' and '=]'.  For example, the name 'e'
-     might be used to represent all of "e," "ê," "è," and "é."  In this
-     case, '[[=e=]]' is a regexp that matches any of 'e', 'ê', 'é', or
-     'è'.
+     name is enclosed between ‘[=’ and ‘=]’.  For example, the name 
‘e’
+     might be used to represent all of “e,” “ê,” “è,” and 
“é.” In this
+     case, ‘[[=e=]]’ is a regexp that matches any of ‘e’, ‘ê’, 
‘é’, or
+     ‘è’.
 
    These features are very valuable in non-English-speaking locales.
 
-     CAUTION: The library functions that 'gawk' uses for regular
+     CAUTION: The library functions that ‘gawk’ uses for regular
      expression matching currently recognize only POSIX character
      classes; they do not recognize collating symbols or equivalence
      classes.
 
-   Inside a bracket expression, an opening bracket ('[') that does not
+   Inside a bracket expression, an opening bracket (‘[’) that does not
 start a character class, collating element or equivalence class is taken
-literally.  This is also true of '.' and '*'.
+literally.  This is also true of ‘.’ and ‘*’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Leftmost Longest,  Next: Computed Regexps,  Prev: 
Bracket Expressions,  Up: Regexp
@@ -4173,23 +4173,23 @@ Consider the following:
 
      echo aaaabcd | awk '{ sub(/a+/, "<A>"); print }'
 
-   This example uses the 'sub()' function to make a change to the input
-record.  ('sub()' replaces the first instance of any text matched by the
+   This example uses the ‘sub()’ function to make a change to the input
+record.  (‘sub()’ replaces the first instance of any text matched by the
 first argument with the string provided as the second argument; *note
-String Functions::.)  Here, the regexp '/a+/' indicates "one or more 'a'
-characters," and the replacement text is '<A>'.
+String Functions::.)  Here, the regexp ‘/a+/’ indicates “one or more 
‘a’
+characters,” and the replacement text is ‘<A>’.
 
-   The input contains four 'a' characters.  'awk' (and POSIX) regular
+   The input contains four ‘a’ characters.  ‘awk’ (and POSIX) regular
 expressions always match the leftmost, _longest_ sequence of input
-characters that can match.  Thus, all four 'a' characters are replaced
-with '<A>' in this example:
+characters that can match.  Thus, all four ‘a’ characters are replaced
+with ‘<A>’ in this example:
 
      $ echo aaaabcd | awk '{ sub(/a+/, "<A>"); print }'
-     -| <A>bcd
+     ⊣ <A>bcd
 
    For simple match/no-match tests, this is not so important.  But when
-doing text matching and substitutions with the 'match()', 'sub()',
-'gsub()', and 'gensub()' functions, it is very important.  *Note String
+doing text matching and substitutions with the ‘match()’, ‘sub()’,
+‘gsub()’, and ‘gensub()’ functions, it is very important.  *Note String
 Functions::, for more information on these functions.  Understanding
 this principle is also important for regexp-based record and field
 splitting (*note Records::, and also *note Field Separators::).
@@ -4200,28 +4200,28 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Computed Regexps,  Next: GNU 
Regexp Operators,  Prev: Le
 3.6 Using Dynamic Regexps
 =========================
 
-The righthand side of a '~' or '!~' operator need not be a regexp
+The righthand side of a ‘~’ or ‘!~’ operator need not be a regexp
 constant (i.e., a string of characters between slashes).  It may be any
 expression.  The expression is evaluated and converted to a string if
 necessary; the contents of the string are then used as the regexp.  A
-regexp computed in this way is called a "dynamic regexp" or a "computed
-regexp":
+regexp computed in this way is called a “dynamic regexp” or a “computed
+regexp”:
 
      BEGIN { digits_regexp = "[[:digit:]]+" }
      $0 ~ digits_regexp    { print }
 
-This sets 'digits_regexp' to a regexp that describes one or more digits,
+This sets ‘digits_regexp’ to a regexp that describes one or more digits,
 and tests whether the input record matches this regexp.
 
-     NOTE: When using the '~' and '!~' operators, be aware that there is
+     NOTE: When using the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ operators, be aware that there 
is
      a difference between a regexp constant enclosed in slashes and a
      string constant enclosed in double quotes.  If you are going to use
      a string constant, you have to understand that the string is, in
-     essence, scanned _twice_: the first time when 'awk' reads your
+     essence, scanned _twice_: the first time when ‘awk’ reads your
      program, and the second time when it goes to match the string on
      the lefthand side of the operator with the pattern on the right.
      This is true of any string-valued expression (such as
-     'digits_regexp', shown in the previous example), not just string
+     ‘digits_regexp’, shown in the previous example), not just string
      constants.
 
    What difference does it make if the string is scanned twice?  The
@@ -4229,144 +4229,144 @@ answer has to do with escape sequences, and 
particularly with
 backslashes.  To get a backslash into a regular expression inside a
 string, you have to type two backslashes.
 
-   For example, '/\*/' is a regexp constant for a literal '*'.  Only one
+   For example, ‘/\*/’ is a regexp constant for a literal ‘*’.  Only 
one
 backslash is needed.  To do the same thing with a string, you have to
-type '"\\*"'.  The first backslash escapes the second one so that the
-string actually contains the two characters '\' and '*'.
+type ‘"\\*"’.  The first backslash escapes the second one so that the
+string actually contains the two characters ‘\’ and ‘*’.
 
    Given that you can use both regexp and string constants to describe
-regular expressions, which should you use?  The answer is "regexp
-constants," for several reasons:
+regular expressions, which should you use?  The answer is “regexp
+constants,” for several reasons:
 
-   * String constants are more complicated to write and more difficult
+   • String constants are more complicated to write and more difficult
      to read.  Using regexp constants makes your programs less
      error-prone.  Not understanding the difference between the two
      kinds of constants is a common source of errors.
 
-   * It is more efficient to use regexp constants.  'awk' can note that
+   • It is more efficient to use regexp constants.  ‘awk’ can note that
      you have supplied a regexp and store it internally in a form that
      makes pattern matching more efficient.  When using a string
-     constant, 'awk' must first convert the string into this internal
+     constant, ‘awk’ must first convert the string into this internal
      form and then perform the pattern matching.
 
-   * Using regexp constants is better form; it shows clearly that you
+   • Using regexp constants is better form; it shows clearly that you
      intend a regexp match.
 
-         Using '\n' in Bracket Expressions of Dynamic Regexps
+         Using ‘\n’ in Bracket Expressions of Dynamic Regexps
 
-   Some older versions of 'awk' do not allow the newline character to be
+   Some older versions of ‘awk’ do not allow the newline character to be
 used inside a bracket expression for a dynamic regexp:
 
      $ awk '$0 ~ "[ \t\n]"'
-     error-> awk: newline in character class [
-     error-> ]...
-     error->  source line number 1
-     error->  context is
-     error->        $0 ~ "[ >>>  \t\n]" <<<
+     error→ awk: newline in character class [
+     error→ ]...
+     error→  source line number 1
+     error→  context is
+     error→        $0 ~ "[ >>>  \t\n]" <<<
 
    But a newline in a regexp constant works with no problem:
 
      $ awk '$0 ~ /[ \t\n]/'
      here is a sample line
-     -| here is a sample line
+     ⊣ here is a sample line
      Ctrl-d
 
-   'gawk' does not have this problem, and it isn't likely to occur often
-in practice, but it's worth noting for future reference.
+   ‘gawk’ does not have this problem, and it isn’t likely to occur often
+in practice, but it’s worth noting for future reference.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: GNU Regexp Operators,  Next: Case-sensitivity,  Prev: 
Computed Regexps,  Up: Regexp
 
-3.7 'gawk'-Specific Regexp Operators
+3.7 ‘gawk’-Specific Regexp Operators
 ====================================
 
 GNU software that deals with regular expressions provides a number of
 additional regexp operators.  These operators are described in this
-minor node and are specific to 'gawk'; they are not available in other
-'awk' implementations.  Most of the additional operators deal with word
-matching.  For our purposes, a "word" is a sequence of one or more
-letters, digits, or underscores ('_'):
+minor node and are specific to ‘gawk’; they are not available in other
+‘awk’ implementations.  Most of the additional operators deal with word
+matching.  For our purposes, a “word” is a sequence of one or more
+letters, digits, or underscores (‘_’):
 
-'\s'
+‘\s’
      Matches any space character as defined by the current locale.
-     Think of it as shorthand for '[[:space:]]'.
+     Think of it as shorthand for ‘[[:space:]]’.
 
-'\S'
+‘\S’
      Matches any character that is not a space, as defined by the
-     current locale.  Think of it as shorthand for '[^[:space:]]'.
+     current locale.  Think of it as shorthand for ‘[^[:space:]]’.
 
-'\w'
-     Matches any word-constituent character--that is, it matches any
+‘\w’
+     Matches any word-constituent character—that is, it matches any
      letter, digit, or underscore.  Think of it as shorthand for
-     '[[:alnum:]_]'.
+     ‘[[:alnum:]_]’.
 
-'\W'
+‘\W’
      Matches any character that is not word-constituent.  Think of it as
-     shorthand for '[^[:alnum:]_]'.
+     shorthand for ‘[^[:alnum:]_]’.
 
-'\<'
+‘\<’
      Matches the empty string at the beginning of a word.  For example,
-     '/\<away/' matches 'away' but not 'stowaway'.
+     ‘/\<away/’ matches ‘away’ but not ‘stowaway’.
 
-'\>'
+‘\>’
      Matches the empty string at the end of a word.  For example,
-     '/stow\>/' matches 'stow' but not 'stowaway'.
+     ‘/stow\>/’ matches ‘stow’ but not ‘stowaway’.
 
-'\y'
+‘\y’
      Matches the empty string at either the beginning or the end of a
-     word (i.e., the word boundar*y*).  For example, '\yballs?\y'
-     matches either 'ball' or 'balls', as a separate word.
+     word (i.e., the word boundar*y*).  For example, ‘\yballs?\y’
+     matches either ‘ball’ or ‘balls’, as a separate word.
 
-'\B'
+‘\B’
      Matches the empty string that occurs between two word-constituent
-     characters.  For example, '/\Brat\B/' matches 'crate', but it does
-     not match 'dirty rat'.  '\B' is essentially the opposite of '\y'.
-     Another way to think of this is that '\B' matches the empty string
-     provided it's not at the edge of a word.
+     characters.  For example, ‘/\Brat\B/’ matches ‘crate’, but it does
+     not match ‘dirty rat’.  ‘\B’ is essentially the opposite of 
‘\y’.
+     Another way to think of this is that ‘\B’ matches the empty string
+     provided it’s not at the edge of a word.
 
    There are two other operators that work on buffers.  In Emacs, a
-"buffer" is, naturally, an Emacs buffer.  Other GNU programs, including
-'gawk', consider the entire string to match as the buffer.  The
+“buffer” is, naturally, an Emacs buffer.  Other GNU programs, including
+‘gawk’, consider the entire string to match as the buffer.  The
 operators are:
 
-'\`'
+‘\`’
      Matches the empty string at the beginning of a buffer (string)
 
-'\''
+‘\'’
      Matches the empty string at the end of a buffer (string)
 
-   Because '^' and '$' always work in terms of the beginning and end of
-strings, these operators don't add any new capabilities for 'awk'.  They
+   Because ‘^’ and ‘$’ always work in terms of the beginning and end of
+strings, these operators don’t add any new capabilities for ‘awk’.  They
 are provided for compatibility with other GNU software.
 
-   In other GNU software, the word-boundary operator is '\b'.  However,
-that conflicts with the 'awk' language's definition of '\b' as
-backspace, so 'gawk' uses a different letter.  An alternative method
+   In other GNU software, the word-boundary operator is ‘\b’.  However,
+that conflicts with the ‘awk’ language’s definition of ‘\b’ as
+backspace, so ‘gawk’ uses a different letter.  An alternative method
 would have been to require two backslashes in the GNU operators, but
-this was deemed too confusing.  The current method of using '\y' for the
-GNU '\b' appears to be the lesser of two evils.
+this was deemed too confusing.  The current method of using ‘\y’ for the
+GNU ‘\b’ appears to be the lesser of two evils.
 
-   The various command-line options (*note Options::) control how 'gawk'
+   The various command-line options (*note Options::) control how ‘gawk’
 interprets characters in regexps:
 
 No options
-     In the default case, 'gawk' provides all the facilities of POSIX
+     In the default case, ‘gawk’ provides all the facilities of POSIX
      regexps and the GNU regexp operators described in *note Regexp
      Operators::.
 
-'--posix'
+‘--posix’
      Match only POSIX regexps; the GNU operators are not special (e.g.,
-     '\w' matches a literal 'w').  Interval expressions are allowed.
+     ‘\w’ matches a literal ‘w’).  Interval expressions are allowed.
 
-'--traditional'
-     Match traditional Unix 'awk' regexps.  The GNU operators are not
-     special.  Because BWK 'awk' supports them, the POSIX character
-     classes ('[[:alnum:]]', etc.)  are available.  So too, interval
+‘--traditional’
+     Match traditional Unix ‘awk’ regexps.  The GNU operators are not
+     special.  Because BWK ‘awk’ supports them, the POSIX character
+     classes (‘[[:alnum:]]’, etc.)  are available.  So too, interval
      expressions are allowed.  Characters described by octal and
      hexadecimal escape sequences are treated literally, even if they
      represent regexp metacharacters.
 
-'--re-interval'
+‘--re-interval’
      This option remains for backwards compatibility but no longer has
      any real effect.
 
@@ -4378,32 +4378,32 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Case-sensitivity,  Next: Regexp 
Summary,  Prev: GNU Rege
 
 Case is normally significant in regular expressions, both when matching
 ordinary characters (i.e., not metacharacters) and inside bracket
-expressions.  Thus, a 'w' in a regular expression matches only a
-lowercase 'w' and not an uppercase 'W'.
+expressions.  Thus, a ‘w’ in a regular expression matches only a
+lowercase ‘w’ and not an uppercase ‘W’.
 
    The simplest way to do a case-independent match is to use a bracket
-expression--for example, '[Ww]'.  However, this can be cumbersome if you
+expression—for example, ‘[Ww]’.  However, this can be cumbersome if you
 need to use it often, and it can make the regular expressions harder to
 read.  There are two alternatives that you might prefer.
 
    One way to perform a case-insensitive match at a particular point in
 the program is to convert the data to a single case, using the
-'tolower()' or 'toupper()' built-in string functions (which we haven't
+‘tolower()’ or ‘toupper()’ built-in string functions (which we 
haven’t
 discussed yet; *note String Functions::).  For example:
 
      tolower($1) ~ /foo/  { ... }
 
 converts the first field to lowercase before matching against it.  This
-works in any POSIX-compliant 'awk'.
+works in any POSIX-compliant ‘awk’.
 
-   Another method, specific to 'gawk', is to set the variable
-'IGNORECASE' to a nonzero value (*note Built-in Variables::).  When
-'IGNORECASE' is not zero, _all_ regexp and string operations ignore
+   Another method, specific to ‘gawk’, is to set the variable
+‘IGNORECASE’ to a nonzero value (*note Built-in Variables::).  When
+‘IGNORECASE’ is not zero, _all_ regexp and string operations ignore
 case.
 
-   Changing the value of 'IGNORECASE' dynamically controls the case
+   Changing the value of ‘IGNORECASE’ dynamically controls the case
 sensitivity of the program as it runs.  Case is significant by default
-because 'IGNORECASE' (like most variables) is initialized to zero:
+because ‘IGNORECASE’ (like most variables) is initialized to zero:
 
      x = "aB"
      if (x ~ /ab/) ...   # this test will fail
@@ -4411,38 +4411,38 @@ because 'IGNORECASE' (like most variables) is 
initialized to zero:
      IGNORECASE = 1
      if (x ~ /ab/) ...   # now it will succeed
 
-   In general, you cannot use 'IGNORECASE' to make certain rules case
+   In general, you cannot use ‘IGNORECASE’ to make certain rules case
 insensitive and other rules case sensitive, as there is no
-straightforward way to set 'IGNORECASE' just for the pattern of a
+straightforward way to set ‘IGNORECASE’ just for the pattern of a
 particular rule.(1)  To do this, use either bracket expressions or
-'tolower()'.  However, one thing you can do with 'IGNORECASE' only is
+‘tolower()’.  However, one thing you can do with ‘IGNORECASE’ only is
 dynamically turn case sensitivity on or off for all the rules at once.
 
-   'IGNORECASE' can be set on the command line or in a 'BEGIN' rule
+   ‘IGNORECASE’ can be set on the command line or in a ‘BEGIN’ rule
 (*note Other Arguments::; also *note Using BEGIN/END::).  Setting
-'IGNORECASE' from the command line is a way to make a program case
+‘IGNORECASE’ from the command line is a way to make a program case
 insensitive without having to edit it.
 
    In multibyte locales, the equivalences between upper- and lowercase
-characters are tested based on the wide-character values of the locale's
+characters are tested based on the wide-character values of the locale’s
 character set.  Prior to version 5.0, single-byte characters were tested
 based on the ISO-8859-1 (ISO Latin-1) character set.  However, as of
 version 5.0, single-byte characters are also tested based on the values
-of the locale's character set.(2)
+of the locale’s character set.(2)
 
-   The value of 'IGNORECASE' has no effect if 'gawk' is in compatibility
+   The value of ‘IGNORECASE’ has no effect if ‘gawk’ is in 
compatibility
 mode (*note Options::).  Case is always significant in compatibility
 mode.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Experienced C and C++ programmers will note that it is possible,
-using something like 'IGNORECASE = 1 && /foObAr/ { ... }' and
-'IGNORECASE = 0 || /foobar/ { ... }'.  However, this is somewhat obscure
-and we don't recommend it.
+using something like ‘IGNORECASE = 1 && /foObAr/ { ... }’ and
+‘IGNORECASE = 0 || /foobar/ { ... }’.  However, this is somewhat obscure
+and we don’t recommend it.
 
-   (2) If you don't understand this, don't worry about it; it just means
-that 'gawk' does the right thing.
+   (2) If you don’t understand this, don’t worry about it; it just means
+that ‘gawk’ does the right thing.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Summary,  Prev: Case-sensitivity,  Up: Regexp
@@ -4450,36 +4450,36 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Summary,  Prev: 
Case-sensitivity,  Up: Regexp
 3.9 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * Regular expressions describe sets of strings to be matched.  In
-     'awk', regular expression constants are written enclosed between
-     slashes: '/'...'/'.
+   • Regular expressions describe sets of strings to be matched.  In
+     ‘awk’, regular expression constants are written enclosed between
+     slashes: ‘/’...‘/’.
 
-   * Regexp constants may be used standalone in patterns and in
+   • Regexp constants may be used standalone in patterns and in
      conditional expressions, or as part of matching expressions using
-     the '~' and '!~' operators.
+     the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ operators.
 
-   * Escape sequences let you represent nonprintable characters and also
+   • Escape sequences let you represent nonprintable characters and also
      let you represent regexp metacharacters as literal characters to be
      matched.
 
-   * Regexp operators provide grouping, alternation, and repetition.
+   • Regexp operators provide grouping, alternation, and repetition.
 
-   * Bracket expressions give you a shorthand for specifying sets of
+   • Bracket expressions give you a shorthand for specifying sets of
      characters that can match at a particular point in a regexp.
      Within bracket expressions, POSIX character classes let you specify
      certain groups of characters in a locale-independent fashion.
 
-   * Regular expressions match the leftmost longest text in the string
+   • Regular expressions match the leftmost longest text in the string
      being matched.  This matters for cases where you need to know the
      extent of the match, such as for text substitution and when the
      record separator is a regexp.
 
-   * Matching expressions may use dynamic regexps (i.e., string values
+   • Matching expressions may use dynamic regexps (i.e., string values
      treated as regular expressions).
 
-   * 'gawk''s 'IGNORECASE' variable lets you control the case
-     sensitivity of regexp matching.  In other 'awk' versions, use
-     'tolower()' or 'toupper()'.
+   • ‘gawk’’s ‘IGNORECASE’ variable lets you control the case
+     sensitivity of regexp matching.  In other ‘awk’ versions, use
+     ‘tolower()’ or ‘toupper()’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Reading Files,  Next: Printing,  Prev: Regexp,  Up: Top
@@ -4487,24 +4487,24 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Reading Files,  Next: Printing, 
 Prev: Regexp,  Up: Top
 4 Reading Input Files
 *********************
 
-In the typical 'awk' program, 'awk' reads all input either from the
+In the typical ‘awk’ program, ‘awk’ reads all input either from the
 standard input (by default, this is the keyboard, but often it is a pipe
-from another command) or from files whose names you specify on the 'awk'
-command line.  If you specify input files, 'awk' reads them in order,
+from another command) or from files whose names you specify on the ‘awk’
+command line.  If you specify input files, ‘awk’ reads them in order,
 processing all the data from one before going on to the next.  The name
 of the current input file can be found in the predefined variable
-'FILENAME' (*note Built-in Variables::).
+‘FILENAME’ (*note Built-in Variables::).
 
-   The input is read in units called "records", and is processed by the
+   The input is read in units called “records”, and is processed by the
 rules of your program one record at a time.  By default, each record is
 one line.  Each record is automatically split into chunks called
-"fields".  This makes it more convenient for programs to work on the
+“fields”.  This makes it more convenient for programs to work on the
 parts of a record.
 
-   On rare occasions, you may need to use the 'getline' command.  The
-'getline' command is valuable both because it can do explicit input from
+   On rare occasions, you may need to use the ‘getline’ command.  The
+‘getline’ command is valuable both because it can do explicit input from
 any number of files, and because the files used with it do not have to
-be named on the 'awk' command line (*note Getline::).
+be named on the ‘awk’ command line (*note Getline::).
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -4515,11 +4515,11 @@ be named on the 'awk' command line (*note Getline::).
 * Field Separators::            The field separator and how to change it.
 * Constant Size::               Reading constant width data.
 * Splitting By Content::        Defining Fields By Content
-* Testing field creation::      Checking how 'gawk' is splitting
+* Testing field creation::      Checking how ‘gawk’ is splitting
                                 records.
 * Multiple Line::               Reading multiline records.
 * Getline::                     Reading files under explicit program control
-                                using the 'getline' function.
+                                using the ‘getline’ function.
 * Read Timeout::                Reading input with a timeout.
 * Retrying Input::              Retrying input after certain errors.
 * Command-line directories::    What happens if you put a directory on the
@@ -4533,252 +4533,252 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Records,  Next: Fields,  Up: 
Reading Files
 4.1 How Input Is Split into Records
 ===================================
 
-'awk' divides the input for your program into records and fields.  It
+‘awk’ divides the input for your program into records and fields.  It
 keeps track of the number of records that have been read so far from the
 current input file.  This value is stored in a predefined variable
-called 'FNR', which is reset to zero every time a new file is started.
-Another predefined variable, 'NR', records the total number of input
+called ‘FNR’, which is reset to zero every time a new file is started.
+Another predefined variable, ‘NR’, records the total number of input
 records read so far from all data files.  It starts at zero, but is
 never automatically reset to zero.
 
    Normally, records are separated by newline characters.  You can
 control how records are separated by assigning values to the built-in
-variable 'RS'.  If 'RS' is any single character, that character
-separates records.  Otherwise (in 'gawk'), 'RS' is treated as a regular
+variable ‘RS’.  If ‘RS’ is any single character, that character
+separates records.  Otherwise (in ‘gawk’), ‘RS’ is treated as a regular
 expression.  This mechanism is explained in greater detail shortly.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* awk split records::           How standard 'awk' splits records.
-* gawk split records::          How 'gawk' splits records.
+* awk split records::           How standard ‘awk’ splits records.
+* gawk split records::          How ‘gawk’ splits records.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: awk split records,  Next: gawk split records,  Up: 
Records
 
-4.1.1 Record Splitting with Standard 'awk'
+4.1.1 Record Splitting with Standard ‘awk’
 ------------------------------------------
 
-Records are separated by a character called the "record separator".  By
+Records are separated by a character called the “record separator”.  By
 default, the record separator is the newline character.  This is why
 records are, by default, single lines.  To use a different character for
 the record separator, simply assign that character to the predefined
-variable 'RS'.
+variable ‘RS’.
 
-   Like any other variable, the value of 'RS' can be changed in the
-'awk' program with the assignment operator, '=' (*note Assignment
+   Like any other variable, the value of ‘RS’ can be changed in the
+‘awk’ program with the assignment operator, ‘=’ (*note Assignment
 Ops::).  The new record-separator character should be enclosed in
 quotation marks, which indicate a string constant.  Often, the right
 time to do this is at the beginning of execution, before any input is
 processed, so that the very first record is read with the proper
-separator.  To do this, use the special 'BEGIN' pattern (*note
+separator.  To do this, use the special ‘BEGIN’ pattern (*note
 BEGIN/END::).  For example:
 
      awk 'BEGIN { RS = "u" }
           { print $0 }' mail-list
 
-changes the value of 'RS' to 'u', before reading any input.  The new
-value is a string whose first character is the letter "u"; as a result,
-records are separated by the letter "u".  Then the input file is read,
-and the second rule in the 'awk' program (the action with no pattern)
-prints each record.  Because each 'print' statement adds a newline at
-the end of its output, this 'awk' program copies the input with each 'u'
+changes the value of ‘RS’ to ‘u’, before reading any input.  The new
+value is a string whose first character is the letter “u”; as a result,
+records are separated by the letter “u”.  Then the input file is read,
+and the second rule in the ‘awk’ program (the action with no pattern)
+prints each record.  Because each ‘print’ statement adds a newline at
+the end of its output, this ‘awk’ program copies the input with each 
‘u’
 changed to a newline.  Here are the results of running the program on
-'mail-list':
+‘mail-list’:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { RS = "u" }
      >      { print $0 }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiac
-     -| sq
-     -| e@gmail.com    F
-     -| Anthony      555-3412     anthony.assert
-     -| ro@hotmail.com   A
-     -| Becky        555-7685     becky.algebrar
-     -| m@gmail.com      A
-     -| Bill         555-1675     bill.drowning@hotmail.com       A
-     -| Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliq
-     -| otiens@yahoo.com R
-     -| Camilla      555-2912     camilla.inf
-     -| sar
-     -| m@skynet.be     R
-     -| Fabi
-     -| s       555-1234     fabi
-     -| s.
-     -| ndevicesim
-     -| s@
-     -| cb.ed
-     -|     F
-     -| J
-     -| lie        555-6699     j
-     -| lie.perscr
-     -| tabor@skeeve.com   F
-     -| Martin       555-6480     martin.codicib
-     -| s@hotmail.com    A
-     -| Sam
-     -| el       555-3430     sam
-     -| el.lanceolis@sh
-     -| .ed
-     -|         A
-     -| Jean-Pa
-     -| l    555-2127     jeanpa
-     -| l.campanor
-     -| m@ny
-     -| .ed
-     -|      R
-     -|
-
-Note that the entry for the name 'Bill' is not split.  In the original
+     ⊣ Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiac
+     ⊣ sq
+     ⊣ e@gmail.com    F
+     ⊣ Anthony      555-3412     anthony.assert
+     ⊣ ro@hotmail.com   A
+     ⊣ Becky        555-7685     becky.algebrar
+     ⊣ m@gmail.com      A
+     ⊣ Bill         555-1675     bill.drowning@hotmail.com       A
+     ⊣ Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliq
+     ⊣ otiens@yahoo.com R
+     ⊣ Camilla      555-2912     camilla.inf
+     ⊣ sar
+     ⊣ m@skynet.be     R
+     ⊣ Fabi
+     ⊣ s       555-1234     fabi
+     ⊣ s.
+     ⊣ ndevicesim
+     ⊣ s@
+     ⊣ cb.ed
+     ⊣     F
+     ⊣ J
+     ⊣ lie        555-6699     j
+     ⊣ lie.perscr
+     ⊣ tabor@skeeve.com   F
+     ⊣ Martin       555-6480     martin.codicib
+     ⊣ s@hotmail.com    A
+     ⊣ Sam
+     ⊣ el       555-3430     sam
+     ⊣ el.lanceolis@sh
+     ⊣ .ed
+     ⊣         A
+     ⊣ Jean-Pa
+     ⊣ l    555-2127     jeanpa
+     ⊣ l.campanor
+     ⊣ m@ny
+     ⊣ .ed
+     ⊣      R
+     ⊣
+
+Note that the entry for the name ‘Bill’ is not split.  In the original
 data file (*note Sample Data Files::), the line looks like this:
 
      Bill         555-1675     bill.drowning@hotmail.com       A
 
-It contains no 'u', so there is no reason to split the record, unlike
-the others, which each have one or more occurrences of the 'u'.  In
+It contains no ‘u’, so there is no reason to split the record, unlike
+the others, which each have one or more occurrences of the ‘u’.  In
 fact, this record is treated as part of the previous record; the newline
 separating them in the output is the original newline in the data file,
-not the one added by 'awk' when it printed the record!
+not the one added by ‘awk’ when it printed the record!
 
    Another way to change the record separator is on the command line,
 using the variable-assignment feature (*note Other Arguments::):
 
      awk '{ print $0 }' RS="u" mail-list
 
-This sets 'RS' to 'u' before processing 'mail-list'.
+This sets ‘RS’ to ‘u’ before processing ‘mail-list’.
 
-   Using an alphabetic character such as 'u' for the record separator is
+   Using an alphabetic character such as ‘u’ for the record separator is
 highly likely to produce strange results.  Using an unusual character
-such as '/' is more likely to produce correct behavior in the majority
+such as ‘/’ is more likely to produce correct behavior in the majority
 of cases, but there are no guarantees.  The moral is: Know Your Data.
 
-   'gawk' allows 'RS' to be a full regular expression (discussed
+   ‘gawk’ allows ‘RS’ to be a full regular expression (discussed
 shortly; *note gawk split records::).  Even so, using a regular
-expression metacharacter, such as '.' as the single character in the
-value of 'RS' has no special effect: it is treated literally.  This is
-required for backwards compatibility with both Unix 'awk' and with
+expression metacharacter, such as ‘.’ as the single character in the
+value of ‘RS’ has no special effect: it is treated literally.  This is
+required for backwards compatibility with both Unix ‘awk’ and with
 POSIX.
 
    Reaching the end of an input file terminates the current input
 record, even if the last character in the file is not the character in
-'RS'.  (d.c.)
+‘RS’.  (d.c.)
 
-   The empty string '""' (a string without any characters) has a special
-meaning as the value of 'RS'.  It means that records are separated by
+   The empty string ‘""’ (a string without any characters) has a special
+meaning as the value of ‘RS’.  It means that records are separated by
 one or more blank lines and nothing else.  *Note Multiple Line:: for
 more details.
 
-   If you change the value of 'RS' in the middle of an 'awk' run, the
+   If you change the value of ‘RS’ in the middle of an ‘awk’ run, the
 new value is used to delimit subsequent records, but the record
 currently being processed, as well as records already processed, are not
 affected.
 
-   After the end of the record has been determined, 'gawk' sets the
-variable 'RT' to the text in the input that matched 'RS'.
+   After the end of the record has been determined, ‘gawk’ sets the
+variable ‘RT’ to the text in the input that matched ‘RS’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: gawk split records,  Prev: awk split records,  Up: 
Records
 
-4.1.2 Record Splitting with 'gawk'
+4.1.2 Record Splitting with ‘gawk’
 ----------------------------------
 
-When using 'gawk', the value of 'RS' is not limited to a one-character
+When using ‘gawk’, the value of ‘RS’ is not limited to a one-character
 string.  If it contains more than one character, it is treated as a
 regular expression (*note Regexp::).  (c.e.)  In general, each record
 ends at the next string that matches the regular expression; the next
 record starts at the end of the matching string.  This general rule is
-actually at work in the usual case, where 'RS' contains just a newline:
+actually at work in the usual case, where ‘RS’ contains just a newline:
 a record ends at the beginning of the next matching string (the next
 newline in the input), and the following record starts just after the
 end of this string (at the first character of the following line).  The
-newline, because it matches 'RS', is not part of either record.
+newline, because it matches ‘RS’, is not part of either record.
 
-   When 'RS' is a single character, 'RT' contains the same single
-character.  However, when 'RS' is a regular expression, 'RT' contains
+   When ‘RS’ is a single character, ‘RT’ contains the same single
+character.  However, when ‘RS’ is a regular expression, ‘RT’ contains
 the actual input text that matched the regular expression.
 
-   If the input file ends without any text matching 'RS', 'gawk' sets
-'RT' to the null string.
+   If the input file ends without any text matching ‘RS’, ‘gawk’ sets
+‘RT’ to the null string.
 
    The following example illustrates both of these features.  It sets
-'RS' equal to a regular expression that matches either a newline or a
+‘RS’ equal to a regular expression that matches either a newline or a
 series of one or more uppercase letters with optional leading and/or
 trailing whitespace:
 
      $ echo record 1 AAAA record 2 BBBB record 3 |
      > gawk 'BEGIN { RS = "\n|( *[[:upper:]]+ *)" }
      >             { print "Record =", $0,"and RT = [" RT "]" }'
-     -| Record = record 1 and RT = [ AAAA ]
-     -| Record = record 2 and RT = [ BBBB ]
-     -| Record = record 3 and RT = [
-     -| ]
-
-The square brackets delineate the contents of 'RT', letting you see the
-leading and trailing whitespace.  The final value of 'RT' is a newline.
-*Note Simple Sed:: for a more useful example of 'RS' as a regexp and
-'RT'.
-
-   If you set 'RS' to a regular expression that allows optional trailing
-text, such as 'RS = "abc(XYZ)?"', it is possible, due to implementation
-constraints, that 'gawk' may match the leading part of the regular
+     ⊣ Record = record 1 and RT = [ AAAA ]
+     ⊣ Record = record 2 and RT = [ BBBB ]
+     ⊣ Record = record 3 and RT = [
+     ⊣ ]
+
+The square brackets delineate the contents of ‘RT’, letting you see the
+leading and trailing whitespace.  The final value of ‘RT’ is a newline.
+*Note Simple Sed:: for a more useful example of ‘RS’ as a regexp and
+‘RT’.
+
+   If you set ‘RS’ to a regular expression that allows optional trailing
+text, such as ‘RS = "abc(XYZ)?"’, it is possible, due to implementation
+constraints, that ‘gawk’ may match the leading part of the regular
 expression, but not the trailing part, particularly if the input text
-that could match the trailing part is fairly long.  'gawk' attempts to
-avoid this problem, but currently, there's no guarantee that this will
+that could match the trailing part is fairly long.  ‘gawk’ attempts to
+avoid this problem, but currently, there’s no guarantee that this will
 never happen.
 
-            Caveats When Using Regular Expressions for 'RS'
+            Caveats When Using Regular Expressions for ‘RS’
 
-   Remember that in 'awk', the '^' and '$' anchor metacharacters match
+   Remember that in ‘awk’, the ‘^’ and ‘$’ anchor metacharacters 
match
 the beginning and end of a _string_, and not the beginning and end of a
-_line_.  As a result, something like 'RS = "^[[:upper:]]"' can only
-match at the beginning of a file.  This is because 'gawk' views the
+_line_.  As a result, something like ‘RS = "^[[:upper:]]"’ can only
+match at the beginning of a file.  This is because ‘gawk’ views the
 input file as one long string that happens to contain newline
 characters.  It is thus best to avoid anchor metacharacters in the value
-of 'RS'.
+of ‘RS’.
 
    Record splitting with regular expressions works differently than
-regexp matching with the 'sub()', 'gsub()', and 'gensub()' (*note String
+regexp matching with the ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and ‘gensub()’ (*note 
String
 Functions::).  Those functions allow a regexp to match the empty string;
-record splitting does not.  Thus, for example 'RS = "()"' does _not_
+record splitting does not.  Thus, for example ‘RS = "()"’ does _not_
 split records between characters.
 
-   The use of 'RS' as a regular expression and the 'RT' variable are
-'gawk' extensions; they are not available in compatibility mode (*note
+   The use of ‘RS’ as a regular expression and the ‘RT’ variable are
+‘gawk’ extensions; they are not available in compatibility mode (*note
 Options::).  In compatibility mode, only the first character of the
-value of 'RS' determines the end of the record.
+value of ‘RS’ determines the end of the record.
 
-   'mawk' has allowed 'RS' to be a regexp for decades.  As of October,
-2019, BWK 'awk' also supports it.  Neither version supplies 'RT',
+   ‘mawk’ has allowed ‘RS’ to be a regexp for decades.  As of October,
+2019, BWK ‘awk’ also supports it.  Neither version supplies ‘RT’,
 however.
 
-                      'RS = "\0"' Is Not Portable
+                      ‘RS = "\0"’ Is Not Portable
 
    There are times when you might want to treat an entire data file as a
-single record.  The only way to make this happen is to give 'RS' a value
-that you know doesn't occur in the input file.  This is hard to do in a
+single record.  The only way to make this happen is to give ‘RS’ a value
+that you know doesn’t occur in the input file.  This is hard to do in a
 general way, such that a program always works for arbitrary input files.
 
    You might think that for text files, the NUL character, which
 consists of a character with all bits equal to zero, is a good value to
-use for 'RS' in this case:
+use for ‘RS’ in this case:
 
      BEGIN { RS = "\0" }  # whole file becomes one record?
 
-   'gawk' in fact accepts this, and uses the NUL character for the
+   ‘gawk’ in fact accepts this, and uses the NUL character for the
 record separator.  This works for certain special files, such as
-'/proc/environ' on GNU/Linux systems, where the NUL character is in fact
+‘/proc/environ’ on GNU/Linux systems, where the NUL character is in fact
 the record separator.  However, this usage is _not_ portable to most
-other 'awk' implementations.
+other ‘awk’ implementations.
 
-   Almost all other 'awk' implementations(1) store strings internally as
+   Almost all other ‘awk’ implementations(1) store strings internally as
 C-style strings.  C strings use the NUL character as the string
-terminator.  In effect, this means that 'RS = "\0"' is the same as 'RS =
-""'.  (d.c.)
+terminator.  In effect, this means that ‘RS = "\0"’ is the same as ‘RS =
+""’.  (d.c.)
 
-   It happens that recent versions of 'mawk' can use the NUL character
-as a record separator.  However, this is a special case: 'mawk' does not
+   It happens that recent versions of ‘mawk’ can use the NUL character
+as a record separator.  However, this is a special case: ‘mawk’ does not
 allow embedded NUL characters in strings.  (This may change in a future
-version of 'mawk'.)
+version of ‘mawk’.)
 
    *Note Readfile Function:: for an interesting way to read whole files.
-If you are using 'gawk', see *note Extension Sample Readfile:: for
+If you are using ‘gawk’, see *note Extension Sample Readfile:: for
 another option.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
@@ -4791,61 +4791,61 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Fields,  Next: Nonconstant 
Fields,  Prev: Records,  Up:
 4.2 Examining Fields
 ====================
 
-When 'awk' reads an input record, the record is automatically "parsed"
-or separated by the 'awk' utility into chunks called "fields".  By
-default, fields are separated by "whitespace", like words in a line.
-Whitespace in 'awk' means any string of one or more spaces, TABs, or
+When ‘awk’ reads an input record, the record is automatically “parsed”
+or separated by the ‘awk’ utility into chunks called “fields”.  By
+default, fields are separated by “whitespace”, like words in a line.
+Whitespace in ‘awk’ means any string of one or more spaces, TABs, or
 newlines; other characters that are considered whitespace by other
 languages (such as formfeed, vertical tab, etc.)  are _not_ considered
-whitespace by 'awk'.
+whitespace by ‘awk’.
 
    The purpose of fields is to make it more convenient for you to refer
-to these pieces of the record.  You don't have to use them--you can
-operate on the whole record if you want--but fields are what make simple
-'awk' programs so powerful.
-
-   You use a dollar sign ('$') to refer to a field in an 'awk' program,
-followed by the number of the field you want.  Thus, '$1' refers to the
-first field, '$2' to the second, and so on.  (Unlike in the Unix shells,
-the field numbers are not limited to single digits.  '$127' is the 127th
+to these pieces of the record.  You don’t have to use them—you can
+operate on the whole record if you want—but fields are what make simple
+‘awk’ programs so powerful.
+
+   You use a dollar sign (‘$’) to refer to a field in an ‘awk’ program,
+followed by the number of the field you want.  Thus, ‘$1’ refers to the
+first field, ‘$2’ to the second, and so on.  (Unlike in the Unix shells,
+the field numbers are not limited to single digits.  ‘$127’ is the 127th
 field in the record.)  For example, suppose the following is a line of
 input:
 
      This seems like a pretty nice example.
 
-Here the first field, or '$1', is 'This', the second field, or '$2', is
-'seems', and so on.  Note that the last field, '$7', is 'example.'.
-Because there is no space between the 'e' and the '.', the period is
+Here the first field, or ‘$1’, is ‘This’, the second field, or 
‘$2’, is
+‘seems’, and so on.  Note that the last field, ‘$7’, is ‘example.’.
+Because there is no space between the ‘e’ and the ‘.’, the period is
 considered part of the seventh field.
 
-   'NF' is a predefined variable whose value is the number of fields in
-the current record.  'awk' automatically updates the value of 'NF' each
+   ‘NF’ is a predefined variable whose value is the number of fields in
+the current record.  ‘awk’ automatically updates the value of ‘NF’ each
 time it reads a record.  No matter how many fields there are, the last
-field in a record can be represented by '$NF'.  So, '$NF' is the same as
-'$7', which is 'example.'.  If you try to reference a field beyond the
-last one (such as '$8' when the record has only seven fields), you get
+field in a record can be represented by ‘$NF’.  So, ‘$NF’ is the same 
as
+‘$7’, which is ‘example.’.  If you try to reference a field beyond the
+last one (such as ‘$8’ when the record has only seven fields), you get
 the empty string.  (If used in a numeric operation, you get zero.)
 
-   The use of '$0', which looks like a reference to the "zeroth" field,
+   The use of ‘$0’, which looks like a reference to the “zeroth” field,
 is a special case: it represents the whole input record.  Use it when
 you are not interested in specific fields.  Here are some more examples:
 
      $ awk '$1 ~ /li/ { print $0 }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
-     -| Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
+     ⊣ Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
+     ⊣ Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
 
-This example prints each record in the file 'mail-list' whose first
-field contains the string 'li'.
+This example prints each record in the file ‘mail-list’ whose first
+field contains the string ‘li’.
 
-   By contrast, the following example looks for 'li' in _the entire
+   By contrast, the following example looks for ‘li’ in _the entire
 record_ and prints the first and last fields for each matching input
 record:
 
      $ awk '/li/ { print $1, $NF }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia F
-     -| Broderick R
-     -| Julie F
-     -| Samuel A
+     ⊣ Amelia F
+     ⊣ Broderick R
+     ⊣ Julie F
+     ⊣ Samuel A
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Nonconstant Fields,  Next: Changing Fields,  Prev: 
Fields,  Up: Reading Files
@@ -4853,14 +4853,14 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Nonconstant Fields,  Next: 
Changing Fields,  Prev: Field
 4.3 Nonconstant Field Numbers
 =============================
 
-A field number need not be a constant.  Any expression in the 'awk'
-language can be used after a '$' to refer to a field.  The value of the
+A field number need not be a constant.  Any expression in the ‘awk’
+language can be used after a ‘$’ to refer to a field.  The value of the
 expression specifies the field number.  If the value is a string, rather
 than a number, it is converted to a number.  Consider this example:
 
      awk '{ print $NR }'
 
-Recall that 'NR' is the number of records read so far: one in the first
+Recall that ‘NR’ is the number of records read so far: one in the first
 record, two in the second, and so on.  So this example prints the first
 field of the first record, the second field of the second record, and so
 on.  For the twentieth record, field number 20 is printed; most likely,
@@ -4869,32 +4869,32 @@ is another example of using expressions as field 
numbers:
 
      awk '{ print $(2*2) }' mail-list
 
-   'awk' evaluates the expression '(2*2)' and uses its value as the
-number of the field to print.  The '*' represents multiplication, so the
-expression '2*2' evaluates to four.  The parentheses are used so that
-the multiplication is done before the '$' operation; they are necessary
+   ‘awk’ evaluates the expression ‘(2*2)’ and uses its value as the
+number of the field to print.  The ‘*’ represents multiplication, so the
+expression ‘2*2’ evaluates to four.  The parentheses are used so that
+the multiplication is done before the ‘$’ operation; they are necessary
 whenever there is a binary operator(1) in the field-number expression.
 This example, then, prints the type of relationship (the fourth field)
-for every line of the file 'mail-list'.  (All of the 'awk' operators are
+for every line of the file ‘mail-list’.  (All of the ‘awk’ operators 
are
 listed, in order of decreasing precedence, in *note Precedence::.)
 
    If the field number you compute is zero, you get the entire record.
-Thus, '$(2-2)' has the same value as '$0'.  Negative field numbers are
+Thus, ‘$(2-2)’ has the same value as ‘$0’.  Negative field numbers are
 not allowed; trying to reference one usually terminates the program.
 (The POSIX standard does not define what happens when you reference a
-negative field number.  'gawk' notices this and terminates your program.
-Other 'awk' implementations may behave differently.)
+negative field number.  ‘gawk’ notices this and terminates your program.
+Other ‘awk’ implementations may behave differently.)
 
-   As mentioned in *note Fields::, 'awk' stores the current record's
-number of fields in the built-in variable 'NF' (also *note Built-in
-Variables::).  Thus, the expression '$NF' is not a special feature--it
-is the direct consequence of evaluating 'NF' and using its value as a
-field number.
+   As mentioned in *note Fields::, ‘awk’ stores the current record’s
+number of fields in the built-in variable ‘NF’ (also *note Built-in
+Variables::).  Thus, the expression ‘$NF’ is not a special feature—it is
+the direct consequence of evaluating ‘NF’ and using its value as a field
+number.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) A "binary operator", such as '*' for multiplication, is one that
-takes two operands.  The distinction is required because 'awk' also has
+   (1) A “binary operator”, such as ‘*’ for multiplication, is one that
+takes two operands.  The distinction is required because ‘awk’ also has
 unary (one-operand) and ternary (three-operand) operators.
 
 
@@ -4903,41 +4903,41 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Changing Fields,  Next: Field 
Separators,  Prev: Noncons
 4.4 Changing the Contents of a Field
 ====================================
 
-The contents of a field, as seen by 'awk', can be changed within an
-'awk' program; this changes what 'awk' perceives as the current input
-record.  (The actual input is untouched; 'awk' _never_ modifies the
+The contents of a field, as seen by ‘awk’, can be changed within an
+‘awk’ program; this changes what ‘awk’ perceives as the current input
+record.  (The actual input is untouched; ‘awk’ _never_ modifies the
 input file.)  Consider the following example and its output:
 
      $ awk '{ nboxes = $3 ; $3 = $3 - 10
      >        print nboxes, $3 }' inventory-shipped
-     -| 25 15
-     -| 32 22
-     -| 24 14
+     ⊣ 25 15
+     ⊣ 32 22
+     ⊣ 24 14
      ...
 
 The program first saves the original value of field three in the
-variable 'nboxes'.  The '-' sign represents subtraction, so this program
-reassigns field three, '$3', as the original value of field three minus
-ten: '$3 - 10'.  (*Note Arithmetic Ops::.)  Then it prints the original
+variable ‘nboxes’.  The ‘-’ sign represents subtraction, so this 
program
+reassigns field three, ‘$3’, as the original value of field three minus
+ten: ‘$3 - 10’.  (*Note Arithmetic Ops::.)  Then it prints the original
 and new values for field three.  (Someone in the warehouse made a
 consistent mistake while inventorying the red boxes.)
 
-   For this to work, the text in '$3' must make sense as a number; the
+   For this to work, the text in ‘$3’ must make sense as a number; the
 string of characters must be converted to a number for the computer to
 do arithmetic on it.  The number resulting from the subtraction is
 converted back to a string of characters that then becomes field three.
 *Note Conversion::.
 
-   When the value of a field is changed (as perceived by 'awk'), the
+   When the value of a field is changed (as perceived by ‘awk’), the
 text of the input record is recalculated to contain the new field where
-the old one was.  In other words, '$0' changes to reflect the altered
+the old one was.  In other words, ‘$0’ changes to reflect the altered
 field.  Thus, this program prints a copy of the input file, with 10
 subtracted from the second field of each line:
 
      $ awk '{ $2 = $2 - 10; print $0 }' inventory-shipped
-     -| Jan 3 25 15 115
-     -| Feb 5 32 24 226
-     -| Mar 5 24 34 228
+     ⊣ Jan 3 25 15 115
+     ⊣ Feb 5 32 24 226
+     ⊣ Mar 5 24 34 228
      ...
 
    It is also possible to assign contents to fields that are out of
@@ -4945,31 +4945,31 @@ range.  For example:
 
      $ awk '{ $6 = ($5 + $4 + $3 + $2)
      >        print $6 }' inventory-shipped
-     -| 168
-     -| 297
-     -| 301
+     ⊣ 168
+     ⊣ 297
+     ⊣ 301
      ...
 
-We've just created '$6', whose value is the sum of fields '$2', '$3',
-'$4', and '$5'.  The '+' sign represents addition.  For the file
-'inventory-shipped', '$6' represents the total number of parcels shipped
+We’ve just created ‘$6’, whose value is the sum of fields ‘$2’, 
‘$3’,
+‘$4’, and ‘$5’.  The ‘+’ sign represents addition.  For the file
+‘inventory-shipped’, ‘$6’ represents the total number of parcels 
shipped
 for a particular month.
 
-   Creating a new field changes 'awk''s internal copy of the current
-input record, which is the value of '$0'.  Thus, if you do 'print $0'
+   Creating a new field changes ‘awk’’s internal copy of the current
+input record, which is the value of ‘$0’.  Thus, if you do ‘print $0’
 after adding a field, the record printed includes the new field, with
 the appropriate number of field separators between it and the previously
 existing fields.
 
-   This recomputation affects and is affected by 'NF' (the number of
-fields; *note Fields::).  For example, the value of 'NF' is set to the
-number of the highest field you create.  The exact format of '$0' is
-also affected by a feature that has not been discussed yet: the "output
-field separator", 'OFS', used to separate the fields (*note Output
+   This recomputation affects and is affected by ‘NF’ (the number of
+fields; *note Fields::).  For example, the value of ‘NF’ is set to the
+number of the highest field you create.  The exact format of ‘$0’ is
+also affected by a feature that has not been discussed yet: the “output
+field separator”, ‘OFS’, used to separate the fields (*note Output
 Separators::).
 
    Note, however, that merely _referencing_ an out-of-range field does
-_not_ change the value of either '$0' or 'NF'.  Referencing an
+_not_ change the value of either ‘$0’ or ‘NF’.  Referencing an
 out-of-range field only produces an empty string.  For example:
 
      if ($(NF+1) != "")
@@ -4977,75 +4977,75 @@ out-of-range field only produces an empty string.  For 
example:
      else
          print "everything is normal"
 
-should print 'everything is normal', because 'NF+1' is certain to be out
-of range.  (*Note If Statement:: for more information about 'awk''s
-'if-else' statements.  *Note Typing and Comparison:: for more
-information about the '!=' operator.)
+should print ‘everything is normal’, because ‘NF+1’ is certain to be 
out
+of range.  (*Note If Statement:: for more information about ‘awk’’s
+‘if-else’ statements.  *Note Typing and Comparison:: for more
+information about the ‘!=’ operator.)
 
    It is important to note that making an assignment to an existing
-field changes the value of '$0' but does not change the value of 'NF',
+field changes the value of ‘$0’ but does not change the value of ‘NF’,
 even when you assign the empty string to a field.  For example:
 
      $ echo a b c d | awk '{ OFS = ":"; $2 = ""
      >                       print $0; print NF }'
-     -| a::c:d
-     -| 4
+     ⊣ a::c:d
+     ⊣ 4
 
 The field is still there; it just has an empty value, delimited by the
-two colons between 'a' and 'c'.  This example shows what happens if you
+two colons between ‘a’ and ‘c’.  This example shows what happens if you
 create a new field:
 
      $ echo a b c d | awk '{ OFS = ":"; $2 = ""; $6 = "new"
      >                       print $0; print NF }'
-     -| a::c:d::new
-     -| 6
+     ⊣ a::c:d::new
+     ⊣ 6
 
-The intervening field, '$5', is created with an empty value (indicated
-by the second pair of adjacent colons), and 'NF' is updated with the
+The intervening field, ‘$5’, is created with an empty value (indicated
+by the second pair of adjacent colons), and ‘NF’ is updated with the
 value six.
 
-   Decrementing 'NF' throws away the values of the fields after the new
-value of 'NF' and recomputes '$0'.  (d.c.)  Here is an example:
+   Decrementing ‘NF’ throws away the values of the fields after the new
+value of ‘NF’ and recomputes ‘$0’.  (d.c.)  Here is an example:
 
      $ echo a b c d e f | awk '{ print "NF =", NF;
      >                           NF = 3; print $0 }'
-     -| NF = 6
-     -| a b c
+     ⊣ NF = 6
+     ⊣ a b c
 
-     CAUTION: Some versions of 'awk' don't rebuild '$0' when 'NF' is
-     decremented.  Until August, 2018, this included BWK 'awk';
+     CAUTION: Some versions of ‘awk’ don’t rebuild ‘$0’ when 
‘NF’ is
+     decremented.  Until August, 2018, this included BWK ‘awk’;
      fortunately his version now handles this correctly.
 
-   Finally, there are times when it is convenient to force 'awk' to
+   Finally, there are times when it is convenient to force ‘awk’ to
 rebuild the entire record, using the current values of the fields and
-'OFS'.  To do this, use the seemingly innocuous assignment:
+‘OFS’.  To do this, use the seemingly innocuous assignment:
 
      $1 = $1   # force record to be reconstituted
      print $0  # or whatever else with $0
 
-This forces 'awk' to rebuild the record.  It does help to add a comment,
-as we've shown here.
+This forces ‘awk’ to rebuild the record.  It does help to add a comment,
+as we’ve shown here.
 
-   There is a flip side to the relationship between '$0' and the fields.
-Any assignment to '$0' causes the record to be reparsed into fields
-using the _current_ value of 'FS'.  This also applies to any built-in
-function that updates '$0', such as 'sub()' and 'gsub()' (*note String
+   There is a flip side to the relationship between ‘$0’ and the fields.
+Any assignment to ‘$0’ causes the record to be reparsed into fields
+using the _current_ value of ‘FS’.  This also applies to any built-in
+function that updates ‘$0’, such as ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’ (*note 
String
 Functions::).
 
-                          Understanding '$0'
+                          Understanding ‘$0’
 
-   It is important to remember that '$0' is the _full_ record, exactly
+   It is important to remember that ‘$0’ is the _full_ record, exactly
 as it was read from the input.  This includes any leading or trailing
 whitespace, and the exact whitespace (or other characters) that
 separates the fields.
 
    It is a common error to try to change the field separators in a
-record simply by setting 'FS' and 'OFS', and then expecting a plain
-'print' or 'print $0' to print the modified record.
+record simply by setting ‘FS’ and ‘OFS’, and then expecting a plain
+‘print’ or ‘print $0’ to print the modified record.
 
    But this does not work, because nothing was done to change the record
 itself.  Instead, you must force the record to be rebuilt, typically
-with a statement such as '$1 = $1', as described earlier.
+with a statement such as ‘$1 = $1’, as described earlier.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Field Separators,  Next: Constant Size,  Prev: 
Changing Fields,  Up: Reading Files
@@ -5058,36 +5058,36 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Field Separators,  Next: 
Constant Size,  Prev: Changing
 * Default Field Splitting::      How fields are normally separated.
 * Regexp Field Splitting::       Using regexps as the field separator.
 * Single Character Fields::      Making each character a separate field.
-* Command Line Field Separator:: Setting 'FS' from the command line.
+* Command Line Field Separator:: Setting ‘FS’ from the command line.
 * Full Line Fields::             Making the full line be a single field.
 * Field Splitting Summary::      Some final points and a summary table.
 
-The "field separator", which is either a single character or a regular
-expression, controls the way 'awk' splits an input record into fields.
-'awk' scans the input record for character sequences that match the
+The “field separator”, which is either a single character or a regular
+expression, controls the way ‘awk’ splits an input record into fields.
+‘awk’ scans the input record for character sequences that match the
 separator; the fields themselves are the text between the matches.
 
-   In the examples that follow, we use the bullet symbol (*) to
-represent spaces in the output.  If the field separator is 'oo', then
+   In the examples that follow, we use the bullet symbol (•) to
+represent spaces in the output.  If the field separator is ‘oo’, then
 the following line:
 
      moo goo gai pan
 
-is split into three fields: 'm', '*g', and '*gai*pan'.  Note the leading
+is split into three fields: ‘m’, ‘•g’, and ‘•gai•pan’.  Note 
the leading
 spaces in the values of the second and third fields.
 
-   The field separator is represented by the predefined variable 'FS'.
-Shell programmers take note: 'awk' does _not_ use the name 'IFS' that is
-used by the POSIX-compliant shells (such as the Unix Bourne shell, 'sh',
+   The field separator is represented by the predefined variable ‘FS’.
+Shell programmers take note: ‘awk’ does _not_ use the name ‘IFS’ that 
is
+used by the POSIX-compliant shells (such as the Unix Bourne shell, ‘sh’,
 or Bash).
 
-   The value of 'FS' can be changed in the 'awk' program with the
-assignment operator, '=' (*note Assignment Ops::).  Often, the right
+   The value of ‘FS’ can be changed in the ‘awk’ program with the
+assignment operator, ‘=’ (*note Assignment Ops::).  Often, the right
 time to do this is at the beginning of execution before any input has
 been processed, so that the very first record is read with the proper
-separator.  To do this, use the special 'BEGIN' pattern (*note
-BEGIN/END::).  For example, here we set the value of 'FS' to the string
-'","':
+separator.  To do this, use the special ‘BEGIN’ pattern (*note
+BEGIN/END::).  For example, here we set the value of ‘FS’ to the string
+‘","’:
 
      awk 'BEGIN { FS = "," } ; { print $2 }'
 
@@ -5095,21 +5095,21 @@ Given the input line:
 
      John Q. Smith, 29 Oak St., Walamazoo, MI 42139
 
-this 'awk' program extracts and prints the string '*29*Oak*St.'.
+this ‘awk’ program extracts and prints the string ‘•29•Oak•St.’.
 
-   Sometimes the input data contains separator characters that don't
+   Sometimes the input data contains separator characters that don’t
 separate fields the way you thought they would.  For instance, the
-person's name in the example we just used might have a title or suffix
+person’s name in the example we just used might have a title or suffix
 attached, such as:
 
      John Q. Smith, LXIX, 29 Oak St., Walamazoo, MI 42139
 
-The same program would extract '*LXIX' instead of '*29*Oak*St.'.  If you
+The same program would extract ‘•LXIX’ instead of 
‘•29•Oak•St.’.  If you
 were expecting the program to print the address, you would be surprised.
 The moral is to choose your data layout and separator characters
 carefully to prevent such problems.  (If the data is not in a form that
 is easy to process, perhaps you can massage it first with a separate
-'awk' program.)
+‘awk’ program.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Default Field Splitting,  Next: Regexp Field 
Splitting,  Up: Field Separators
@@ -5119,14 +5119,14 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Default Field Splitting,  Next: 
Regexp Field Splitting,
 
 Fields are normally separated by whitespace sequences (spaces, TABs, and
 newlines), not by single spaces.  Two spaces in a row do not delimit an
-empty field.  The default value of the field separator 'FS' is a string
-containing a single space, '" "'.  If 'awk' interpreted this value in
+empty field.  The default value of the field separator ‘FS’ is a string
+containing a single space, ‘" "’.  If ‘awk’ interpreted this value in
 the usual way, each space character would separate fields, so two spaces
 in a row would make an empty field between them.  The reason this does
-not happen is that a single space as the value of 'FS' is a special
-case--it is taken to specify the default manner of delimiting fields.
+not happen is that a single space as the value of ‘FS’ is a special
+case—it is taken to specify the default manner of delimiting fields.
 
-   If 'FS' is any other single character, such as '","', then each
+   If ‘FS’ is any other single character, such as ‘","’, then each
 occurrence of that character separates two fields.  Two consecutive
 occurrences delimit an empty field.  If the character occurs at the
 beginning or the end of the line, that too delimits an empty field.  The
@@ -5140,7 +5140,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Field Splitting,  Next: 
Single Character Fields,
 --------------------------------------------------
 
 The previous node discussed the use of single characters or simple
-strings as the value of 'FS'.  More generally, the value of 'FS' may be
+strings as the value of ‘FS’.  More generally, the value of ‘FS’ may be
 a string containing any regular expression.  In this case, each match in
 the record for the regular expression separates fields.  For example,
 the assignment:
@@ -5148,72 +5148,72 @@ the assignment:
      FS = ", \t"
 
 makes every area of an input line that consists of a comma followed by a
-space and a TAB into a field separator.  ('\t' is an "escape sequence"
+space and a TAB into a field separator.  (‘\t’ is an “escape sequence”
 that stands for a TAB; *note Escape Sequences::, for the complete list
 of similar escape sequences.)
 
    For a less trivial example of a regular expression, try using single
-spaces to separate fields the way single commas are used.  'FS' can be
-set to '"[ ]"' (left bracket, space, right bracket).  This regular
+spaces to separate fields the way single commas are used.  ‘FS’ can be
+set to ‘"[ ]"’ (left bracket, space, right bracket).  This regular
 expression matches a single space and nothing else (*note Regexp::).
 
-   There is an important difference between the two cases of 'FS = " "'
-(a single space) and 'FS = "[ \t\n]+"' (a regular expression matching
-one or more spaces, TABs, or newlines).  For both values of 'FS', fields
-are separated by "runs" (multiple adjacent occurrences) of spaces, TABs,
-and/or newlines.  However, when the value of 'FS' is '" "', 'awk' first
+   There is an important difference between the two cases of ‘FS = " "’
+(a single space) and ‘FS = "[ \t\n]+"’ (a regular expression matching
+one or more spaces, TABs, or newlines).  For both values of ‘FS’, fields
+are separated by “runs” (multiple adjacent occurrences) of spaces, TABs,
+and/or newlines.  However, when the value of ‘FS’ is ‘" "’, ‘awk’ 
first
 strips leading and trailing whitespace from the record and then decides
-where the fields are.  For example, the following pipeline prints 'b':
+where the fields are.  For example, the following pipeline prints ‘b’:
 
      $ echo ' a b c d ' | awk '{ print $2 }'
-     -| b
+     ⊣ b
 
-However, this pipeline prints 'a' (note the extra spaces around each
+However, this pipeline prints ‘a’ (note the extra spaces around each
 letter):
 
      $ echo ' a  b  c  d ' | awk 'BEGIN { FS = "[ \t\n]+" }
      >                                  { print $2 }'
-     -| a
+     ⊣ a
 
 In this case, the first field is null, or empty.
 
    The stripping of leading and trailing whitespace also comes into play
-whenever '$0' is recomputed.  For instance, study this pipeline:
+whenever ‘$0’ is recomputed.  For instance, study this pipeline:
 
      $ echo '   a b c d' | awk '{ print; $2 = $2; print }'
-     -|    a b c d
-     -| a b c d
+     ⊣    a b c d
+     ⊣ a b c d
 
-The first 'print' statement prints the record as it was read, with
-leading whitespace intact.  The assignment to '$2' rebuilds '$0' by
-concatenating '$1' through '$NF' together, separated by the value of
-'OFS' (which is a space by default).  Because the leading whitespace was
-ignored when finding '$1', it is not part of the new '$0'.  Finally, the
-last 'print' statement prints the new '$0'.
+The first ‘print’ statement prints the record as it was read, with
+leading whitespace intact.  The assignment to ‘$2’ rebuilds ‘$0’ by
+concatenating ‘$1’ through ‘$NF’ together, separated by the value of
+‘OFS’ (which is a space by default).  Because the leading whitespace was
+ignored when finding ‘$1’, it is not part of the new ‘$0’.  Finally, 
the
+last ‘print’ statement prints the new ‘$0’.
 
    There is an additional subtlety to be aware of when using regular
 expressions for field splitting.  It is not well specified in the POSIX
-standard, or anywhere else, what '^' means when splitting fields.  Does
-the '^' match only at the beginning of the entire record?  Or is each
-field separator a new string?  It turns out that different 'awk'
+standard, or anywhere else, what ‘^’ means when splitting fields.  Does
+the ‘^’ match only at the beginning of the entire record?  Or is each
+field separator a new string?  It turns out that different ‘awk’
 versions answer this question differently, and you should not rely on
 any specific behavior in your programs.  (d.c.)
 
-   As a point of information, BWK 'awk' allows '^' to match only at the
-beginning of the record.  'gawk' also works this way.  For example:
+   As a point of information, BWK ‘awk’ allows ‘^’ to match only at the
+beginning of the record.  ‘gawk’ also works this way.  For example:
 
      $ echo 'xxAA  xxBxx  C' |
      > gawk -F '(^x+)|( +)' '{ for (i = 1; i <= NF; i++)
      >                             printf "-->%s<--\n", $i }'
-     -| --><--
-     -| -->AA<--
-     -| -->xxBxx<--
-     -| -->C<--
+     ⊣ --><--
+     ⊣ -->AA<--
+     ⊣ -->xxBxx<--
+     ⊣ -->C<--
 
    Finally, field splitting with regular expressions works differently
-than regexp matching with the 'sub()', 'gsub()', and 'gensub()' (*note
+than regexp matching with the ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and ‘gensub()’ 
(*note
 String Functions::).  Those functions allow a regexp to match the empty
-string; field splitting does not.  Thus, for example 'FS = "()"' does
+string; field splitting does not.  Thus, for example ‘FS = "()"’ does
 _not_ split fields between characters.
 
 
@@ -5223,8 +5223,8 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Single Character Fields,  Next: 
Command Line Field Separ
 --------------------------------------------
 
 There are times when you may want to examine each character of a record
-separately.  This can be done in 'gawk' by simply assigning the null
-string ('""') to 'FS'.  (c.e.)  In this case, each individual character
+separately.  This can be done in ‘gawk’ by simply assigning the null
+string (‘""’) to ‘FS’.  (c.e.)  In this case, each individual character
 in the record becomes a separate field.  For example:
 
      $ echo a b | gawk 'BEGIN { FS = "" }
@@ -5232,75 +5232,75 @@ in the record becomes a separate field.  For example:
      >                      for (i = 1; i <= NF; i = i + 1)
      >                          print "Field", i, "is", $i
      >                  }'
-     -| Field 1 is a
-     -| Field 2 is
-     -| Field 3 is b
+     ⊣ Field 1 is a
+     ⊣ Field 2 is
+     ⊣ Field 3 is b
 
-   Traditionally, the behavior of 'FS' equal to '""' was not defined.
-In this case, most versions of Unix 'awk' simply treat the entire record
+   Traditionally, the behavior of ‘FS’ equal to ‘""’ was not defined.
+In this case, most versions of Unix ‘awk’ simply treat the entire record
 as only having one field.  (d.c.)  In compatibility mode (*note
-Options::), if 'FS' is the null string, then 'gawk' also behaves this
+Options::), if ‘FS’ is the null string, then ‘gawk’ also behaves this
 way.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Command Line Field Separator,  Next: Full Line Fields, 
 Prev: Single Character Fields,  Up: Field Separators
 
-4.5.4 Setting 'FS' from the Command Line
+4.5.4 Setting ‘FS’ from the Command Line
 ----------------------------------------
 
-'FS' can be set on the command line.  Use the '-F' option to do so.  For
+‘FS’ can be set on the command line.  Use the ‘-F’ option to do so.  
For
 example:
 
      awk -F, 'PROGRAM' INPUT-FILES
 
-sets 'FS' to the ',' character.  Notice that the option uses an
-uppercase 'F' instead of a lowercase 'f'.  The latter option ('-f')
-specifies a file containing an 'awk' program.
+sets ‘FS’ to the ‘,’ character.  Notice that the option uses an
+uppercase ‘F’ instead of a lowercase ‘f’.  The latter option (‘-f’)
+specifies a file containing an ‘awk’ program.
 
-   The value used for the argument to '-F' is processed in exactly the
-same way as assignments to the predefined variable 'FS'.  Any special
+   The value used for the argument to ‘-F’ is processed in exactly the
+same way as assignments to the predefined variable ‘FS’.  Any special
 characters in the field separator must be escaped appropriately.  For
-example, to use a '\' as the field separator on the command line, you
+example, to use a ‘\’ as the field separator on the command line, you
 would have to type:
 
      # same as FS = "\\"
      awk -F\\\\ '...' files ...
 
-Because '\' is used for quoting in the shell, 'awk' sees '-F\\'.  Then
-'awk' processes the '\\' for escape characters (*note Escape
-Sequences::), finally yielding a single '\' to use for the field
+Because ‘\’ is used for quoting in the shell, ‘awk’ sees ‘-F\\’.  
Then
+‘awk’ processes the ‘\\’ for escape characters (*note Escape
+Sequences::), finally yielding a single ‘\’ to use for the field
 separator.
 
    As a special case, in compatibility mode (*note Options::), if the
-argument to '-F' is 't', then 'FS' is set to the TAB character.  If you
-type '-F\t' at the shell, without any quotes, the '\' gets deleted, so
-'awk' figures that you really want your fields to be separated with TABs
-and not 't's.  Use '-v FS="t"' or '-F"[t]"' on the command line if you
-really do want to separate your fields with 't's.  Use '-F '\t'' when
+argument to ‘-F’ is ‘t’, then ‘FS’ is set to the TAB character.  
If you
+type ‘-F\t’ at the shell, without any quotes, the ‘\’ gets deleted, so
+‘awk’ figures that you really want your fields to be separated with TABs
+and not ‘t’s.  Use ‘-v FS="t"’ or ‘-F"[t]"’ on the command line if 
you
+really do want to separate your fields with ‘t’s.  Use ‘-F '\t'’ when
 not in compatibility mode to specify that TABs separate fields.
 
-   As an example, let's use an 'awk' program file called 'edu.awk' that
-contains the pattern '/edu/' and the action 'print $1':
+   As an example, let’s use an ‘awk’ program file called ‘edu.awk’ 
that
+contains the pattern ‘/edu/’ and the action ‘print $1’:
 
      /edu/   { print $1 }
 
-   Let's also set 'FS' to be the '-' character and run the program on
-the file 'mail-list'.  The following command prints a list of the names
+   Let’s also set ‘FS’ to be the ‘-’ character and run the program on
+the file ‘mail-list’.  The following command prints a list of the names
 of the people that work at or attend a university, and the first three
 digits of their phone numbers:
 
      $ awk -F- -f edu.awk mail-list
-     -| Fabius       555
-     -| Samuel       555
-     -| Jean
+     ⊣ Fabius       555
+     ⊣ Samuel       555
+     ⊣ Jean
 
 Note the third line of output.  The third line in the original file
 looked like this:
 
      Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
 
-   The '-' as part of the person's name was used as the field separator,
-instead of the '-' in the phone number that was originally intended.
+   The ‘-’ as part of the person’s name was used as the field separator,
+instead of the ‘-’ in the phone number that was originally intended.
 This demonstrates why you have to be careful in choosing your field and
 record separators.
 
@@ -5308,9 +5308,9 @@ record separators.
 separator occurs when processing the Unix system password file.  On many
 Unix systems, each user has a separate entry in the system password
 file, with one line per user.  The information in these lines is
-separated by colons.  The first field is the user's login name and the
-second is the user's encrypted or shadow password.  (A shadow password
-is indicated by the presence of a single 'x' in the second field.)  A
+separated by colons.  The first field is the user’s login name and the
+second is the user’s encrypted or shadow password.  (A shadow password
+is indicated by the presence of a single ‘x’ in the second field.)  A
 password file entry might look like this:
 
      arnold:x:2076:10:Arnold Robbins:/home/arnold:/bin/bash
@@ -5326,25 +5326,25 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Full Line Fields,  Next: Field 
Splitting Summary,  Prev:
 4.5.5 Making the Full Line Be a Single Field
 --------------------------------------------
 
-Occasionally, it's useful to treat the whole input line as a single
-field.  This can be done easily and portably simply by setting 'FS' to
-'"\n"' (a newline):(1)
+Occasionally, it’s useful to treat the whole input line as a single
+field.  This can be done easily and portably simply by setting ‘FS’ to
+‘"\n"’ (a newline):(1)
 
      awk -F'\n' 'PROGRAM' FILES ...
 
-When you do this, '$1' is the same as '$0'.
+When you do this, ‘$1’ is the same as ‘$0’.
 
-               Changing 'FS' Does Not Affect the Fields
+               Changing ‘FS’ Does Not Affect the Fields
 
-   According to the POSIX standard, 'awk' is supposed to behave as if
+   According to the POSIX standard, ‘awk’ is supposed to behave as if
 each record is split into fields at the time it is read.  In particular,
-this means that if you change the value of 'FS' after a record is read,
+this means that if you change the value of ‘FS’ after a record is read,
 the values of the fields (i.e., how they were split) should reflect the
-old value of 'FS', not the new one.
+old value of ‘FS’, not the new one.
 
-   However, many older implementations of 'awk' do not work this way.
+   However, many older implementations of ‘awk’ do not work this way.
 Instead, they defer splitting the fields until a field is actually
-referenced.  The fields are split using the _current_ value of 'FS'!
+referenced.  The fields are split using the _current_ value of ‘FS’!
 (d.c.)  This behavior can be difficult to diagnose.  The following
 example illustrates the difference between the two methods:
 
@@ -5354,18 +5354,18 @@ which usually prints:
 
      root
 
-on an incorrect implementation of 'awk', while 'gawk' prints the full
+on an incorrect implementation of ‘awk’, while ‘gawk’ prints the full
 first line of the file, something like:
 
      root:x:0:0:Root:/:
 
-   (The 'sed'(2) command prints just the first line of '/etc/passwd'.)
+   (The ‘sed’(2) command prints just the first line of ‘/etc/passwd’.)
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Thanks to Andrew Schorr for this tip.
 
-   (2) The 'sed' utility is a "stream editor."  Its behavior is also
+   (2) The ‘sed’ utility is a “stream editor.” Its behavior is also
 defined by the POSIX standard.
 
 
@@ -5375,41 +5375,41 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Field Splitting Summary,  Prev: 
Full Line Fields,  Up: F
 -----------------------------
 
 It is important to remember that when you assign a string constant as
-the value of 'FS', it undergoes normal 'awk' string processing.  For
-example, with Unix 'awk' and 'gawk', the assignment 'FS = "\.."' assigns
-the character string '".."' to 'FS' (the backslash is stripped).  This
-creates a regexp meaning "fields are separated by occurrences of any two
-characters."  If instead you want fields to be separated by a literal
-period followed by any single character, use 'FS = "\\.."'.
+the value of ‘FS’, it undergoes normal ‘awk’ string processing.  For
+example, with Unix ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’, the assignment ‘FS = "\.."’ 
assigns
+the character string ‘".."’ to ‘FS’ (the backslash is stripped).  This
+creates a regexp meaning “fields are separated by occurrences of any two
+characters.” If instead you want fields to be separated by a literal
+period followed by any single character, use ‘FS = "\\.."’.
 
    The following list summarizes how fields are split, based on the
-value of 'FS' ('==' means "is equal to"):
+value of ‘FS’ (‘==’ means “is equal to”):
 
-'FS == " "'
+‘FS == " "’
      Fields are separated by runs of whitespace.  Leading and trailing
      whitespace are ignored.  This is the default.
 
-'FS == ANY OTHER SINGLE CHARACTER'
+‘FS == ANY OTHER SINGLE CHARACTER’
      Fields are separated by each occurrence of the character.  Multiple
      successive occurrences delimit empty fields, as do leading and
      trailing occurrences.  The character can even be a regexp
      metacharacter; it does not need to be escaped.
 
-'FS == REGEXP'
+‘FS == REGEXP’
      Fields are separated by occurrences of characters that match
      REGEXP.  Leading and trailing matches of REGEXP delimit empty
      fields.
 
-'FS == ""'
+‘FS == ""’
      Each individual character in the record becomes a separate field.
      (This is a common extension; it is not specified by the POSIX
      standard.)
 
-                         'FS' and 'IGNORECASE'
+                         ‘FS’ and ‘IGNORECASE’
 
-   The 'IGNORECASE' variable (*note User-modified::) affects field
-splitting _only_ when the value of 'FS' is a regexp.  It has no effect
-when 'FS' is a single character, even if that character is a letter.
+   The ‘IGNORECASE’ variable (*note User-modified::) affects field
+splitting _only_ when the value of ‘FS’ is a regexp.  It has no effect
+when ‘FS’ is a single character, even if that character is a letter.
 Thus, in the following code:
 
      FS = "c"
@@ -5417,9 +5417,9 @@ Thus, in the following code:
      $0 = "aCa"
      print $1
 
-The output is 'aCa'.  If you really want to split fields on an
+The output is ‘aCa’.  If you really want to split fields on an
 alphabetic character while ignoring case, use a regexp that will do it
-for you (e.g., 'FS = "[c]"').  In this case, 'IGNORECASE' will take
+for you (e.g., ‘FS = "[c]"’).  In this case, ‘IGNORECASE’ will take
 effect.
 
 
@@ -5428,10 +5428,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Constant Size,  Next: Splitting 
By Content,  Prev: Field
 4.6 Reading Fixed-Width Data
 ============================
 
-This minor node discusses an advanced feature of 'gawk'.  If you are a
-novice 'awk' user, you might want to skip it on the first reading.
+This minor node discusses an advanced feature of ‘gawk’.  If you are a
+novice ‘awk’ user, you might want to skip it on the first reading.
 
-   'gawk' provides a facility for dealing with fixed-width fields with
+   ‘gawk’ provides a facility for dealing with fixed-width fields with
 no distinctive field separator.  We discuss this feature in the
 following nodes.
 
@@ -5454,21 +5454,21 @@ did not anticipate the use of their output as input for 
other programs.
 
    An example of the latter is a table where all the columns are lined
 up by the use of a variable number of spaces and _empty fields are just
-spaces_.  Clearly, 'awk''s normal field splitting based on 'FS' does not
-work well in this case.  Although a portable 'awk' program can use a
-series of 'substr()' calls on '$0' (*note String Functions::), this is
+spaces_.  Clearly, ‘awk’’s normal field splitting based on ‘FS’ does 
not
+work well in this case.  Although a portable ‘awk’ program can use a
+series of ‘substr()’ calls on ‘$0’ (*note String Functions::), this is
 awkward and inefficient for a large number of fields.
 
    The splitting of an input record into fixed-width fields is specified
 by assigning a string containing space-separated numbers to the built-in
-variable 'FIELDWIDTHS'.  Each number specifies the width of the field,
+variable ‘FIELDWIDTHS’.  Each number specifies the width of the field,
 _including_ columns between fields.  If you want to ignore the columns
 between fields, you can specify the width as a separate field that is
 subsequently ignored.  It is a fatal error to supply a field width that
 has a negative value.
 
-   The following data is the output of the Unix 'w' utility.  It is
-useful to illustrate the use of 'FIELDWIDTHS':
+   The following data is the output of the Unix ‘w’ utility.  It is
+useful to illustrate the use of ‘FIELDWIDTHS’:
 
       10:06pm  up 21 days, 14:04,  23 users
      User     tty       login  idle   JCPU   PCPU  what
@@ -5501,8 +5501,8 @@ calculated idle time:
          print $1, $2, idle
      }
 
-     NOTE: The preceding program uses a number of 'awk' features that
-     haven't been introduced yet.
+     NOTE: The preceding program uses a number of ‘awk’ features that
+     haven’t been introduced yet.
 
    Running the program on the data produces the following results:
 
@@ -5521,8 +5521,8 @@ United States, voters mark their choices by punching 
holes in computer
 cards.  These cards are then processed to count the votes for any
 particular candidate or on any particular issue.  Because a voter may
 choose not to vote on some issue, any column on the card may be empty.
-An 'awk' program for processing such data could use the 'FIELDWIDTHS'
-feature to simplify reading the data.  (Of course, getting 'gawk' to run
+An ‘awk’ program for processing such data could use the ‘FIELDWIDTHS’
+feature to simplify reading the data.  (Of course, getting ‘gawk’ to run
 on a system with card readers is another story!)
 
 
@@ -5534,7 +5534,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Skipping intervening,  Next: 
Allowing trailing data,  Pr
 Starting in version 4.2, each field width may optionally be preceded by
 a colon-separated value specifying the number of characters to skip
 before the field starts.  Thus, the preceding program could be rewritten
-to specify 'FIELDWIDTHS' like so:
+to specify ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ like so:
 
      BEGIN  { FIELDWIDTHS = "8 1:5 4:7 6 1:6 1:6 2:33" }
 
@@ -5557,21 +5557,21 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Allowing trailing data,  Next: 
Fields with fixed data,
 
 There are times when fixed-width data may be followed by additional data
 that has no fixed length.  Such data may or may not be present, but if
-it is, it should be possible to get at it from an 'awk' program.
+it is, it should be possible to get at it from an ‘awk’ program.
 
-   Starting with version 4.2, in order to provide a way to say "anything
-else in the record after the defined fields," 'gawk' allows you to add a
-final '*' character to the value of 'FIELDWIDTHS'.  There can only be
+   Starting with version 4.2, in order to provide a way to say “anything
+else in the record after the defined fields,” ‘gawk’ allows you to add a
+final ‘*’ character to the value of ‘FIELDWIDTHS’.  There can only be
 one such character, and it must be the final non-whitespace character in
-'FIELDWIDTHS'.  For example:
+‘FIELDWIDTHS’.  For example:
 
      $ cat fw.awk                         Show the program
-     -| BEGIN { FIELDWIDTHS = "2 2 *" }
-     -| { print NF, $1, $2, $3 }
+     ⊣ BEGIN { FIELDWIDTHS = "2 2 *" }
+     ⊣ { print NF, $1, $2, $3 }
      $ cat fw.in                          Show sample input
-     -| 1234abcdefghi
+     ⊣ 1234abcdefghi
      $ gawk -f fw.awk fw.in               Run the program
-     -| 3 12 34 abcdefghi
+     ⊣ 3 12 34 abcdefghi
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Fields with fixed data,  Prev: Allowing trailing data, 
 Up: Constant Size
@@ -5579,35 +5579,35 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Fields with fixed data,  Prev: 
Allowing trailing data,
 4.6.4 Field Values With Fixed-Width Data
 ----------------------------------------
 
-So far, so good.  But what happens if there isn't as much data as there
-should be based on the contents of 'FIELDWIDTHS'?  Or, what happens if
+So far, so good.  But what happens if there isn’t as much data as there
+should be based on the contents of ‘FIELDWIDTHS’?  Or, what happens if
 there is more data than expected?
 
    For many years, what happens in these cases was not well defined.
 Starting with version 4.2, the rules are as follows:
 
 Enough data for some fields
-     For example, if 'FIELDWIDTHS' is set to '"2 3 4"' and the input
-     record is 'aabbb'.  In this case, 'NF' is set to two.
+     For example, if ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ is set to ‘"2 3 4"’ and the input
+     record is ‘aabbb’.  In this case, ‘NF’ is set to two.
 
 Not enough data for a field
-     For example, if 'FIELDWIDTHS' is set to '"2 3 4"' and the input
-     record is 'aab'.  In this case, 'NF' is set to two and '$2' has the
-     value '"b"'.  The idea is that even though there aren't as many
+     For example, if ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ is set to ‘"2 3 4"’ and the input
+     record is ‘aab’.  In this case, ‘NF’ is set to two and ‘$2’ 
has the
+     value ‘"b"’.  The idea is that even though there aren’t as many
      characters as were expected, there are some, so the data should be
      made available to the program.
 
 Too much data
-     For example, if 'FIELDWIDTHS' is set to '"2 3 4"' and the input
-     record is 'aabbbccccddd'.  In this case, 'NF' is set to three and
-     the extra characters ('ddd') are ignored.  If you want 'gawk' to
-     capture the extra characters, supply a final '*' in the value of
-     'FIELDWIDTHS'.
+     For example, if ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ is set to ‘"2 3 4"’ and the input
+     record is ‘aabbbccccddd’.  In this case, ‘NF’ is set to three and
+     the extra characters (‘ddd’) are ignored.  If you want ‘gawk’ to
+     capture the extra characters, supply a final ‘*’ in the value of
+     ‘FIELDWIDTHS’.
 
-Too much data, but with '*' supplied
-     For example, if 'FIELDWIDTHS' is set to '"2 3 4 *"' and the input
-     record is 'aabbbccccddd'.  In this case, 'NF' is set to four, and
-     '$4' has the value '"ddd"'.
+Too much data, but with ‘*’ supplied
+     For example, if ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ is set to ‘"2 3 4 *"’ and the input
+     record is ‘aabbbccccddd’.  In this case, ‘NF’ is set to four, and
+     ‘$4’ has the value ‘"ddd"’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Splitting By Content,  Next: Testing field creation,  
Prev: Constant Size,  Up: Reading Files
@@ -5620,35 +5620,35 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Splitting By Content,  Next: 
Testing field creation,  Pr
 * More CSV::                    More on CSV files.
 * FS versus FPAT::              A subtle difference.
 
-This minor node discusses an advanced feature of 'gawk'.  If you are a
-novice 'awk' user, you might want to skip it on the first reading.
+This minor node discusses an advanced feature of ‘gawk’.  If you are a
+novice ‘awk’ user, you might want to skip it on the first reading.
 
-   Normally, when using 'FS', 'gawk' defines the fields as the parts of
+   Normally, when using ‘FS’, ‘gawk’ defines the fields as the parts of
 the record that occur in between each field separator.  In other words,
-'FS' defines what a field _is not_, instead of what a field _is_.
+‘FS’ defines what a field _is not_, instead of what a field _is_.
 However, there are times when you really want to define the fields by
 what they are, and not by what they are not.
 
-   The most notorious such case is so-called "comma-separated values"
+   The most notorious such case is so-called “comma-separated values”
 (CSV) data.  Many spreadsheet programs, for example, can export their
 data into text files, where each record is terminated with a newline,
 and fields are separated by commas.  If commas only separated the data,
-there wouldn't be an issue.  The problem comes when one of the fields
+there wouldn’t be an issue.  The problem comes when one of the fields
 contains an _embedded_ comma.  In such cases, most programs embed the
 field in double quotes.(1)  So, we might have data like this:
 
      Robbins,Arnold,"1234 A Pretty Street, NE",MyTown,MyState,12345-6789,USA
 
-   The 'FPAT' variable offers a solution for cases like this.  The value
-of 'FPAT' should be a string that provides a regular expression.  This
+   The ‘FPAT’ variable offers a solution for cases like this.  The value
+of ‘FPAT’ should be a string that provides a regular expression.  This
 regular expression describes the contents of each field.
 
    In the case of CSV data as presented here, each field is either
-"anything that is not a comma," or "a double quote, anything that is not
-a double quote, and a closing double quote."  (There are more
-complicated definitions of CSV data, treated shortly.)  If written as a
-regular expression constant (*note Regexp::), we would have
-'/([^,]+)|("[^"]+")/'.  Writing this as a string requires us to escape
+“anything that is not a comma,” or “a double quote, anything that is not
+a double quote, and a closing double quote.” (There are more complicated
+definitions of CSV data, treated shortly.)  If written as a regular
+expression constant (*note Regexp::), we would have
+‘/([^,]+)|("[^"]+")/’.  Writing this as a string requires us to escape
 the double quotes, leading to:
 
      FPAT = "([^,]+)|(\"[^\"]+\")"
@@ -5678,7 +5678,7 @@ the double quotes, leading to:
      $6 = <12345-6789>
      $7 = <USA>
 
-   Note the embedded comma in the value of '$3'.
+   Note the embedded comma in the value of ‘$3’.
 
    A straightforward improvement when processing CSV data of this sort
 would be to remove the quotes when they occur, with something like this:
@@ -5689,25 +5689,25 @@ would be to remove the quotes when they occur, with 
something like this:
      }
 
      NOTE: Some programs export CSV data that contains embedded newlines
-     between the double quotes.  'gawk' provides no way to deal with
+     between the double quotes.  ‘gawk’ provides no way to deal with
      this.  Even though a formal specification for CSV data exists,
-     there isn't much more to be done; the 'FPAT' mechanism provides an
-     elegant solution for the majority of cases, and the 'gawk'
+     there isn’t much more to be done; the ‘FPAT’ mechanism provides an
+     elegant solution for the majority of cases, and the ‘gawk’
      developers are satisfied with that.
 
-   As written, the regexp used for 'FPAT' requires that each field
+   As written, the regexp used for ‘FPAT’ requires that each field
 contain at least one character.  A straightforward modification
-(changing the first '+' to '*') allows fields to be empty:
+(changing the first ‘+’ to ‘*’) allows fields to be empty:
 
      FPAT = "([^,]*)|(\"[^\"]+\")"
 
-   As with 'FS', the 'IGNORECASE' variable (*note User-modified::)
-affects field splitting with 'FPAT'.
+   As with ‘FS’, the ‘IGNORECASE’ variable (*note User-modified::)
+affects field splitting with ‘FPAT’.
 
-   Assigning a value to 'FPAT' overrides field splitting with 'FS' and
-with 'FIELDWIDTHS'.
+   Assigning a value to ‘FPAT’ overrides field splitting with ‘FS’ and
+with ‘FIELDWIDTHS’.
 
-   Finally, the 'patsplit()' function makes the same functionality
+   Finally, the ‘patsplit()’ function makes the same functionality
 available for splitting regular strings (*note String Functions::).
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
@@ -5725,9 +5725,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: More CSV,  Next: FS versus FPAT,  
Up: Splitting By Conte
 Manuel Collado notes that in addition to commas, a CSV field can also
 contains quotes, that have to be escaped by doubling them.  The
 previously described regexps fail to accept quoted fields with both
-commas and quotes inside.  He suggests that the simplest 'FPAT'
+commas and quotes inside.  He suggests that the simplest ‘FPAT’
 expression that recognizes this kind of fields is
-'/([^,]*)|("([^"]|"")+")/'.  He provides the following input data to
+‘/([^,]*)|("([^"]|"")+")/’.  He provides the following input data to
 test these variants:
 
      p,"q,r",s
@@ -5757,70 +5757,70 @@ And here is his test program:
    When run on the third variant, it produces:
 
      $ gawk -v fpat=2 -f test-csv.awk sample.csv
-     -| <p,"q,r",s>
-     -| NF = 3 <p><"q,r"><s>
-     -| <p,"q""r",s>
-     -| NF = 3 <p><"q""r"><s>
-     -| <p,"q,""r",s>
-     -| NF = 3 <p><"q,""r"><s>
-     -| <p,"",s>
-     -| NF = 3 <p><""><s>
-     -| <p,,s>
-     -| NF = 3 <p><><s>
-
-   In general, using 'FPAT' to do your own CSV parsing is like having a
-bed with a blanket that's not quite big enough.  There's always a corner
-that isn't covered.  We recommend, instead, that you use Manuel
-Collado's 'CSVMODE' library for 'gawk' (http://mcollado.z15.es/xgawk/).
+     ⊣ <p,"q,r",s>
+     ⊣ NF = 3 <p><"q,r"><s>
+     ⊣ <p,"q""r",s>
+     ⊣ NF = 3 <p><"q""r"><s>
+     ⊣ <p,"q,""r",s>
+     ⊣ NF = 3 <p><"q,""r"><s>
+     ⊣ <p,"",s>
+     ⊣ NF = 3 <p><""><s>
+     ⊣ <p,,s>
+     ⊣ NF = 3 <p><><s>
+
+   In general, using ‘FPAT’ to do your own CSV parsing is like having a
+bed with a blanket that’s not quite big enough.  There’s always a corner
+that isn’t covered.  We recommend, instead, that you use Manuel
+Collado’s ‘CSVMODE’ library for ‘gawk’ 
(http://mcollado.z15.es/xgawk/).
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: FS versus FPAT,  Prev: More CSV,  Up: Splitting By 
Content
 
-4.7.2 'FS' Versus 'FPAT': A Subtle Difference
+4.7.2 ‘FS’ Versus ‘FPAT’: A Subtle Difference
 ---------------------------------------------
 
-As we discussed earlier, 'FS' describes the data between fields ("what
-fields are not") and 'FPAT' describes the fields themselves ("what
-fields are").  This leads to a subtle difference in how fields are found
-when using regexps as the value for 'FS' or 'FPAT'.
+As we discussed earlier, ‘FS’ describes the data between fields (“what
+fields are not”) and ‘FPAT’ describes the fields themselves (“what
+fields are”).  This leads to a subtle difference in how fields are found
+when using regexps as the value for ‘FS’ or ‘FPAT’.
 
    In order to distinguish one field from another, there must be a
 non-empty separator between each field.  This makes intuitive
-sense--otherwise one could not distinguish fields from separators.
+sense—otherwise one could not distinguish fields from separators.
 
    Thus, regular expression matching as done when splitting fields with
-'FS' is not allowed to match the null string; it must always match at
+‘FS’ is not allowed to match the null string; it must always match at
 least one character, in order to be able to proceed through the entire
 record.
 
-   On the other hand, regular expression matching with 'FPAT' can match
+   On the other hand, regular expression matching with ‘FPAT’ can match
 the null string, and the non-matching intervening characters function as
 the separators.
 
    This same difference is reflected in how matching is done with the
-'split()' and 'patsplit()' functions (*note String Functions::).
+‘split()’ and ‘patsplit()’ functions (*note String Functions::).
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Testing field creation,  Next: Multiple Line,  Prev: 
Splitting By Content,  Up: Reading Files
 
-4.8 Checking How 'gawk' Is Splitting Records
+4.8 Checking How ‘gawk’ Is Splitting Records
 ============================================
 
-As we've seen, 'gawk' provides three independent methods to split input
+As we’ve seen, ‘gawk’ provides three independent methods to split input
 records into fields.  The mechanism used is based on which of the three
-variables--'FS', 'FIELDWIDTHS', or 'FPAT'--was last assigned to.  In
+variables—‘FS’, ‘FIELDWIDTHS’, or ‘FPAT’—was last assigned to. 
 In
 addition, an API input parser may choose to override the record parsing
 mechanism; please refer to *note Input Parsers:: for further information
 about this feature.
 
-   To restore normal field splitting after using 'FIELDWIDTHS' and/or
-'FPAT', simply assign a value to 'FS'.  You can use 'FS = FS' to do
-this, without having to know the current value of 'FS'.
+   To restore normal field splitting after using ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ and/or
+‘FPAT’, simply assign a value to ‘FS’.  You can use ‘FS = FS’ to do
+this, without having to know the current value of ‘FS’.
 
    In order to tell which kind of field splitting is in effect, use
-'PROCINFO["FS"]' (*note Auto-set::).  The value is '"FS"' if regular
-field splitting is being used, '"FIELDWIDTHS"' if fixed-width field
-splitting is being used, or '"FPAT"' if content-based field splitting is
+‘PROCINFO["FS"]’ (*note Auto-set::).  The value is ‘"FS"’ if regular
+field splitting is being used, ‘"FIELDWIDTHS"’ if fixed-width field
+splitting is being used, or ‘"FPAT"’ if content-based field splitting is
 being used:
 
      if (PROCINFO["FS"] == "FS")
@@ -5833,7 +5833,7 @@ being used:
          API INPUT PARSER FIELD SPLITTING ... (advanced feature)
 
    This information is useful when writing a function that needs to
-temporarily change 'FS' or 'FIELDWIDTHS', read some records, and then
+temporarily change ‘FS’ or ‘FIELDWIDTHS’, read some records, and then
 restore the original settings (*note Passwd Functions:: for an example
 of such a function).
 
@@ -5849,31 +5849,31 @@ The first step in doing this is to choose your data 
format.
 
    One technique is to use an unusual character or string to separate
 records.  For example, you could use the formfeed character (written
-'\f' in 'awk', as in C) to separate them, making each record a page of
-the file.  To do this, just set the variable 'RS' to '"\f"' (a string
+‘\f’ in ‘awk’, as in C) to separate them, making each record a page of
+the file.  To do this, just set the variable ‘RS’ to ‘"\f"’ (a string
 containing the formfeed character).  Any other character could equally
-well be used, as long as it won't be part of the data in a record.
+well be used, as long as it won’t be part of the data in a record.
 
    Another technique is to have blank lines separate records.  By a
-special dispensation, an empty string as the value of 'RS' indicates
-that records are separated by one or more blank lines.  When 'RS' is set
+special dispensation, an empty string as the value of ‘RS’ indicates
+that records are separated by one or more blank lines.  When ‘RS’ is set
 to the empty string, each record always ends at the first blank line
-encountered.  The next record doesn't start until the first nonblank
+encountered.  The next record doesn’t start until the first nonblank
 line that follows.  No matter how many blank lines appear in a row, they
 all act as one record separator.  (Blank lines must be completely empty;
 lines that contain only whitespace do not count.)
 
-   You can achieve the same effect as 'RS = ""' by assigning the string
-'"\n\n+"' to 'RS'.  This regexp matches the newline at the end of the
+   You can achieve the same effect as ‘RS = ""’ by assigning the string
+‘"\n\n+"’ to ‘RS’.  This regexp matches the newline at the end of the
 record and one or more blank lines after the record.  In addition, a
 regular expression always matches the longest possible sequence when
 there is a choice (*note Leftmost Longest::).  So, the next record
-doesn't start until the first nonblank line that follows--no matter how
+doesn’t start until the first nonblank line that follows—no matter how
 many blank lines appear in a row, they are considered one record
 separator.
 
-   However, there is an important difference between 'RS = ""' and 'RS =
-"\n\n+"'.  In the first case, leading newlines in the input data file
+   However, there is an important difference between ‘RS = ""’ and ‘RS =
+"\n\n+"’.  In the first case, leading newlines in the input data file
 are ignored, and if a file ends without extra blank lines after the last
 record, the final newline is removed from the record.  In the second
 case, this special processing is not done.  (d.c.)
@@ -5881,37 +5881,37 @@ case, this special processing is not done.  (d.c.)
    Now that the input is separated into records, the second step is to
 separate the fields in the records.  One way to do this is to divide
 each of the lines into fields in the normal manner.  This happens by
-default as the result of a special feature.  When 'RS' is set to the
-empty string _and_ 'FS' is set to a single character, the newline
+default as the result of a special feature.  When ‘RS’ is set to the
+empty string _and_ ‘FS’ is set to a single character, the newline
 character _always_ acts as a field separator.  This is in addition to
-whatever field separations result from 'FS'.
+whatever field separations result from ‘FS’.
 
-     NOTE: When 'FS' is the null string ('""') or a regexp, this special
-     feature of 'RS' does not apply.  It does apply to the default field
-     separator of a single space: 'FS = " "'.
+     NOTE: When ‘FS’ is the null string (‘""’) or a regexp, this 
special
+     feature of ‘RS’ does not apply.  It does apply to the default field
+     separator of a single space: ‘FS = " "’.
 
      Note that language in the POSIX specification implies that this
-     special feature should apply when 'FS' is a regexp.  However, Unix
-     'awk' has never behaved that way, nor has 'gawk'.  This is
+     special feature should apply when ‘FS’ is a regexp.  However, Unix
+     ‘awk’ has never behaved that way, nor has ‘gawk’.  This is
      essentially a bug in POSIX.
 
    The original motivation for this special exception was probably to
-provide useful behavior in the default case (i.e., 'FS' is equal to
-'" "').  This feature can be a problem if you really don't want the
+provide useful behavior in the default case (i.e., ‘FS’ is equal to
+‘" "’).  This feature can be a problem if you really don’t want the
 newline character to separate fields, because there is no way to prevent
-it.  However, you can work around this by using the 'split()' function
+it.  However, you can work around this by using the ‘split()’ function
 to break up the record manually (*note String Functions::).  If you have
 a single-character field separator, you can work around the special
-feature in a different way, by making 'FS' into a regexp for that single
+feature in a different way, by making ‘FS’ into a regexp for that single
 character.  For example, if the field separator is a percent character,
-instead of 'FS = "%"', use 'FS = "[%]"'.
+instead of ‘FS = "%"’, use ‘FS = "[%]"’.
 
    Another way to separate fields is to put each field on a separate
-line: to do this, just set the variable 'FS' to the string '"\n"'.
+line: to do this, just set the variable ‘FS’ to the string ‘"\n"’.
 (This single-character separator matches a single newline.)  A practical
 example of a data file organized this way might be a mailing list, where
 blank lines separate the entries.  Consider a mailing list in a file
-named 'addresses', which looks like this:
+named ‘addresses’, which looks like this:
 
      Jane Doe
      123 Main Street
@@ -5940,107 +5940,107 @@ A simple program to process this file is as follows:
    Running the program produces the following output:
 
      $ awk -f addrs.awk addresses
-     -| Name is: Jane Doe
-     -| Address is: 123 Main Street
-     -| City and State are: Anywhere, SE 12345-6789
-     -|
-     -| Name is: John Smith
-     -| Address is: 456 Tree-lined Avenue
-     -| City and State are: Smallville, MW 98765-4321
-     -|
+     ⊣ Name is: Jane Doe
+     ⊣ Address is: 123 Main Street
+     ⊣ City and State are: Anywhere, SE 12345-6789
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Name is: John Smith
+     ⊣ Address is: 456 Tree-lined Avenue
+     ⊣ City and State are: Smallville, MW 98765-4321
+     ⊣
      ...
 
    *Note Labels Program:: for a more realistic program dealing with
 address lists.  The following list summarizes how records are split,
-based on the value of 'RS'.  ('==' means "is equal to.")
+based on the value of ‘RS’.  (‘==’ means “is equal to.”)
 
-'RS == "\n"'
-     Records are separated by the newline character ('\n').  In effect,
+‘RS == "\n"’
+     Records are separated by the newline character (‘\n’).  In effect,
      every line in the data file is a separate record, including blank
      lines.  This is the default.
 
-'RS == ANY SINGLE CHARACTER'
+‘RS == ANY SINGLE CHARACTER’
      Records are separated by each occurrence of the character.
      Multiple successive occurrences delimit empty records.
 
-'RS == ""'
-     Records are separated by runs of blank lines.  When 'FS' is a
+‘RS == ""’
+     Records are separated by runs of blank lines.  When ‘FS’ is a
      single character, then the newline character always serves as a
-     field separator, in addition to whatever value 'FS' may have.
+     field separator, in addition to whatever value ‘FS’ may have.
      Leading and trailing newlines in a file are ignored.
 
-'RS == REGEXP'
+‘RS == REGEXP’
      Records are separated by occurrences of characters that match
      REGEXP.  Leading and trailing matches of REGEXP delimit empty
-     records.  (This is a 'gawk' extension; it is not specified by the
+     records.  (This is a ‘gawk’ extension; it is not specified by the
      POSIX standard.)
 
-   If not in compatibility mode (*note Options::), 'gawk' sets 'RT' to
-the input text that matched the value specified by 'RS'.  But if the
-input file ended without any text that matches 'RS', then 'gawk' sets
-'RT' to the null string.
+   If not in compatibility mode (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ sets ‘RT’ to
+the input text that matched the value specified by ‘RS’.  But if the
+input file ended without any text that matches ‘RS’, then ‘gawk’ sets
+‘RT’ to the null string.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline,  Next: Read Timeout,  Prev: Multiple Line,  
Up: Reading Files
 
-4.10 Explicit Input with 'getline'
+4.10 Explicit Input with ‘getline’
 ==================================
 
-So far we have been getting our input data from 'awk''s main input
-stream--either the standard input (usually your keyboard, sometimes the
+So far we have been getting our input data from ‘awk’’s main input
+stream—either the standard input (usually your keyboard, sometimes the
 output from another program) or the files specified on the command line.
-The 'awk' language has a special built-in command called 'getline' that
+The ‘awk’ language has a special built-in command called ‘getline’ that
 can be used to read input under your explicit control.
 
-   The 'getline' command is used in several different ways and should
+   The ‘getline’ command is used in several different ways and should
 _not_ be used by beginners.  The examples that follow the explanation of
-the 'getline' command include material that has not been covered yet.
-Therefore, come back and study the 'getline' command _after_ you have
+the ‘getline’ command include material that has not been covered yet.
+Therefore, come back and study the ‘getline’ command _after_ you have
 reviewed the rest of this Info file and have a good knowledge of how
-'awk' works.
+‘awk’ works.
 
-   The 'getline' command returns 1 if it finds a record and 0 if it
+   The ‘getline’ command returns 1 if it finds a record and 0 if it
 encounters the end of the file.  If there is some error in getting a
-record, such as a file that cannot be opened, then 'getline' returns -1.
-In this case, 'gawk' sets the variable 'ERRNO' to a string describing
+record, such as a file that cannot be opened, then ‘getline’ returns −1.
+In this case, ‘gawk’ sets the variable ‘ERRNO’ to a string describing
 the error that occurred.
 
-   If 'ERRNO' indicates that the I/O operation may be retried, and
-'PROCINFO["INPUT", "RETRY"]' is set, then 'getline' returns -2 instead
-of -1, and further calls to 'getline' may be attempted.  *Note Retrying
+   If ‘ERRNO’ indicates that the I/O operation may be retried, and
+‘PROCINFO["INPUT", "RETRY"]’ is set, then ‘getline’ returns −2 
instead
+of −1, and further calls to ‘getline’ may be attempted.  *Note Retrying
 Input:: for further information about this feature.
 
    In the following examples, COMMAND stands for a string value that
 represents a shell command.
 
-     NOTE: When '--sandbox' is specified (*note Options::), reading
+     NOTE: When ‘--sandbox’ is specified (*note Options::), reading
      lines from files, pipes, and coprocesses is disabled.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Plain Getline::               Using 'getline' with no arguments.
-* Getline/Variable::            Using 'getline' into a variable.
-* Getline/File::                Using 'getline' from a file.
-* Getline/Variable/File::       Using 'getline' into a variable from a
+* Plain Getline::               Using ‘getline’ with no arguments.
+* Getline/Variable::            Using ‘getline’ into a variable.
+* Getline/File::                Using ‘getline’ from a file.
+* Getline/Variable/File::       Using ‘getline’ into a variable from a
                                 file.
-* Getline/Pipe::                Using 'getline' from a pipe.
-* Getline/Variable/Pipe::       Using 'getline' into a variable from a
+* Getline/Pipe::                Using ‘getline’ from a pipe.
+* Getline/Variable/Pipe::       Using ‘getline’ into a variable from a
                                 pipe.
-* Getline/Coprocess::           Using 'getline' from a coprocess.
-* Getline/Variable/Coprocess::  Using 'getline' into a variable from a
+* Getline/Coprocess::           Using ‘getline’ from a coprocess.
+* Getline/Variable/Coprocess::  Using ‘getline’ into a variable from a
                                 coprocess.
-* Getline Notes::               Important things to know about 'getline'.
-* Getline Summary::             Summary of 'getline' Variants.
+* Getline Notes::               Important things to know about ‘getline’.
+* Getline Summary::             Summary of ‘getline’ Variants.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Plain Getline,  Next: Getline/Variable,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.1 Using 'getline' with No Arguments
+4.10.1 Using ‘getline’ with No Arguments
 ----------------------------------------
 
-The 'getline' command can be used without arguments to read input from
+The ‘getline’ command can be used without arguments to read input from
 the current input file.  All it does in this case is read the next input
-record and split it up into fields.  This is useful if you've finished
+record and split it up into fields.  This is useful if you’ve finished
 processing the current record, but want to do some special processing on
 the next record _right now_.  For example:
 
@@ -6065,11 +6065,11 @@ the next record _right now_.  For example:
          print $0
      }
 
-   This 'awk' program deletes C-style comments ('/* ... */') from the
-input.  It uses a number of features we haven't covered yet, including
-string concatenation (*note Concatenation::) and the 'index()' and
-'substr()' built-in functions (*note String Functions::).  By replacing
-the 'print $0' with other statements, you could perform more complicated
+   This ‘awk’ program deletes C-style comments (‘/* ... */’) from the
+input.  It uses a number of features we haven’t covered yet, including
+string concatenation (*note Concatenation::) and the ‘index()’ and
+‘substr()’ built-in functions (*note String Functions::).  By replacing
+the ‘print $0’ with other statements, you could perform more complicated
 processing on the decommented input, such as searching for matches of a
 regular expression.
 
@@ -6085,18 +6085,18 @@ regular expression.
    When run, the output is:
 
      $ awk -f strip_comments.awk example_text
-     -| monkey
-     -| rabbit
-     -| horse more text
-     -| part 1 part 2 part 3
-     -| no comment
-
-   This form of the 'getline' command sets 'NF', 'NR', 'FNR', 'RT', and
-the value of '$0'.
-
-     NOTE: The new value of '$0' is used to test the patterns of any
-     subsequent rules.  The original value of '$0' that triggered the
-     rule that executed 'getline' is lost.  By contrast, the 'next'
+     ⊣ monkey
+     ⊣ rabbit
+     ⊣ horse more text
+     ⊣ part 1 part 2 part 3
+     ⊣ no comment
+
+   This form of the ‘getline’ command sets ‘NF’, ‘NR’, ‘FNR’, 
‘RT’, and
+the value of ‘$0’.
+
+     NOTE: The new value of ‘$0’ is used to test the patterns of any
+     subsequent rules.  The original value of ‘$0’ that triggered the
+     rule that executed ‘getline’ is lost.  By contrast, the ‘next’
      statement reads a new record but immediately begins processing it
      normally, starting with the first rule in the program.  *Note Next
      Statement::.
@@ -6104,15 +6104,15 @@ the value of '$0'.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Variable,  Next: Getline/File,  Prev: Plain 
Getline,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.2 Using 'getline' into a Variable
+4.10.2 Using ‘getline’ into a Variable
 --------------------------------------
 
-You can use 'getline VAR' to read the next record from 'awk''s input
+You can use ‘getline VAR’ to read the next record from ‘awk’’s input
 into the variable VAR.  No other processing is done.  For example,
 suppose the next line is a comment or a special string, and you want to
-read it without triggering any rules.  This form of 'getline' allows you
+read it without triggering any rules.  This form of ‘getline’ allows you
 to read that line and store it in a variable so that the main
-read-a-line-and-check-each-rule loop of 'awk' never sees it.  The
+read-a-line-and-check-each-rule loop of ‘awk’ never sees it.  The
 following example swaps every two lines of input:
 
      {
@@ -6137,22 +6137,22 @@ and produces these results:
      phore
      free
 
-   The 'getline' command used in this way sets only the variables 'NR',
-'FNR', and 'RT' (and, of course, VAR).  The record is not split into
-fields, so the values of the fields (including '$0') and the value of
-'NF' do not change.
+   The ‘getline’ command used in this way sets only the variables ‘NR’,
+‘FNR’, and ‘RT’ (and, of course, VAR).  The record is not split into
+fields, so the values of the fields (including ‘$0’) and the value of
+‘NF’ do not change.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/File,  Next: Getline/Variable/File,  Prev: 
Getline/Variable,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.3 Using 'getline' from a File
+4.10.3 Using ‘getline’ from a File
 ----------------------------------
 
-Use 'getline < FILE' to read the next record from FILE.  Here, FILE is a
-string-valued expression that specifies the file name.  '< FILE' is
-called a "redirection" because it directs input to come from a different
+Use ‘getline < FILE’ to read the next record from FILE.  Here, FILE is a
+string-valued expression that specifies the file name.  ‘< FILE’ is
+called a “redirection” because it directs input to come from a different
 place.  For example, the following program reads its input record from
-the file 'secondary.input' when it encounters a first field with a value
+the file ‘secondary.input’ when it encounters a first field with a value
 equal to 10 in the current input file:
 
      {
@@ -6163,33 +6163,33 @@ equal to 10 in the current input file:
               print
      }
 
-   Because the main input stream is not used, the values of 'NR' and
-'FNR' are not changed.  However, the record it reads is split into
-fields in the normal manner, so the values of '$0' and the other fields
-are changed, resulting in a new value of 'NF'.  'RT' is also set.
+   Because the main input stream is not used, the values of ‘NR’ and
+‘FNR’ are not changed.  However, the record it reads is split into
+fields in the normal manner, so the values of ‘$0’ and the other fields
+are changed, resulting in a new value of ‘NF’.  ‘RT’ is also set.
 
-   According to POSIX, 'getline < EXPRESSION' is ambiguous if EXPRESSION
-contains unparenthesized operators other than '$'; for example, 'getline
-< dir "/" file' is ambiguous because the concatenation operator (not
+   According to POSIX, ‘getline < EXPRESSION’ is ambiguous if EXPRESSION
+contains unparenthesized operators other than ‘$’; for example, ‘getline
+< dir "/" file’ is ambiguous because the concatenation operator (not
 discussed yet; *note Concatenation::) is not parenthesized.  You should
-write it as 'getline < (dir "/" file)' if you want your program to be
-portable to all 'awk' implementations.
+write it as ‘getline < (dir "/" file)’ if you want your program to be
+portable to all ‘awk’ implementations.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Variable/File,  Next: Getline/Pipe,  Prev: 
Getline/File,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.4 Using 'getline' into a Variable from a File
+4.10.4 Using ‘getline’ into a Variable from a File
 --------------------------------------------------
 
-Use 'getline VAR < FILE' to read input from the file FILE, and put it in
+Use ‘getline VAR < FILE’ to read input from the file FILE, and put it in
 the variable VAR.  As earlier, FILE is a string-valued expression that
 specifies the file from which to read.
 
-   In this version of 'getline', none of the predefined variables are
+   In this version of ‘getline’, none of the predefined variables are
 changed and the record is not split into fields.  The only variable
 changed is VAR.(1)  For example, the following program copies all the
 input files to the output, except for records that say
-'@include FILENAME'.  Such a record is replaced by the contents of the
+‘@include FILENAME’.  Such a record is replaced by the contents of the
 file FILENAME:
 
      {
@@ -6203,38 +6203,38 @@ file FILENAME:
 
    Note here how the name of the extra input file is not built into the
 program; it is taken directly from the data, specifically from the
-second field on the '@include' line.
+second field on the ‘@include’ line.
 
-   The 'close()' function is called to ensure that if two identical
-'@include' lines appear in the input, the entire specified file is
+   The ‘close()’ function is called to ensure that if two identical
+‘@include’ lines appear in the input, the entire specified file is
 included twice.  *Note Close Files And Pipes::.
 
    One deficiency of this program is that it does not process nested
-'@include' statements (i.e., '@include' statements in included files)
+‘@include’ statements (i.e., ‘@include’ statements in included files)
 the way a true macro preprocessor would.  *Note Igawk Program:: for a
-program that does handle nested '@include' statements.
+program that does handle nested ‘@include’ statements.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) This is not quite true.  'RT' could be changed if 'RS' is a
+   (1) This is not quite true.  ‘RT’ could be changed if ‘RS’ is a
 regular expression.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Pipe,  Next: Getline/Variable/Pipe,  Prev: 
Getline/Variable/File,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.5 Using 'getline' from a Pipe
+4.10.5 Using ‘getline’ from a Pipe
 ----------------------------------
 
      Omniscience has much to recommend it.  Failing that, attention to
      details would be useful.
-                         -- _Brian Kernighan_
+                          — _Brian Kernighan_
 
-   The output of a command can also be piped into 'getline', using
-'COMMAND | getline'.  In this case, the string COMMAND is run as a shell
-command and its output is piped into 'awk' to be used as input.  This
-form of 'getline' reads one record at a time from the pipe.  For
+   The output of a command can also be piped into ‘getline’, using
+‘COMMAND | getline’.  In this case, the string COMMAND is run as a shell
+command and its output is piped into ‘awk’ to be used as input.  This
+form of ‘getline’ reads one record at a time from the pipe.  For
 example, the following program copies its input to its output, except
-for lines that begin with '@execute', which are replaced by the output
+for lines that begin with ‘@execute’, which are replaced by the output
 produced by running the rest of the line as a shell command:
 
      {
@@ -6247,8 +6247,8 @@ produced by running the rest of the line as a shell 
command:
                print
      }
 
-The 'close()' function is called to ensure that if two identical
-'@execute' lines appear in the input, the command is run for each one.
+The ‘close()’ function is called to ensure that if two identical
+‘@execute’ lines appear in the input, the command is run for each one.
 *Note Close Files And Pipes::.  Given the input:
 
      foo
@@ -6267,38 +6267,38 @@ the program might produce:
      bill       ttyp1   Jul 13 14:23     (murphy:0)
      bletch
 
-Notice that this program ran the command 'who' and printed the result.
+Notice that this program ran the command ‘who’ and printed the result.
 (If you try this program yourself, you will of course get different
 results, depending upon who is logged in on your system.)
 
-   This variation of 'getline' splits the record into fields, sets the
-value of 'NF', and recomputes the value of '$0'.  The values of 'NR' and
-'FNR' are not changed.  'RT' is set.
+   This variation of ‘getline’ splits the record into fields, sets the
+value of ‘NF’, and recomputes the value of ‘$0’.  The values of 
‘NR’ and
+‘FNR’ are not changed.  ‘RT’ is set.
 
-   According to POSIX, 'EXPRESSION | getline' is ambiguous if EXPRESSION
-contains unparenthesized operators other than '$'--for example, '"echo "
-"date" | getline' is ambiguous because the concatenation operator is not
-parenthesized.  You should write it as '("echo " "date") | getline' if
-you want your program to be portable to all 'awk' implementations.
+   According to POSIX, ‘EXPRESSION | getline’ is ambiguous if EXPRESSION
+contains unparenthesized operators other than ‘$’—for example, ‘"echo "
+"date" | getline’ is ambiguous because the concatenation operator is not
+parenthesized.  You should write it as ‘("echo " "date") | getline’ if
+you want your program to be portable to all ‘awk’ implementations.
 
-     NOTE: Unfortunately, 'gawk' has not been consistent in its
-     treatment of a construct like '"echo " "date" | getline'.  Most
-     versions, including the current version, treat it as '("echo "
-     "date") | getline'.  (This is also how BWK 'awk' behaves.)  Some
-     versions instead treat it as '"echo " ("date" | getline)'.  (This
-     is how 'mawk' behaves.)  In short, _always_ use explicit
-     parentheses, and then you won't have to worry.
+     NOTE: Unfortunately, ‘gawk’ has not been consistent in its
+     treatment of a construct like ‘"echo " "date" | getline’.  Most
+     versions, including the current version, treat it as ‘("echo "
+     "date") | getline’.  (This is also how BWK ‘awk’ behaves.)  Some
+     versions instead treat it as ‘"echo " ("date" | getline)’.  (This
+     is how ‘mawk’ behaves.)  In short, _always_ use explicit
+     parentheses, and then you won’t have to worry.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Variable/Pipe,  Next: Getline/Coprocess,  
Prev: Getline/Pipe,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.6 Using 'getline' into a Variable from a Pipe
+4.10.6 Using ‘getline’ into a Variable from a Pipe
 --------------------------------------------------
 
-When you use 'COMMAND | getline VAR', the output of COMMAND is sent
-through a pipe to 'getline' and into the variable VAR.  For example, the
+When you use ‘COMMAND | getline VAR’, the output of COMMAND is sent
+through a pipe to ‘getline’ and into the variable VAR.  For example, the
 following program reads the current date and time into the variable
-'current_time', using the 'date' utility, and then prints it:
+‘current_time’, using the ‘date’ utility, and then prints it:
 
      BEGIN {
           "date" | getline current_time
@@ -6306,108 +6306,108 @@ following program reads the current date and time 
into the variable
           print "Report printed on " current_time
      }
 
-   In this version of 'getline', none of the predefined variables are
-changed and the record is not split into fields.  However, 'RT' is set.
+   In this version of ‘getline’, none of the predefined variables are
+changed and the record is not split into fields.  However, ‘RT’ is set.
 
-   According to POSIX, 'EXPRESSION | getline VAR' is ambiguous if
-EXPRESSION contains unparenthesized operators other than '$'; for
-example, '"echo " "date" | getline VAR' is ambiguous because the
+   According to POSIX, ‘EXPRESSION | getline VAR’ is ambiguous if
+EXPRESSION contains unparenthesized operators other than ‘$’; for
+example, ‘"echo " "date" | getline VAR’ is ambiguous because the
 concatenation operator is not parenthesized.  You should write it as
-'("echo " "date") | getline VAR' if you want your program to be portable
-to other 'awk' implementations.
+‘("echo " "date") | getline VAR’ if you want your program to be portable
+to other ‘awk’ implementations.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Coprocess,  Next: Getline/Variable/Coprocess,  
Prev: Getline/Variable/Pipe,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.7 Using 'getline' from a Coprocess
+4.10.7 Using ‘getline’ from a Coprocess
 ---------------------------------------
 
-Reading input into 'getline' from a pipe is a one-way operation.  The
-command that is started with 'COMMAND | getline' only sends data _to_
-your 'awk' program.
+Reading input into ‘getline’ from a pipe is a one-way operation.  The
+command that is started with ‘COMMAND | getline’ only sends data _to_
+your ‘awk’ program.
 
    On occasion, you might want to send data to another program for
-processing and then read the results back.  'gawk' allows you to start a
-"coprocess", with which two-way communications are possible.  This is
-done with the '|&' operator.  Typically, you write data to the coprocess
+processing and then read the results back.  ‘gawk’ allows you to start a
+“coprocess”, with which two-way communications are possible.  This is
+done with the ‘|&’ operator.  Typically, you write data to the coprocess
 first and then read the results back, as shown in the following:
 
      print "SOME QUERY" |& "db_server"
      "db_server" |& getline
 
-which sends a query to 'db_server' and then reads the results.
+which sends a query to ‘db_server’ and then reads the results.
 
-   The values of 'NR' and 'FNR' are not changed, because the main input
+   The values of ‘NR’ and ‘FNR’ are not changed, because the main input
 stream is not used.  However, the record is split into fields in the
-normal manner, thus changing the values of '$0', of the other fields,
-and of 'NF' and 'RT'.
+normal manner, thus changing the values of ‘$0’, of the other fields,
+and of ‘NF’ and ‘RT’.
 
    Coprocesses are an advanced feature.  They are discussed here only
-because this is the minor node on 'getline'.  *Note Two-way I/O::, where
+because this is the minor node on ‘getline’.  *Note Two-way I/O::, where
 coprocesses are discussed in more detail.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline/Variable/Coprocess,  Next: Getline Notes,  
Prev: Getline/Coprocess,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.8 Using 'getline' into a Variable from a Coprocess
+4.10.8 Using ‘getline’ into a Variable from a Coprocess
 -------------------------------------------------------
 
-When you use 'COMMAND |& getline VAR', the output from the coprocess
-COMMAND is sent through a two-way pipe to 'getline' and into the
+When you use ‘COMMAND |& getline VAR’, the output from the coprocess
+COMMAND is sent through a two-way pipe to ‘getline’ and into the
 variable VAR.
 
-   In this version of 'getline', none of the predefined variables are
+   In this version of ‘getline’, none of the predefined variables are
 changed and the record is not split into fields.  The only variable
-changed is VAR.  However, 'RT' is set.
+changed is VAR.  However, ‘RT’ is set.
 
    Coprocesses are an advanced feature.  They are discussed here only
-because this is the minor node on 'getline'.  *Note Two-way I/O::, where
+because this is the minor node on ‘getline’.  *Note Two-way I/O::, where
 coprocesses are discussed in more detail.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline Notes,  Next: Getline Summary,  Prev: 
Getline/Variable/Coprocess,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.9 Points to Remember About 'getline'
+4.10.9 Points to Remember About ‘getline’
 -----------------------------------------
 
-Here are some miscellaneous points about 'getline' that you should bear
+Here are some miscellaneous points about ‘getline’ that you should bear
 in mind:
 
-   * When 'getline' changes the value of '$0' and 'NF', 'awk' does _not_
+   • When ‘getline’ changes the value of ‘$0’ and ‘NF’, 
‘awk’ does _not_
      automatically jump to the start of the program and start testing
      the new record against every pattern.  However, the new record is
      tested against any subsequent rules.
 
-   * Some very old 'awk' implementations limit the number of pipelines
-     that an 'awk' program may have open to just one.  In 'gawk', there
+   • Some very old ‘awk’ implementations limit the number of pipelines
+     that an ‘awk’ program may have open to just one.  In ‘gawk’, there
      is no such limit.  You can open as many pipelines (and coprocesses)
      as the underlying operating system permits.
 
-   * An interesting side effect occurs if you use 'getline' without a
-     redirection inside a 'BEGIN' rule.  Because an unredirected
-     'getline' reads from the command-line data files, the first
-     'getline' command causes 'awk' to set the value of 'FILENAME'.
-     Normally, 'FILENAME' does not have a value inside 'BEGIN' rules,
+   • An interesting side effect occurs if you use ‘getline’ without a
+     redirection inside a ‘BEGIN’ rule.  Because an unredirected
+     ‘getline’ reads from the command-line data files, the first
+     ‘getline’ command causes ‘awk’ to set the value of ‘FILENAME’.
+     Normally, ‘FILENAME’ does not have a value inside ‘BEGIN’ rules,
      because you have not yet started to process the command-line data
      files.  (d.c.)  (See *note BEGIN/END::; also *note Auto-set::.)
 
-   * Using 'FILENAME' with 'getline' ('getline < FILENAME') is likely to
-     be a source of confusion.  'awk' opens a separate input stream from
-     the current input file.  However, by not using a variable, '$0' and
-     'NF' are still updated.  If you're doing this, it's probably by
-     accident, and you should reconsider what it is you're trying to
+   • Using ‘FILENAME’ with ‘getline’ (‘getline < FILENAME’) is 
likely to
+     be a source of confusion.  ‘awk’ opens a separate input stream from
+     the current input file.  However, by not using a variable, ‘$0’ and
+     ‘NF’ are still updated.  If you’re doing this, it’s probably by
+     accident, and you should reconsider what it is you’re trying to
      accomplish.
 
-   * *note Getline Summary::, presents a table summarizing the 'getline'
+   • *note Getline Summary::, presents a table summarizing the ‘getline’
      variants and which variables they can affect.  It is worth noting
      that those variants that do not use redirection can cause
-     'FILENAME' to be updated if they cause 'awk' to start reading a new
+     ‘FILENAME’ to be updated if they cause ‘awk’ to start reading a 
new
      input file.
 
-   * If the variable being assigned is an expression with side effects,
-     different versions of 'awk' behave differently upon encountering
-     end-of-file.  Some versions don't evaluate the expression; many
-     versions (including 'gawk') do.  Here is an example, courtesy of
+   • If the variable being assigned is an expression with side effects,
+     different versions of ‘awk’ behave differently upon encountering
+     end-of-file.  Some versions don’t evaluate the expression; many
+     versions (including ‘gawk’) do.  Here is an example, courtesy of
      Duncan Moore:
 
           BEGIN {
@@ -6416,42 +6416,42 @@ in mind:
               print c
           }
 
-     Here, the side effect is the '++c'.  Is 'c' incremented if
-     end-of-file is encountered before the element in 'a' is assigned?
+     Here, the side effect is the ‘++c’.  Is ‘c’ incremented if
+     end-of-file is encountered before the element in ‘a’ is assigned?
 
-     'gawk' treats 'getline' like a function call, and evaluates the
-     expression 'a[++c]' before attempting to read from 'f'.  However,
-     some versions of 'awk' only evaluate the expression once they know
+     ‘gawk’ treats ‘getline’ like a function call, and evaluates the
+     expression ‘a[++c]’ before attempting to read from ‘f’.  However,
+     some versions of ‘awk’ only evaluate the expression once they know
      that there is a string value to be assigned.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Getline Summary,  Prev: Getline Notes,  Up: Getline
 
-4.10.10 Summary of 'getline' Variants
+4.10.10 Summary of ‘getline’ Variants
 -------------------------------------
 
 *note Table 4.1: table-getline-variants. summarizes the eight variants
-of 'getline', listing which predefined variables are set by each one,
-and whether the variant is standard or a 'gawk' extension.  Note: for
-each variant, 'gawk' sets the 'RT' predefined variable.
+of ‘getline’, listing which predefined variables are set by each one,
+and whether the variant is standard or a ‘gawk’ extension.  Note: for
+each variant, ‘gawk’ sets the ‘RT’ predefined variable.
 
 
-Variant                  Effect                      'awk' / 'gawk'
+Variant                  Effect                      ‘awk’ / ‘gawk’
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------
-'getline'                Sets '$0', 'NF', 'FNR',     'awk'
-                         'NR', and 'RT'
-'getline' VAR            Sets VAR, 'FNR', 'NR',      'awk'
-                         and 'RT'
-'getline <' FILE         Sets '$0', 'NF', and 'RT'   'awk'
-'getline VAR < FILE'     Sets VAR and 'RT'           'awk'
-COMMAND '| getline'      Sets '$0', 'NF', and 'RT'   'awk'
-COMMAND '| getline'      Sets VAR and 'RT'           'awk'
+‘getline’                Sets ‘$0’, ‘NF’, ‘FNR’,     ‘awk’
+                         ‘NR’, and ‘RT’
+‘getline’ VAR            Sets VAR, ‘FNR’, ‘NR’,      ‘awk’
+                         and ‘RT’
+‘getline <’ FILE         Sets ‘$0’, ‘NF’, and ‘RT’   ‘awk’
+‘getline VAR < FILE’     Sets VAR and ‘RT’           ‘awk’
+COMMAND ‘| getline’      Sets ‘$0’, ‘NF’, and ‘RT’   ‘awk’
+COMMAND ‘| getline’      Sets VAR and ‘RT’           ‘awk’
 VAR
-COMMAND '|& getline'     Sets '$0', 'NF', and 'RT'   'gawk'
-COMMAND '|& getline'     Sets VAR and 'RT'           'gawk'
+COMMAND ‘|& getline’     Sets ‘$0’, ‘NF’, and ‘RT’   ‘gawk’
+COMMAND ‘|& getline’     Sets VAR and ‘RT’           ‘gawk’
 VAR
 
-Table 4.1: 'getline' variants and what they set
+Table 4.1: ‘getline’ variants and what they set
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Read Timeout,  Next: Retrying Input,  Prev: Getline,  
Up: Reading Files
@@ -6459,16 +6459,16 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Read Timeout,  Next: Retrying 
Input,  Prev: Getline,  Up
 4.11 Reading Input with a Timeout
 =================================
 
-This minor node describes a feature that is specific to 'gawk'.
+This minor node describes a feature that is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
    You may specify a timeout in milliseconds for reading input from the
 keyboard, a pipe, or two-way communication, including TCP/IP sockets.
 This can be done on a per-input, per-command, or per-connection basis,
-by setting a special element in the 'PROCINFO' array (*note Auto-set::):
+by setting a special element in the ‘PROCINFO’ array (*note Auto-set::):
 
      PROCINFO["input_name", "READ_TIMEOUT"] = TIMEOUT IN MILLISECONDS
 
-   When set, this causes 'gawk' to time out and return failure if no
+   When set, this causes ‘gawk’ to time out and return failure if no
 data is available to read within the specified timeout period.  For
 example, a TCP client can decide to give up on receiving any response
 from the server after a certain amount of time:
@@ -6487,8 +6487,8 @@ for more than five seconds:
      while ((getline < "/dev/stdin") > 0)
          print $0
 
-   'gawk' terminates the read operation if input does not arrive after
-waiting for the timeout period, returns failure, and sets 'ERRNO' to an
+   ‘gawk’ terminates the read operation if input does not arrive after
+waiting for the timeout period, returns failure, and sets ‘ERRNO’ to an
 appropriate string value.  A negative or zero value for the timeout is
 the same as specifying no timeout at all.
 
@@ -6499,12 +6499,12 @@ patterns, like so:
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { PROCINFO["-", "READ_TIMEOUT"] = 5000 }
      > { print "You entered: " $0 }'
      gawk
-     -| You entered: gawk
+     ⊣ You entered: gawk
 
    In this case, failure to respond within five seconds results in the
 following error message:
 
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:2: (FILENAME=- FNR=1) fatal: error reading input 
file `-': Connection timed out
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:2: (FILENAME=- FNR=1) fatal: error reading input 
file `-': Connection timed out
 
    The timeout can be set or changed at any time, and will take effect
 on the next attempt to read from the input device.  In the following
@@ -6520,24 +6520,24 @@ input to arrive:
 
      NOTE: You should not assume that the read operation will block
      exactly after the tenth record has been printed.  It is possible
-     that 'gawk' will read and buffer more than one record's worth of
+     that ‘gawk’ will read and buffer more than one record’s worth of
      data the first time.  Because of this, changing the value of
      timeout like in the preceding example is not very useful.
 
-   If the 'PROCINFO' element is not present and the 'GAWK_READ_TIMEOUT'
-environment variable exists, 'gawk' uses its value to initialize the
+   If the ‘PROCINFO’ element is not present and the ‘GAWK_READ_TIMEOUT’
+environment variable exists, ‘gawk’ uses its value to initialize the
 timeout value.  The exclusive use of the environment variable to specify
 timeout has the disadvantage of not being able to control it on a
 per-command or per-connection basis.
 
-   'gawk' considers a timeout event to be an error even though the
+   ‘gawk’ considers a timeout event to be an error even though the
 attempt to read from the underlying device may succeed in a later
 attempt.  This is a limitation, and it also means that you cannot use
 this to multiplex input from two or more sources.  *Note Retrying
 Input:: for a way to enable later I/O attempts to succeed.
 
    Assigning a timeout value prevents read operations from being blocked
-indefinitely.  But bear in mind that there are other ways 'gawk' can
+indefinitely.  But bear in mind that there are other ways ‘gawk’ can
 stall waiting for an input device to be ready.  A network client can
 sometimes take a long time to establish a connection before it can start
 reading any data, or the attempt to open a FIFO special file for reading
@@ -6554,25 +6554,25 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Retrying Input,  Next: 
Command-line directories,  Prev:
 4.12 Retrying Reads After Certain Input Errors
 ==============================================
 
-This minor node describes a feature that is specific to 'gawk'.
+This minor node describes a feature that is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
-   When 'gawk' encounters an error while reading input, by default
-'getline' returns -1, and subsequent attempts to read from that file
+   When ‘gawk’ encounters an error while reading input, by default
+‘getline’ returns −1, and subsequent attempts to read from that file
 result in an end-of-file indication.  However, you may optionally
-instruct 'gawk' to allow I/O to be retried when certain errors are
-encountered by setting a special element in the 'PROCINFO' array (*note
+instruct ‘gawk’ to allow I/O to be retried when certain errors are
+encountered by setting a special element in the ‘PROCINFO’ array (*note
 Auto-set::):
 
      PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "RETRY"] = 1
 
-   When this element exists, 'gawk' checks the value of the system (C
-language) 'errno' variable when an I/O error occurs.  If 'errno'
-indicates a subsequent I/O attempt may succeed, 'getline' instead
-returns -2 and further calls to 'getline' may succeed.  This applies to
-the 'errno' values 'EAGAIN', 'EWOULDBLOCK', 'EINTR', or 'ETIMEDOUT'.
+   When this element exists, ‘gawk’ checks the value of the system (C
+language) ‘errno’ variable when an I/O error occurs.  If ‘errno’
+indicates a subsequent I/O attempt may succeed, ‘getline’ instead
+returns −2 and further calls to ‘getline’ may succeed.  This applies to
+the ‘errno’ values ‘EAGAIN’, ‘EWOULDBLOCK’, ‘EINTR’, or 
‘ETIMEDOUT’.
 
-   This feature is useful in conjunction with 'PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME",
-"READ_TIMEOUT"]' or situations where a file descriptor has been
+   This feature is useful in conjunction with ‘PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME",
+"READ_TIMEOUT"]’ or situations where a file descriptor has been
 configured to behave in a non-blocking fashion.
 
 
@@ -6581,22 +6581,22 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Command-line directories,  
Next: Input Summary,  Prev: R
 4.13 Directories on the Command Line
 ====================================
 
-According to the POSIX standard, files named on the 'awk' command line
+According to the POSIX standard, files named on the ‘awk’ command line
 must be text files; it is a fatal error if they are not.  Most versions
-of 'awk' treat a directory on the command line as a fatal error.
+of ‘awk’ treat a directory on the command line as a fatal error.
 
-   By default, 'gawk' produces a warning for a directory on the command
+   By default, ‘gawk’ produces a warning for a directory on the command
 line, but otherwise ignores it.  This makes it easier to use shell
-wildcards with your 'awk' program:
+wildcards with your ‘awk’ program:
 
      $ gawk -f whizprog.awk *        Directories could kill this program
 
-   If either of the '--posix' or '--traditional' options is given, then
-'gawk' reverts to treating a directory on the command line as a fatal
+   If either of the ‘--posix’ or ‘--traditional’ options is given, then
+‘gawk’ reverts to treating a directory on the command line as a fatal
 error.
 
    *Note Extension Sample Readdir:: for a way to treat directories as
-usable data from an 'awk' program.
+usable data from an ‘awk’ program.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Input Summary,  Next: Input Exercises,  Prev: 
Command-line directories,  Up: Reading Files
@@ -6604,71 +6604,71 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Input Summary,  Next: Input 
Exercises,  Prev: Command-li
 4.14 Summary
 ============
 
-   * Input is split into records based on the value of 'RS'.  The
+   • Input is split into records based on the value of ‘RS’.  The
      possibilities are as follows:
 
-     Value of 'RS'      Records are split on      'awk' / 'gawk'
+     Value of ‘RS’      Records are split on      ‘awk’ / ‘gawk’
                         ...
      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-     Any single         That character            'awk'
+     Any single         That character            ‘awk’
      character
-     The empty string   Runs of two or more       'awk'
-     ('""')             newlines
-     A regexp           Text that matches the     'gawk'
+     The empty string   Runs of two or more       ‘awk’
+     (‘""’)             newlines
+     A regexp           Text that matches the     ‘gawk’
                         regexp
 
-   * 'FNR' indicates how many records have been read from the current
-     input file; 'NR' indicates how many records have been read in
+   • ‘FNR’ indicates how many records have been read from the current
+     input file; ‘NR’ indicates how many records have been read in
      total.
 
-   * 'gawk' sets 'RT' to the text matched by 'RS'.
+   • ‘gawk’ sets ‘RT’ to the text matched by ‘RS’.
 
-   * After splitting the input into records, 'awk' further splits the
-     records into individual fields, named '$1', '$2', and so on.  '$0'
-     is the whole record, and 'NF' indicates how many fields there are.
+   • After splitting the input into records, ‘awk’ further splits the
+     records into individual fields, named ‘$1’, ‘$2’, and so on.  
‘$0’
+     is the whole record, and ‘NF’ indicates how many fields there are.
      The default way to split fields is between whitespace characters.
 
-   * Fields may be referenced using a variable, as in '$NF'.  Fields may
-     also be assigned values, which causes the value of '$0' to be
+   • Fields may be referenced using a variable, as in ‘$NF’.  Fields may
+     also be assigned values, which causes the value of ‘$0’ to be
      recomputed when it is later referenced.  Assigning to a field with
-     a number greater than 'NF' creates the field and rebuilds the
-     record, using 'OFS' to separate the fields.  Incrementing 'NF' does
-     the same thing.  Decrementing 'NF' throws away fields and rebuilds
+     a number greater than ‘NF’ creates the field and rebuilds the
+     record, using ‘OFS’ to separate the fields.  Incrementing ‘NF’ 
does
+     the same thing.  Decrementing ‘NF’ throws away fields and rebuilds
      the record.
 
-   * Field splitting is more complicated than record splitting:
+   • Field splitting is more complicated than record splitting:
 
-     Field separator value         Fields are split ...          'awk' /
-                                                                 'gawk'
+     Field separator value         Fields are split ...          ‘awk’ /
+                                                                 ‘gawk’
      
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-     'FS == " "'                   On runs of whitespace         'awk'
-     'FS == ANY SINGLE             On that character             'awk'
-     CHARACTER'
-     'FS == REGEXP'                On text matching the regexp   'awk'
-     'FS == ""'                    Such that each individual     'gawk'
+     ‘FS == " "’                   On runs of whitespace         ‘awk’
+     ‘FS == ANY SINGLE             On that character             ‘awk’
+     CHARACTER’
+     ‘FS == REGEXP’                On text matching the regexp   ‘awk’
+     ‘FS == ""’                    Such that each individual     ‘gawk’
                                    character is a separate
                                    field
-     'FIELDWIDTHS == LIST OF       Based on character position   'gawk'
-     COLUMNS'
-     'FPAT == REGEXP'              On the text surrounding       'gawk'
+     ‘FIELDWIDTHS == LIST OF       Based on character position   ‘gawk’
+     COLUMNS’
+     ‘FPAT == REGEXP’              On the text surrounding       ‘gawk’
                                    text matching the regexp
 
-   * Using 'FS = "\n"' causes the entire record to be a single field
+   • Using ‘FS = "\n"’ causes the entire record to be a single field
      (assuming that newlines separate records).
 
-   * 'FS' may be set from the command line using the '-F' option.  This
+   • ‘FS’ may be set from the command line using the ‘-F’ option.  
This
      can also be done using command-line variable assignment.
 
-   * Use 'PROCINFO["FS"]' to see how fields are being split.
+   • Use ‘PROCINFO["FS"]’ to see how fields are being split.
 
-   * Use 'getline' in its various forms to read additional records from
+   • Use ‘getline’ in its various forms to read additional records from
      the default input stream, from a file, or from a pipe or coprocess.
 
-   * Use 'PROCINFO[FILE, "READ_TIMEOUT"]' to cause reads to time out for
+   • Use ‘PROCINFO[FILE, "READ_TIMEOUT"]’ to cause reads to time out for
      FILE.
 
-   * Directories on the command line are fatal for standard 'awk';
-     'gawk' ignores them if not in POSIX mode.
+   • Directories on the command line are fatal for standard ‘awk’;
+     ‘gawk’ ignores them if not in POSIX mode.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Input Exercises,  Prev: Input Summary,  Up: Reading 
Files
@@ -6676,9 +6676,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Input Exercises,  Prev: Input 
Summary,  Up: Reading File
 4.15 Exercises
 ==============
 
-  1. Using the 'FIELDWIDTHS' variable (*note Constant Size::), write a
+  1. Using the ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ variable (*note Constant Size::), write a
      program to read election data, where each record represents one
-     voter's votes.  Come up with a way to define which columns are
+     voter’s votes.  Come up with a way to define which columns are
      associated with each ballot item, and print the total votes,
      including abstentions, for each item.
 
@@ -6688,33 +6688,33 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Printing,  Next: Expressions,  
Prev: Reading Files,  Up:
 5 Printing Output
 *****************
 
-One of the most common programming actions is to "print", or output,
-some or all of the input.  Use the 'print' statement for simple output,
-and the 'printf' statement for fancier formatting.  The 'print'
+One of the most common programming actions is to “print”, or output,
+some or all of the input.  Use the ‘print’ statement for simple output,
+and the ‘printf’ statement for fancier formatting.  The ‘print’
 statement is not limited when computing _which_ values to print.
-However, with two exceptions, you cannot specify _how_ to print
-them--how many columns, whether to use exponential notation or not, and
-so on.  (For the exceptions, *note Output Separators:: and *note
-OFMT::.)  For printing with specifications, you need the 'printf'
-statement (*note Printf::).
+However, with two exceptions, you cannot specify _how_ to print them—how
+many columns, whether to use exponential notation or not, and so on.
+(For the exceptions, *note Output Separators:: and *note OFMT::.)  For
+printing with specifications, you need the ‘printf’ statement (*note
+Printf::).
 
    Besides basic and formatted printing, this major node also covers I/O
 redirections to files and pipes, introduces the special file names that
-'gawk' processes internally, and discusses the 'close()' built-in
+‘gawk’ processes internally, and discusses the ‘close()’ built-in
 function.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Print::                       The 'print' statement.
-* Print Examples::              Simple examples of 'print' statements.
+* Print::                       The ‘print’ statement.
+* Print Examples::              Simple examples of ‘print’ statements.
 * Output Separators::           The output separators and how to change them.
-* OFMT::                        Controlling Numeric Output With 'print'.
-* Printf::                      The 'printf' statement.
+* OFMT::                        Controlling Numeric Output With ‘print’.
+* Printf::                      The ‘printf’ statement.
 * Redirection::                 How to redirect output to multiple files and
                                 pipes.
 * Special FD::                  Special files for I/O.
-* Special Files::               File name interpretation in 'gawk'.
-                                'gawk' allows access to inherited file
+* Special Files::               File name interpretation in ‘gawk’.
+                                ‘gawk’ allows access to inherited file
                                 descriptors.
 * Close Files And Pipes::       Closing Input and Output Files and Pipes.
 * Nonfatal::                    Enabling Nonfatal Output.
@@ -6724,10 +6724,10 @@ function.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Print,  Next: Print Examples,  Up: Printing
 
-5.1 The 'print' Statement
+5.1 The ‘print’ Statement
 =========================
 
-Use the 'print' statement to produce output with simple, standardized
+Use the ‘print’ statement to produce output with simple, standardized
 formatting.  You specify only the strings or numbers to print, in a list
 separated by commas.  They are output, separated by single spaces,
 followed by a newline.  The statement looks like this:
@@ -6735,72 +6735,72 @@ followed by a newline.  The statement looks like this:
      print ITEM1, ITEM2, ...
 
 The entire list of items may be optionally enclosed in parentheses.  The
-parentheses are necessary if any of the item expressions uses the '>'
+parentheses are necessary if any of the item expressions uses the ‘>’
 relational operator; otherwise it could be confused with an output
 redirection (*note Redirection::).
 
    The items to print can be constant strings or numbers, fields of the
-current record (such as '$1'), variables, or any 'awk' expression.
+current record (such as ‘$1’), variables, or any ‘awk’ expression.
 Numeric values are converted to strings and then printed.
 
-   The simple statement 'print' with no items is equivalent to 'print
-$0': it prints the entire current record.  To print a blank line, use
-'print ""'.  To print a fixed piece of text, use a string constant, such
-as '"Don't Panic"', as one item.  If you forget to use the double-quote
-characters, your text is taken as an 'awk' expression, and you will
+   The simple statement ‘print’ with no items is equivalent to ‘print
+$0’: it prints the entire current record.  To print a blank line, use
+‘print ""’.  To print a fixed piece of text, use a string constant, such
+as ‘"Don't Panic"’, as one item.  If you forget to use the double-quote
+characters, your text is taken as an ‘awk’ expression, and you will
 probably get an error.  Keep in mind that a space is printed between any
 two items.
 
-   Note that the 'print' statement is a statement and not an
-expression--you can't use it in the pattern part of a pattern-action
+   Note that the ‘print’ statement is a statement and not an
+expression—you can’t use it in the pattern part of a pattern–action
 statement, for example.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Print Examples,  Next: Output Separators,  Prev: 
Print,  Up: Printing
 
-5.2 'print' Statement Examples
+5.2 ‘print’ Statement Examples
 ==============================
 
-Each 'print' statement makes at least one line of output.  However, it
-isn't limited to only one line.  If an item value is a string containing
+Each ‘print’ statement makes at least one line of output.  However, it
+isn’t limited to only one line.  If an item value is a string containing
 a newline, the newline is output along with the rest of the string.  A
-single 'print' statement can make any number of lines this way.
+single ‘print’ statement can make any number of lines this way.
 
    The following is an example of printing a string that contains
-embedded newlines (the '\n' is an escape sequence, used to represent the
+embedded newlines (the ‘\n’ is an escape sequence, used to represent the
 newline character; *note Escape Sequences::):
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print "line one\nline two\nline three" }'
-     -| line one
-     -| line two
-     -| line three
+     ⊣ line one
+     ⊣ line two
+     ⊣ line three
 
-   The next example, which is run on the 'inventory-shipped' file,
+   The next example, which is run on the ‘inventory-shipped’ file,
 prints the first two fields of each input record, with a space between
 them:
 
      $ awk '{ print $1, $2 }' inventory-shipped
-     -| Jan 13
-     -| Feb 15
-     -| Mar 15
+     ⊣ Jan 13
+     ⊣ Feb 15
+     ⊣ Mar 15
      ...
 
-   A common mistake in using the 'print' statement is to omit the comma
+   A common mistake in using the ‘print’ statement is to omit the comma
 between two items.  This often has the effect of making the items run
 together in the output, with no space.  The reason for this is that
-juxtaposing two string expressions in 'awk' means to concatenate them.
+juxtaposing two string expressions in ‘awk’ means to concatenate them.
 Here is the same program, without the comma:
 
      $ awk '{ print $1 $2 }' inventory-shipped
-     -| Jan13
-     -| Feb15
-     -| Mar15
+     ⊣ Jan13
+     ⊣ Feb15
+     ⊣ Mar15
      ...
 
-   To someone unfamiliar with the 'inventory-shipped' file, neither
-example's output makes much sense.  A heading line at the beginning
-would make it clearer.  Let's add some headings to our table of months
-('$1') and green crates shipped ('$2').  We do this using a 'BEGIN' rule
+   To someone unfamiliar with the ‘inventory-shipped’ file, neither
+example’s output makes much sense.  A heading line at the beginning
+would make it clearer.  Let’s add some headings to our table of months
+(‘$1’) and green crates shipped (‘$2’).  We do this using a 
‘BEGIN’ rule
 (*note BEGIN/END::) so that the headings are only printed once:
 
      awk 'BEGIN {  print "Month Crates"
@@ -6816,7 +6816,7 @@ When run, the program prints the following:
      Mar 15
      ...
 
-The only problem, however, is that the headings and the table data don't
+The only problem, however, is that the headings and the table data don’t
 line up!  We can fix this by printing some spaces between the two
 fields:
 
@@ -6827,10 +6827,10 @@ fields:
    Lining up columns this way can get pretty complicated when there are
 many columns to fix.  Counting spaces for two or three columns is
 simple, but any more than this can take up a lot of time.  This is why
-the 'printf' statement was created (*note Printf::); one of its
+the ‘printf’ statement was created (*note Printf::); one of its
 specialties is lining up columns of data.
 
-     NOTE: You can continue either a 'print' or 'printf' statement
+     NOTE: You can continue either a ‘print’ or ‘printf’ statement
      simply by putting a newline after any comma (*note
      Statements/Lines::).
 
@@ -6840,102 +6840,102 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Output Separators,  Next: 
OFMT,  Prev: Print Examples,
 5.3 Output Separators
 =====================
 
-As mentioned previously, a 'print' statement contains a list of items
+As mentioned previously, a ‘print’ statement contains a list of items
 separated by commas.  In the output, the items are normally separated by
-single spaces.  However, this doesn't need to be the case; a single
+single spaces.  However, this doesn’t need to be the case; a single
 space is simply the default.  Any string of characters may be used as
-the "output field separator" by setting the predefined variable 'OFS'.
-The initial value of this variable is the string '" "' (i.e., a single
+the “output field separator” by setting the predefined variable ‘OFS’.
+The initial value of this variable is the string ‘" "’ (i.e., a single
 space).
 
-   The output from an entire 'print' statement is called an "output
-record".  Each 'print' statement outputs one output record, and then
-outputs a string called the "output record separator" (or 'ORS').  The
-initial value of 'ORS' is the string '"\n"' (i.e., a newline character).
-Thus, each 'print' statement normally makes a separate line.
+   The output from an entire ‘print’ statement is called an “output
+record”.  Each ‘print’ statement outputs one output record, and then
+outputs a string called the “output record separator” (or ‘ORS’).  The
+initial value of ‘ORS’ is the string ‘"\n"’ (i.e., a newline 
character).
+Thus, each ‘print’ statement normally makes a separate line.
 
    In order to change how output fields and records are separated,
-assign new values to the variables 'OFS' and 'ORS'.  The usual place to
-do this is in the 'BEGIN' rule (*note BEGIN/END::), so that it happens
+assign new values to the variables ‘OFS’ and ‘ORS’.  The usual place to
+do this is in the ‘BEGIN’ rule (*note BEGIN/END::), so that it happens
 before any input is processed.  It can also be done with assignments on
-the command line, before the names of the input files, or using the '-v'
+the command line, before the names of the input files, or using the ‘-v’
 command-line option (*note Options::).  The following example prints the
 first and second fields of each input record, separated by a semicolon,
 with a blank line added after each newline:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { OFS = ";"; ORS = "\n\n" }
      >            { print $1, $2 }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia;555-5553
-     -|
-     -| Anthony;555-3412
-     -|
-     -| Becky;555-7685
-     -|
-     -| Bill;555-1675
-     -|
-     -| Broderick;555-0542
-     -|
-     -| Camilla;555-2912
-     -|
-     -| Fabius;555-1234
-     -|
-     -| Julie;555-6699
-     -|
-     -| Martin;555-6480
-     -|
-     -| Samuel;555-3430
-     -|
-     -| Jean-Paul;555-2127
-     -|
-
-   If the value of 'ORS' does not contain a newline, the program's
+     ⊣ Amelia;555-5553
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Anthony;555-3412
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Becky;555-7685
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Bill;555-1675
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Broderick;555-0542
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Camilla;555-2912
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Fabius;555-1234
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Julie;555-6699
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Martin;555-6480
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Samuel;555-3430
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul;555-2127
+     ⊣
+
+   If the value of ‘ORS’ does not contain a newline, the program’s
 output runs together on a single line.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: OFMT,  Next: Printf,  Prev: Output Separators,  Up: 
Printing
 
-5.4 Controlling Numeric Output with 'print'
+5.4 Controlling Numeric Output with ‘print’
 ===========================================
 
-When printing numeric values with the 'print' statement, 'awk'
+When printing numeric values with the ‘print’ statement, ‘awk’
 internally converts each number to a string of characters and prints
-that string.  'awk' uses the 'sprintf()' function to do this conversion
+that string.  ‘awk’ uses the ‘sprintf()’ function to do this conversion
 (*note String Functions::).  For now, it suffices to say that the
-'sprintf()' function accepts a "format specification" that tells it how
+‘sprintf()’ function accepts a “format specification” that tells it how
 to format numbers (or strings), and that there are a number of different
 ways in which numbers can be formatted.  The different format
 specifications are discussed more fully in *note Control Letters::.
 
-   The predefined variable 'OFMT' contains the format specification that
-'print' uses with 'sprintf()' when it wants to convert a number to a
-string for printing.  The default value of 'OFMT' is '"%.6g"'.  The way
-'print' prints numbers can be changed by supplying a different format
-specification for the value of 'OFMT', as shown in the following
+   The predefined variable ‘OFMT’ contains the format specification that
+‘print’ uses with ‘sprintf()’ when it wants to convert a number to a
+string for printing.  The default value of ‘OFMT’ is ‘"%.6g"’.  The way
+‘print’ prints numbers can be changed by supplying a different format
+specification for the value of ‘OFMT’, as shown in the following
 example:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN {
      >   OFMT = "%.0f"  # print numbers as integers (rounds)
      >   print 17.23, 17.54 }'
-     -| 17 18
+     ⊣ 17 18
 
-According to the POSIX standard, 'awk''s behavior is undefined if 'OFMT'
+According to the POSIX standard, ‘awk’’s behavior is undefined if 
‘OFMT’
 contains anything but a floating-point conversion specification.  (d.c.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Printf,  Next: Redirection,  Prev: OFMT,  Up: Printing
 
-5.5 Using 'printf' Statements for Fancier Printing
+5.5 Using ‘printf’ Statements for Fancier Printing
 ==================================================
 
 For more precise control over the output format than what is provided by
-'print', use 'printf'.  With 'printf' you can specify the width to use
+‘print’, use ‘printf’.  With ‘printf’ you can specify the width to 
use
 for each item, as well as various formatting choices for numbers (such
 as what output base to use, whether to print an exponent, whether to
 print a sign, and how many digits to print after the decimal point).
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Basic Printf::                Syntax of the 'printf' statement.
+* Basic Printf::                Syntax of the ‘printf’ statement.
 * Control Letters::             Format-control letters.
 * Format Modifiers::            Format-specification modifiers.
 * Printf Examples::             Several examples.
@@ -6943,33 +6943,33 @@ print a sign, and how many digits to print after the 
decimal point).
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Basic Printf,  Next: Control Letters,  Up: Printf
 
-5.5.1 Introduction to the 'printf' Statement
+5.5.1 Introduction to the ‘printf’ Statement
 --------------------------------------------
 
-A simple 'printf' statement looks like this:
+A simple ‘printf’ statement looks like this:
 
      printf FORMAT, ITEM1, ITEM2, ...
 
-As for 'print', the entire list of arguments may optionally be enclosed
+As for ‘print’, the entire list of arguments may optionally be enclosed
 in parentheses.  Here too, the parentheses are necessary if any of the
-item expressions uses the '>' relational operator; otherwise, it can be
+item expressions uses the ‘>’ relational operator; otherwise, it can be
 confused with an output redirection (*note Redirection::).
 
-   The difference between 'printf' and 'print' is the FORMAT argument.
+   The difference between ‘printf’ and ‘print’ is the FORMAT argument.
 This is an expression whose value is taken as a string; it specifies how
-to output each of the other arguments.  It is called the "format
-string".
+to output each of the other arguments.  It is called the “format
+string”.
 
    The format string is very similar to that in the ISO C library
-function 'printf()'.  Most of FORMAT is text to output verbatim.
-Scattered among this text are "format specifiers"--one per item.  Each
+function ‘printf()’.  Most of FORMAT is text to output verbatim.
+Scattered among this text are “format specifiers”—one per item.  Each
 format specifier says to output the next item in the argument list at
 that place in the format.
 
-   The 'printf' statement does not automatically append a newline to its
+   The ‘printf’ statement does not automatically append a newline to its
 output.  It outputs only what the format string specifies.  So if a
 newline is needed, you must include one in the format string.  The
-output separator variables 'OFS' and 'ORS' have no effect on 'printf'
+output separator variables ‘OFS’ and ‘ORS’ have no effect on 
‘printf’
 statements.  For example:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN {
@@ -6977,9 +6977,9 @@ statements.  For example:
      >    msg = "Don\47t Panic!"
      >    printf "%s\n", msg
      > }'
-     -| Don't Panic!
+     ⊣ Don't Panic!
 
-Here, neither the '+' nor the 'OUCH!' appears in the output message.
+Here, neither the ‘+’ nor the ‘OUCH!’ appears in the output message.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Control Letters,  Next: Format Modifiers,  Prev: Basic 
Printf,  Up: Printf
@@ -6987,139 +6987,139 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Control Letters,  Next: 
Format Modifiers,  Prev: Basic P
 5.5.2 Format-Control Letters
 ----------------------------
 
-A format specifier starts with the character '%' and ends with a
-"format-control letter"--it tells the 'printf' statement how to output
+A format specifier starts with the character ‘%’ and ends with a
+“format-control letter”—it tells the ‘printf’ statement how to output
 one item.  The format-control letter specifies what _kind_ of value to
 print.  The rest of the format specifier is made up of optional
-"modifiers" that control _how_ to print the value, such as the field
+“modifiers” that control _how_ to print the value, such as the field
 width.  Here is a list of the format-control letters:
 
-'%a', '%A'
-     A floating point number of the form ['-']'0xH.HHHHp+-DD' (C99
-     hexadecimal floating point format).  For '%A', uppercase letters
+‘%a’, ‘%A’
+     A floating point number of the form [‘-’]‘0xH.HHHHp+-DD’ (C99
+     hexadecimal floating point format).  For ‘%A’, uppercase letters
      are used instead of lowercase ones.
 
-          NOTE: The current POSIX standard requires support for '%a' and
-          '%A' in 'awk'.  As far as we know, besides 'gawk', the only
-          other version of 'awk' that actually implements it is BWK
-          'awk'.  It's use is thus highly nonportable!
+          NOTE: The current POSIX standard requires support for ‘%a’ and
+          ‘%A’ in ‘awk’.  As far as we know, besides ‘gawk’, the 
only
+          other version of ‘awk’ that actually implements it is BWK
+          ‘awk’.  It’s use is thus highly nonportable!
 
           Furthermore, these formats are not available on any system
-          where the underlying C library 'printf()' function does not
+          where the underlying C library ‘printf()’ function does not
           support them.  As of this writing, among current systems, only
           OpenVMS is known to not support them.
 
-'%c'
-     Print a number as a character; thus, 'printf "%c", 65' outputs the
-     letter 'A'.  The output for a string value is the first character
+‘%c’
+     Print a number as a character; thus, ‘printf "%c", 65’ outputs the
+     letter ‘A’.  The output for a string value is the first character
      of the string.
 
           NOTE: The POSIX standard says the first character of a string
-          is printed.  In locales with multibyte characters, 'gawk'
+          is printed.  In locales with multibyte characters, ‘gawk’
           attempts to convert the leading bytes of the string into a
           valid wide character and then to print the multibyte encoding
           of that character.  Similarly, when printing a numeric value,
-          'gawk' allows the value to be within the numeric range of
+          ‘gawk’ allows the value to be within the numeric range of
           values that can be held in a wide character.  If the
-          conversion to multibyte encoding fails, 'gawk' uses the low
+          conversion to multibyte encoding fails, ‘gawk’ uses the low
           eight bits of the value as the character to print.
 
-          Other 'awk' versions generally restrict themselves to printing
+          Other ‘awk’ versions generally restrict themselves to printing
           the first byte of a string or to numeric values within the
-          range of a single byte (0-255).  (d.c.)
+          range of a single byte (0–255).  (d.c.)
 
-'%d', '%i'
+‘%d’, ‘%i’
      Print a decimal integer.  The two control letters are equivalent.
-     (The '%i' specification is for compatibility with ISO C.)
+     (The ‘%i’ specification is for compatibility with ISO C.)
 
-'%e', '%E'
+‘%e’, ‘%E’
      Print a number in scientific (exponential) notation.  For example:
 
           printf "%4.3e\n", 1950
 
-     prints '1.950e+03', with a total of four significant figures, three
-     of which follow the decimal point.  (The '4.3' represents two
-     modifiers, discussed in the next node.)  '%E' uses 'E' instead of
-     'e' in the output.
+     prints ‘1.950e+03’, with a total of four significant figures, three
+     of which follow the decimal point.  (The ‘4.3’ represents two
+     modifiers, discussed in the next node.)  ‘%E’ uses ‘E’ instead of
+     ‘e’ in the output.
 
-'%f'
+‘%f’
      Print a number in floating-point notation.  For example:
 
           printf "%4.3f", 1950
 
-     prints '1950.000', with a minimum of four significant figures,
-     three of which follow the decimal point.  (The '4.3' represents two
+     prints ‘1950.000’, with a minimum of four significant figures,
+     three of which follow the decimal point.  (The ‘4.3’ represents two
      modifiers, discussed in the next node.)
 
      On systems supporting IEEE 754 floating-point format, values
-     representing negative infinity are formatted as '-inf' or
-     '-infinity', and positive infinity as 'inf' or 'infinity'.  The
-     special "not a number" value formats as '-nan' or 'nan' (*note
+     representing negative infinity are formatted as ‘-inf’ or
+     ‘-infinity’, and positive infinity as ‘inf’ or ‘infinity’.  
The
+     special “not a number” value formats as ‘-nan’ or ‘nan’ (*note
      Strange values::).
 
-'%F'
-     Like '%f', but the infinity and "not a number" values are spelled
+‘%F’
+     Like ‘%f’, but the infinity and “not a number” values are spelled
      using uppercase letters.
 
-     The '%F' format is a POSIX extension to ISO C; not all systems
-     support it.  On those that don't, 'gawk' uses '%f' instead.
+     The ‘%F’ format is a POSIX extension to ISO C; not all systems
+     support it.  On those that don’t, ‘gawk’ uses ‘%f’ instead.
 
-'%g', '%G'
+‘%g’, ‘%G’
      Print a number in either scientific notation or in floating-point
      notation, whichever uses fewer characters; if the result is printed
-     in scientific notation, '%G' uses 'E' instead of 'e'.
+     in scientific notation, ‘%G’ uses ‘E’ instead of ‘e’.
 
-'%o'
+‘%o’
      Print an unsigned octal integer (*note Nondecimal-numbers::).
 
-'%s'
+‘%s’
      Print a string.
 
-'%u'
+‘%u’
      Print an unsigned decimal integer.  (This format is of marginal
-     use, because all numbers in 'awk' are floating point; it is
+     use, because all numbers in ‘awk’ are floating point; it is
      provided primarily for compatibility with C.)
 
-'%x', '%X'
-     Print an unsigned hexadecimal integer; '%X' uses the letters 'A'
-     through 'F' instead of 'a' through 'f' (*note
+‘%x’, ‘%X’
+     Print an unsigned hexadecimal integer; ‘%X’ uses the letters ‘A’
+     through ‘F’ instead of ‘a’ through ‘f’ (*note
      Nondecimal-numbers::).
 
-'%%'
-     Print a single '%'.  This does not consume an argument and it
+‘%%’
+     Print a single ‘%’.  This does not consume an argument and it
      ignores any modifiers.
 
      NOTE: When using the integer format-control letters for values that
-     are outside the range of the widest C integer type, 'gawk' switches
-     to the '%g' format specifier.  If '--lint' is provided on the
-     command line (*note Options::), 'gawk' warns about this.  Other
-     versions of 'awk' may print invalid values or do something else
+     are outside the range of the widest C integer type, ‘gawk’ switches
+     to the ‘%g’ format specifier.  If ‘--lint’ is provided on the
+     command line (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ warns about this.  Other
+     versions of ‘awk’ may print invalid values or do something else
      entirely.  (d.c.)
 
      NOTE: The IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic allows
-     for special values that represent "infinity" (positive and
-     negative) and values that are "not a number" (NaN).
+     for special values that represent “infinity” (positive and
+     negative) and values that are “not a number” (NaN).
 
      Input and output of these values occurs as text strings.  This is
-     somewhat problematic for the 'awk' language, which predates the
+     somewhat problematic for the ‘awk’ language, which predates the
      IEEE standard.  Further details are provided in *note POSIX
      Floating Point Problems::; please see there.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Format Modifiers,  Next: Printf Examples,  Prev: 
Control Letters,  Up: Printf
 
-5.5.3 Modifiers for 'printf' Formats
+5.5.3 Modifiers for ‘printf’ Formats
 ------------------------------------
 
-A format specification can also include "modifiers" that can control how
-much of the item's value is printed, as well as how much space it gets.
-The modifiers come between the '%' and the format-control letter.  We
-use the bullet symbol "*" in the following examples to represent spaces
+A format specification can also include “modifiers” that can control how
+much of the item’s value is printed, as well as how much space it gets.
+The modifiers come between the ‘%’ and the format-control letter.  We
+use the bullet symbol “•” in the following examples to represent spaces
 in the output.  Here are the possible modifiers, in the order in which
 they may appear:
 
-'N$'
-     An integer constant followed by a '$' is a "positional specifier".
+‘N$’
+     An integer constant followed by a ‘$’ is a “positional specifier”.
      Normally, format specifications are applied to arguments in the
      order given in the format string.  With a positional specifier, the
      format specification is applied to a specific argument, instead of
@@ -7131,12 +7131,12 @@ they may appear:
 
      prints the famous friendly message twice.
 
-     At first glance, this feature doesn't seem to be of much use.  It
-     is in fact a 'gawk' extension, intended for use in translating
+     At first glance, this feature doesn’t seem to be of much use.  It
+     is in fact a ‘gawk’ extension, intended for use in translating
      messages at runtime.  *Note Printf Ordering::, which describes how
      and why to use positional specifiers.  For now, we ignore them.
 
-'-' (Minus)
+‘-’ (Minus)
      The minus sign, used before the width modifier (see later on in
      this list), says to left-justify the argument within its specified
      width.  Normally, the argument is printed right-justified in the
@@ -7144,32 +7144,32 @@ they may appear:
 
           printf "%-4s", "foo"
 
-     prints 'foo*'.
+     prints ‘foo•’.
 
 SPACE
      For numeric conversions, prefix positive values with a space and
      negative values with a minus sign.
 
-'+'
+‘+’
      The plus sign, used before the width modifier (see later on in this
      list), says to always supply a sign for numeric conversions, even
-     if the data to format is positive.  The '+' overrides the space
+     if the data to format is positive.  The ‘+’ overrides the space
      modifier.
 
-'#'
-     Use an "alternative form" for certain control letters.  For '%o',
-     supply a leading zero.  For '%x' and '%X', supply a leading '0x' or
-     '0X' for a nonzero result.  For '%e', '%E', '%f', and '%F', the
-     result always contains a decimal point.  For '%g' and '%G',
+‘#’
+     Use an “alternative form” for certain control letters.  For ‘%o’,
+     supply a leading zero.  For ‘%x’ and ‘%X’, supply a leading 
‘0x’ or
+     ‘0X’ for a nonzero result.  For ‘%e’, ‘%E’, ‘%f’, and 
‘%F’, the
+     result always contains a decimal point.  For ‘%g’ and ‘%G’,
      trailing zeros are not removed from the result.
 
-'0'
-     A leading '0' (zero) acts as a flag indicating that output should
+‘0’
+     A leading ‘0’ (zero) acts as a flag indicating that output should
      be padded with zeros instead of spaces.  This applies only to the
      numeric output formats.  This flag only has an effect when the
      field width is wider than the value to print.
 
-'''
+‘'’
      A single quote or apostrophe character is a POSIX extension to ISO
      C. It indicates that the integer part of a floating-point value, or
      the entire part of an integer decimal value, should have a
@@ -7177,29 +7177,29 @@ SPACE
      that support such characters.  For example:
 
           $ cat thousands.awk          Show source program
-          -| BEGIN { printf "%'d\n", 1234567 }
+          ⊣ BEGIN { printf "%'d\n", 1234567 }
           $ LC_ALL=C gawk -f thousands.awk
-          -| 1234567                   Results in "C" locale
+          ⊣ 1234567                   Results in "C" locale
           $ LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8 gawk -f thousands.awk
-          -| 1,234,567                 Results in US English UTF locale
+          ⊣ 1,234,567                 Results in US English UTF locale
 
      For more information about locales and internationalization issues,
      see *note Locales::.
 
-          NOTE: The ''' flag is a nice feature, but its use complicates
+          NOTE: The ‘'’ flag is a nice feature, but its use complicates
           things: it becomes difficult to use it in command-line
           programs.  For information on appropriate quoting tricks, see
           *note Quoting::.
 
 WIDTH
      This is a number specifying the desired minimum width of a field.
-     Inserting any number between the '%' sign and the format-control
+     Inserting any number between the ‘%’ sign and the format-control
      character forces the field to expand to this width.  The default
      way to do this is to pad with spaces on the left.  For example:
 
           printf "%4s", "foo"
 
-     prints '*foo'.
+     prints ‘•foo’.
 
      The value of WIDTH is a minimum width, not a maximum.  If the item
      value requires more than WIDTH characters, it can be as wide as
@@ -7207,26 +7207,26 @@ WIDTH
 
           printf "%4s", "foobar"
 
-     prints 'foobar'.
+     prints ‘foobar’.
 
      Preceding the WIDTH with a minus sign causes the output to be
      padded with spaces on the right, instead of on the left.
 
-'.PREC'
+‘.PREC’
      A period followed by an integer constant specifies the precision to
      use when printing.  The meaning of the precision varies by control
      letter:
 
-     '%d', '%i', '%o', '%u', '%x', '%X'
+     ‘%d’, ‘%i’, ‘%o’, ‘%u’, ‘%x’, ‘%X’
           Minimum number of digits to print.
 
-     '%e', '%E', '%f', '%F'
+     ‘%e’, ‘%E’, ‘%f’, ‘%F’
           Number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
 
-     '%g', '%G'
+     ‘%g’, ‘%G’
           Maximum number of significant digits.
 
-     '%s'
+     ‘%s’
           Maximum number of characters from the string that should
           print.
 
@@ -7234,10 +7234,10 @@ WIDTH
 
           printf "%.4s", "foobar"
 
-     prints 'foob'.
+     prints ‘foob’.
 
-   The C library 'printf''s dynamic WIDTH and PREC capability (e.g.,
-'"%*.*s"') is supported.  Instead of supplying explicit WIDTH and/or
+   The C library ‘printf’’s dynamic WIDTH and PREC capability (e.g.,
+‘"%*.*s"’) is supported.  Instead of supplying explicit WIDTH and/or
 PREC values in the format string, they are passed in the argument list.
 For example:
 
@@ -7251,7 +7251,7 @@ is exactly equivalent to:
      s = "abcdefg"
      printf "%5.3s\n", s
 
-Both programs output '**abc'.  Earlier versions of 'awk' did not support
+Both programs output ‘••abc’.  Earlier versions of ‘awk’ did not 
support
 this capability.  If you must use such a version, you may simulate this
 feature by using concatenation to build up the format string, like so:
 
@@ -7262,61 +7262,61 @@ feature by using concatenation to build up the format 
string, like so:
 
 This is not particularly easy to read, but it does work.
 
-   C programmers may be used to supplying additional modifiers ('h',
-'j', 'l', 'L', 't', and 'z') in 'printf' format strings.  These are not
-valid in 'awk'.  Most 'awk' implementations silently ignore them.  If
-'--lint' is provided on the command line (*note Options::), 'gawk' warns
-about their use.  If '--posix' is supplied, their use is a fatal error.
+   C programmers may be used to supplying additional modifiers (‘h’,
+‘j’, ‘l’, ‘L’, ‘t’, and ‘z’) in ‘printf’ format 
strings.  These are not
+valid in ‘awk’.  Most ‘awk’ implementations silently ignore them.  If
+‘--lint’ is provided on the command line (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ 
warns
+about their use.  If ‘--posix’ is supplied, their use is a fatal error.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Printf Examples,  Prev: Format Modifiers,  Up: Printf
 
-5.5.4 Examples Using 'printf'
+5.5.4 Examples Using ‘printf’
 -----------------------------
 
-The following simple example shows how to use 'printf' to make an
+The following simple example shows how to use ‘printf’ to make an
 aligned table:
 
      awk '{ printf "%-10s %s\n", $1, $2 }' mail-list
 
-This command prints the names of the people ('$1') in the file
-'mail-list' as a string of 10 characters that are left-justified.  It
-also prints the phone numbers ('$2') next on the line.  This produces an
+This command prints the names of the people (‘$1’) in the file
+‘mail-list’ as a string of 10 characters that are left-justified.  It
+also prints the phone numbers (‘$2’) next on the line.  This produces an
 aligned two-column table of names and phone numbers, as shown here:
 
      $ awk '{ printf "%-10s %s\n", $1, $2 }' mail-list
-     -| Amelia     555-5553
-     -| Anthony    555-3412
-     -| Becky      555-7685
-     -| Bill       555-1675
-     -| Broderick  555-0542
-     -| Camilla    555-2912
-     -| Fabius     555-1234
-     -| Julie      555-6699
-     -| Martin     555-6480
-     -| Samuel     555-3430
-     -| Jean-Paul  555-2127
+     ⊣ Amelia     555-5553
+     ⊣ Anthony    555-3412
+     ⊣ Becky      555-7685
+     ⊣ Bill       555-1675
+     ⊣ Broderick  555-0542
+     ⊣ Camilla    555-2912
+     ⊣ Fabius     555-1234
+     ⊣ Julie      555-6699
+     ⊣ Martin     555-6480
+     ⊣ Samuel     555-3430
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul  555-2127
 
    In this case, the phone numbers had to be printed as strings because
 the numbers are separated by dashes.  Printing the phone numbers as
-numbers would have produced just the first three digits: '555'.  This
+numbers would have produced just the first three digits: ‘555’.  This
 would have been pretty confusing.
 
-   It wasn't necessary to specify a width for the phone numbers because
-they are last on their lines.  They don't need to have spaces after
+   It wasn’t necessary to specify a width for the phone numbers because
+they are last on their lines.  They don’t need to have spaces after
 them.
 
    The table could be made to look even nicer by adding headings to the
-tops of the columns.  This is done using a 'BEGIN' rule (*note
+tops of the columns.  This is done using a ‘BEGIN’ rule (*note
 BEGIN/END::) so that the headers are only printed once, at the beginning
-of the 'awk' program:
+of the ‘awk’ program:
 
      awk 'BEGIN { print "Name      Number"
                   print "----      ------" }
                 { printf "%-10s %s\n", $1, $2 }' mail-list
 
-   The preceding example mixes 'print' and 'printf' statements in the
-same program.  Using just 'printf' statements can produce the same
+   The preceding example mixes ‘print’ and ‘printf’ statements in the
+same program.  Using just ‘printf’ statements can produce the same
 results:
 
      awk 'BEGIN { printf "%-10s %s\n", "Name", "Number"
@@ -7338,26 +7338,26 @@ be emphasized by storing it in a variable, like this:
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Redirection,  Next: Special FD,  Prev: Printf,  Up: 
Printing
 
-5.6 Redirecting Output of 'print' and 'printf'
+5.6 Redirecting Output of ‘print’ and ‘printf’
 ==============================================
 
-So far, the output from 'print' and 'printf' has gone to the standard
-output, usually the screen.  Both 'print' and 'printf' can also send
-their output to other places.  This is called "redirection".
+So far, the output from ‘print’ and ‘printf’ has gone to the standard
+output, usually the screen.  Both ‘print’ and ‘printf’ can also send
+their output to other places.  This is called “redirection”.
 
-     NOTE: When '--sandbox' is specified (*note Options::), redirecting
+     NOTE: When ‘--sandbox’ is specified (*note Options::), redirecting
      output to files, pipes, and coprocesses is disabled.
 
-   A redirection appears after the 'print' or 'printf' statement.
-Redirections in 'awk' are written just like redirections in shell
-commands, except that they are written inside the 'awk' program.
+   A redirection appears after the ‘print’ or ‘printf’ statement.
+Redirections in ‘awk’ are written just like redirections in shell
+commands, except that they are written inside the ‘awk’ program.
 
    There are four forms of output redirection: output to a file, output
 appended to a file, output through a pipe to another command, and output
-to a coprocess.  We show them all for the 'print' statement, but they
-work identically for 'printf':
+to a coprocess.  We show them all for the ‘print’ statement, but they
+work identically for ‘printf’:
 
-'print ITEMS > OUTPUT-FILE'
+‘print ITEMS > OUTPUT-FILE’
      This redirection prints the items into the output file named
      OUTPUT-FILE.  The file name OUTPUT-FILE can be any expression.  Its
      value is changed to a string and then used as a file name (*note
@@ -7368,40 +7368,40 @@ work identically for 'printf':
      same OUTPUT-FILE do not erase OUTPUT-FILE, but append to it.  (This
      is different from how you use redirections in shell scripts.)  If
      OUTPUT-FILE does not exist, it is created.  For example, here is
-     how an 'awk' program can write a list of peoples' names to one file
-     named 'name-list', and a list of phone numbers to another file
-     named 'phone-list':
+     how an ‘awk’ program can write a list of peoples’ names to one file
+     named ‘name-list’, and a list of phone numbers to another file
+     named ‘phone-list’:
 
           $ awk '{ print $2 > "phone-list"
           >        print $1 > "name-list" }' mail-list
           $ cat phone-list
-          -| 555-5553
-          -| 555-3412
+          ⊣ 555-5553
+          ⊣ 555-3412
           ...
           $ cat name-list
-          -| Amelia
-          -| Anthony
+          ⊣ Amelia
+          ⊣ Anthony
           ...
 
      Each output file contains one name or number per line.
 
-'print ITEMS >> OUTPUT-FILE'
+‘print ITEMS >> OUTPUT-FILE’
      This redirection prints the items into the preexisting output file
-     named OUTPUT-FILE.  The difference between this and the single-'>'
+     named OUTPUT-FILE.  The difference between this and the single-‘>’
      redirection is that the old contents (if any) of OUTPUT-FILE are
-     not erased.  Instead, the 'awk' output is appended to the file.  If
+     not erased.  Instead, the ‘awk’ output is appended to the file.  If
      OUTPUT-FILE does not exist, then it is created.
 
-'print ITEMS | COMMAND'
+‘print ITEMS | COMMAND’
      It is possible to send output to another program through a pipe
      instead of into a file.  This redirection opens a pipe to COMMAND,
      and writes the values of ITEMS through this pipe to another process
      created to execute COMMAND.
 
-     The redirection argument COMMAND is actually an 'awk' expression.
+     The redirection argument COMMAND is actually an ‘awk’ expression.
      Its value is converted to a string whose contents give the shell
      command to be run.  For example, the following produces two files,
-     one unsorted list of peoples' names, and one list sorted in reverse
+     one unsorted list of peoples’ names, and one list sorted in reverse
      alphabetical order:
 
           awk '{ print $1 > "names.unsorted"
@@ -7409,11 +7409,11 @@ work identically for 'printf':
                  print $1 | command }' mail-list
 
      The unsorted list is written with an ordinary redirection, while
-     the sorted list is written by piping through the 'sort' utility.
+     the sorted list is written by piping through the ‘sort’ utility.
 
      The next example uses redirection to mail a message to the mailing
-     list 'bug-system'.  This might be useful when trouble is
-     encountered in an 'awk' script run periodically for system
+     list ‘bug-system’.  This might be useful when trouble is
+     encountered in an ‘awk’ script run periodically for system
      maintenance:
 
           report = "mail bug-system"
@@ -7421,34 +7421,34 @@ work identically for 'printf':
           print("at record number", FNR, "of", FILENAME) | report
           close(report)
 
-     The 'close()' function is called here because it's a good idea to
+     The ‘close()’ function is called here because it’s a good idea to
      close the pipe as soon as all the intended output has been sent to
      it.  *Note Close Files And Pipes:: for more information.
 
      This example also illustrates the use of a variable to represent a
-     FILE or COMMAND--it is not necessary to always use a string
+     FILE or COMMAND—it is not necessary to always use a string
      constant.  Using a variable is generally a good idea, because (if
-     you mean to refer to that same file or command) 'awk' requires that
+     you mean to refer to that same file or command) ‘awk’ requires that
      the string value be written identically every time.
 
-'print ITEMS |& COMMAND'
+‘print ITEMS |& COMMAND’
      This redirection prints the items to the input of COMMAND.  The
-     difference between this and the single-'|' redirection is that the
-     output from COMMAND can be read with 'getline'.  Thus, COMMAND is a
-     "coprocess", which works together with but is subsidiary to the
-     'awk' program.
+     difference between this and the single-‘|’ redirection is that the
+     output from COMMAND can be read with ‘getline’.  Thus, COMMAND is a
+     “coprocess”, which works together with but is subsidiary to the
+     ‘awk’ program.
 
-     This feature is a 'gawk' extension, and is not available in POSIX
-     'awk'.  *Note Getline/Coprocess::, for a brief discussion.  *Note
+     This feature is a ‘gawk’ extension, and is not available in POSIX
+     ‘awk’.  *Note Getline/Coprocess::, for a brief discussion.  *Note
      Two-way I/O::, for a more complete discussion.
 
-   Redirecting output using '>', '>>', '|', or '|&' asks the system to
+   Redirecting output using ‘>’, ‘>>’, ‘|’, or ‘|&’ asks the 
system to
 open a file, pipe, or coprocess only if the particular FILE or COMMAND
 you specify has not already been written to by your program or if it has
 been closed since it was last written to.
 
-   It is a common error to use '>' redirection for the first 'print' to
-a file, and then to use '>>' for subsequent output:
+   It is a common error to use ‘>’ redirection for the first ‘print’ to
+a file, and then to use ‘>>’ for subsequent output:
 
      # clear the file
      print "Don't panic" > "guide.txt"
@@ -7457,22 +7457,22 @@ a file, and then to use '>>' for subsequent output:
      print "Avoid improbability generators" >> "guide.txt"
 
 This is indeed how redirections must be used from the shell.  But in
-'awk', it isn't necessary.  In this kind of case, a program should use
-'>' for all the 'print' statements, because the output file is only
-opened once.  (It happens that if you mix '>' and '>>' output is
+‘awk’, it isn’t necessary.  In this kind of case, a program should use
+‘>’ for all the ‘print’ statements, because the output file is only
+opened once.  (It happens that if you mix ‘>’ and ‘>>’ output is
 produced in the expected order.  However, mixing the operators for the
 same file is definitely poor style, and is confusing to readers of your
 program.)
 
-   Many older 'awk' implementations limit the number of pipelines that
-an 'awk' program may have open to just one!  In 'gawk', there is no such
-limit.  'gawk' allows a program to open as many pipelines as the
+   Many older ‘awk’ implementations limit the number of pipelines that
+an ‘awk’ program may have open to just one!  In ‘gawk’, there is no 
such
+limit.  ‘gawk’ allows a program to open as many pipelines as the
 underlying operating system permits.
 
-                           Piping into 'sh'
+                           Piping into ‘sh’
 
    A particularly powerful way to use redirection is to build command
-lines and pipe them into the shell, 'sh'.  For example, suppose you have
+lines and pipe them into the shell, ‘sh’.  For example, suppose you have
 a list of files brought over from a system where all the file names are
 stored in uppercase, and you wish to rename them to have names in all
 lowercase.  The following program is both simple and efficient:
@@ -7481,9 +7481,9 @@ lowercase.  The following program is both simple and 
efficient:
 
      END { close("sh") }
 
-   The 'tolower()' function returns its argument string with all
+   The ‘tolower()’ function returns its argument string with all
 uppercase characters converted to lowercase (*note String Functions::).
-The program builds up a list of command lines, using the 'mv' utility to
+The program builds up a list of command lines, using the ‘mv’ utility to
 rename the files.  It then sends the list to the shell for execution.
 
    *Note Shell Quoting:: for a function that can help in generating
@@ -7497,53 +7497,53 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Special FD,  Next: Special 
Files,  Prev: Redirection,  U
 
 Running programs conventionally have three input and output streams
 already available to them for reading and writing.  These are known as
-the "standard input", "standard output", and "standard error output".
+the “standard input”, “standard output”, and “standard error 
output”.
 These open streams (and any other open files or pipes) are often
-referred to by the technical term "file descriptors".
+referred to by the technical term “file descriptors”.
 
    These streams are, by default, connected to your keyboard and screen,
-but they are often redirected with the shell, via the '<', '<<', '>',
-'>>', '>&', and '|' operators.  Standard error is typically used for
+but they are often redirected with the shell, via the ‘<’, ‘<<’, 
‘>’,
+‘>>’, ‘>&’, and ‘|’ operators.  Standard error is typically used 
for
 writing error messages; the reason there are two separate streams,
 standard output and standard error, is so that they can be redirected
 separately.
 
-   In traditional implementations of 'awk', the only way to write an
-error message to standard error in an 'awk' program is as follows:
+   In traditional implementations of ‘awk’, the only way to write an
+error message to standard error in an ‘awk’ program is as follows:
 
      print "Serious error detected!" | "cat 1>&2"
 
 This works by opening a pipeline to a shell command that can access the
-standard error stream that it inherits from the 'awk' process.  This is
+standard error stream that it inherits from the ‘awk’ process.  This is
 far from elegant, and it also requires a separate process.  So people
-writing 'awk' programs often don't do this.  Instead, they send the
+writing ‘awk’ programs often don’t do this.  Instead, they send the
 error messages to the screen, like this:
 
      print "Serious error detected!" > "/dev/tty"
 
-('/dev/tty' is a special file supplied by the operating system that is
-connected to your keyboard and screen.  It represents the "terminal,"(1)
+(‘/dev/tty’ is a special file supplied by the operating system that is
+connected to your keyboard and screen.  It represents the “terminal,”(1)
 which on modern systems is a keyboard and screen, not a serial console.)
 This generally has the same effect, but not always: although the
 standard error stream is usually the screen, it can be redirected; when
-that happens, writing to the screen is not correct.  In fact, if 'awk'
+that happens, writing to the screen is not correct.  In fact, if ‘awk’
 is run from a background job, it may not have a terminal at all.  Then
-opening '/dev/tty' fails.
+opening ‘/dev/tty’ fails.
 
-   'gawk', BWK 'awk', and 'mawk' provide special file names for
+   ‘gawk’, BWK ‘awk’, and ‘mawk’ provide special file names for
 accessing the three standard streams.  If the file name matches one of
-these special names when 'gawk' (or one of the others) redirects input
+these special names when ‘gawk’ (or one of the others) redirects input
 or output, then it directly uses the descriptor that the file name
 stands for.  These special file names work for all operating systems
-that 'gawk' has been ported to, not just those that are POSIX-compliant:
+that ‘gawk’ has been ported to, not just those that are POSIX-compliant:
 
-'/dev/stdin'
+‘/dev/stdin’
      The standard input (file descriptor 0).
 
-'/dev/stdout'
+‘/dev/stdout’
      The standard output (file descriptor 1).
 
-'/dev/stderr'
+‘/dev/stderr’
      The standard error output (file descriptor 2).
 
    With these facilities, the proper way to write an error message then
@@ -7555,53 +7555,53 @@ becomes:
 redirection, the value must be a string.  It is a common error to omit
 the quotes, which leads to confusing results.
 
-   'gawk' does not treat these file names as special when in
-POSIX-compatibility mode.  However, because BWK 'awk' supports them,
-'gawk' does support them even when invoked with the '--traditional'
+   ‘gawk’ does not treat these file names as special when in
+POSIX-compatibility mode.  However, because BWK ‘awk’ supports them,
+‘gawk’ does support them even when invoked with the ‘--traditional’
 option (*note Options::).
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The "tty" in '/dev/tty' stands for "Teletype," a serial terminal.
+   (1) The “tty” in ‘/dev/tty’ stands for “Teletype,” a serial 
terminal.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Special Files,  Next: Close Files And Pipes,  Prev: 
Special FD,  Up: Printing
 
-5.8 Special File names in 'gawk'
+5.8 Special File names in ‘gawk’
 ================================
 
 Besides access to standard input, standard output, and standard error,
-'gawk' provides access to any open file descriptor.  Additionally, there
+‘gawk’ provides access to any open file descriptor.  Additionally, there
 are special file names reserved for TCP/IP networking.
 
 * Menu:
 
 * Other Inherited Files::       Accessing other open files with
-                                'gawk'.
+                                ‘gawk’.
 * Special Network::             Special files for network communications.
 * Special Caveats::             Things to watch out for.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Other Inherited Files,  Next: Special Network,  Up: 
Special Files
 
-5.8.1 Accessing Other Open Files with 'gawk'
+5.8.1 Accessing Other Open Files with ‘gawk’
 --------------------------------------------
 
-Besides the '/dev/stdin', '/dev/stdout', and '/dev/stderr' special file
-names mentioned earlier, 'gawk' provides syntax for accessing any other
+Besides the ‘/dev/stdin’, ‘/dev/stdout’, and ‘/dev/stderr’ special 
file
+names mentioned earlier, ‘gawk’ provides syntax for accessing any other
 inherited open file:
 
-'/dev/fd/N'
+‘/dev/fd/N’
      The file associated with file descriptor N.  Such a file must be
-     opened by the program initiating the 'awk' execution (typically the
+     opened by the program initiating the ‘awk’ execution (typically the
      shell).  Unless special pains are taken in the shell from which
-     'gawk' is invoked, only descriptors 0, 1, and 2 are available.
+     ‘gawk’ is invoked, only descriptors 0, 1, and 2 are available.
 
-   The file names '/dev/stdin', '/dev/stdout', and '/dev/stderr' are
-essentially aliases for '/dev/fd/0', '/dev/fd/1', and '/dev/fd/2',
+   The file names ‘/dev/stdin’, ‘/dev/stdout’, and ‘/dev/stderr’ 
are
+essentially aliases for ‘/dev/fd/0’, ‘/dev/fd/1’, and ‘/dev/fd/2’,
 respectively.  However, those names are more self-explanatory.
 
-   Note that using 'close()' on a file name of the form '"/dev/fd/N"',
+   Note that using ‘close()’ on a file name of the form ‘"/dev/fd/N"’,
 for file descriptor numbers above two, does actually close the given
 file descriptor.
 
@@ -7611,15 +7611,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Special Network,  Next: Special 
Caveats,  Prev: Other In
 5.8.2 Special Files for Network Communications
 ----------------------------------------------
 
-'gawk' programs can open a two-way TCP/IP connection, acting as either a
+‘gawk’ programs can open a two-way TCP/IP connection, acting as either a
 client or a server.  This is done using a special file name of the form:
 
      /NET-TYPE/PROTOCOL/LOCAL-PORT/REMOTE-HOST/REMOTE-PORT
 
-   The NET-TYPE is one of 'inet', 'inet4', or 'inet6'.  The PROTOCOL is
-one of 'tcp' or 'udp', and the other fields represent the other
+   The NET-TYPE is one of ‘inet’, ‘inet4’, or ‘inet6’.  The 
PROTOCOL is
+one of ‘tcp’ or ‘udp’, and the other fields represent the other
 essential pieces of information for making a networking connection.
-These file names are used with the '|&' operator for communicating with
+These file names are used with the ‘|&’ operator for communicating with
 a coprocess (*note Two-way I/O::).  This is an advanced feature,
 mentioned here only for completeness.  Full discussion is delayed until
 *note TCP/IP Networking::.
@@ -7631,18 +7631,18 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Special Caveats,  Prev: Special 
Network,  Up: Special Fi
 -------------------------------
 
 Here are some things to bear in mind when using the special file names
-that 'gawk' provides:
+that ‘gawk’ provides:
 
-   * Recognition of the file names for the three standard preopened
+   • Recognition of the file names for the three standard preopened
      files is disabled only in POSIX mode.
 
-   * Recognition of the other special file names is disabled if 'gawk'
-     is in compatibility mode (either '--traditional' or '--posix';
+   • Recognition of the other special file names is disabled if ‘gawk’
+     is in compatibility mode (either ‘--traditional’ or ‘--posix’;
      *note Options::).
 
-   * 'gawk' _always_ interprets these special file names.  For example,
-     using '/dev/fd/4' for output actually writes on file descriptor 4,
-     and not on a new file descriptor that is 'dup()'ed from file
+   • ‘gawk’ _always_ interprets these special file names.  For example,
+     using ‘/dev/fd/4’ for output actually writes on file descriptor 4,
+     and not on a new file descriptor that is ‘dup()’ed from file
      descriptor 4.  Most of the time this does not matter; however, it
      is important to _not_ close any of the files related to file
      descriptors 0, 1, and 2.  Doing so results in unpredictable
@@ -7654,21 +7654,21 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Close Files And Pipes,  Next: 
Nonfatal,  Prev: Special F
 5.9 Closing Input and Output Redirections
 =========================================
 
-If the same file name or the same shell command is used with 'getline'
-more than once during the execution of an 'awk' program (*note
+If the same file name or the same shell command is used with ‘getline’
+more than once during the execution of an ‘awk’ program (*note
 Getline::), the file is opened (or the command is executed) the first
 time only.  At that time, the first record of input is read from that
 file or command.  The next time the same file or command is used with
-'getline', another record is read from it, and so on.
+‘getline’, another record is read from it, and so on.
 
-   Similarly, when a file or pipe is opened for output, 'awk' remembers
+   Similarly, when a file or pipe is opened for output, ‘awk’ remembers
 the file name or command associated with it, and subsequent writes to
 the same file or command are appended to the previous writes.  The file
-or pipe stays open until 'awk' exits.
+or pipe stays open until ‘awk’ exits.
 
    This implies that special steps are necessary in order to read the
 same file again from the beginning, or to rerun a shell command (rather
-than reading more output from the same command).  The 'close()' function
+than reading more output from the same command).  The ‘close()’ function
 makes these things possible:
 
      close(FILENAME)
@@ -7679,7 +7679,7 @@ or:
 
    The argument FILENAME or COMMAND can be any expression.  Its value
 must _exactly_ match the string that was used to open the file or start
-the command (spaces and other "irrelevant" characters included).  For
+the command (spaces and other “irrelevant” characters included).  For
 example, if you open a pipe with this:
 
      "sort -r names" | getline foo
@@ -7688,8 +7688,8 @@ then you must close it with this:
 
      close("sort -r names")
 
-   Once this function call is executed, the next 'getline' from that
-file or command, or the next 'print' or 'printf' to that file or
+   Once this function call is executed, the next ‘getline’ from that
+file or command, or the next ‘print’ or ‘printf’ to that file or
 command, reopens the file or reruns the command.  Because the expression
 that you use to close a file or pipeline must exactly match the
 expression used to open the file or run the command, it is good practice
@@ -7701,39 +7701,39 @@ example becomes the following:
      ...
      close(sortcom)
 
-This helps avoid hard-to-find typographical errors in your 'awk'
+This helps avoid hard-to-find typographical errors in your ‘awk’
 programs.  Here are some of the reasons for closing an output file:
 
-   * To write a file and read it back later on in the same 'awk'
+   • To write a file and read it back later on in the same ‘awk’
      program.  Close the file after writing it, then begin reading it
-     with 'getline'.
+     with ‘getline’.
 
-   * To write numerous files, successively, in the same 'awk' program.
-     If the files aren't closed, eventually 'awk' may exceed a system
+   • To write numerous files, successively, in the same ‘awk’ program.
+     If the files aren’t closed, eventually ‘awk’ may exceed a system
      limit on the number of open files in one process.  It is best to
      close each one when the program has finished writing it.
 
-   * To make a command finish.  When output is redirected through a
+   • To make a command finish.  When output is redirected through a
      pipe, the command reading the pipe normally continues to try to
      read input as long as the pipe is open.  Often this means the
      command cannot really do its work until the pipe is closed.  For
-     example, if output is redirected to the 'mail' program, the message
+     example, if output is redirected to the ‘mail’ program, the message
      is not actually sent until the pipe is closed.
 
-   * To run the same program a second time, with the same arguments.
+   • To run the same program a second time, with the same arguments.
      This is not the same thing as giving more input to the first run!
 
-     For example, suppose a program pipes output to the 'mail' program.
+     For example, suppose a program pipes output to the ‘mail’ program.
      If it outputs several lines redirected to this pipe without closing
      it, they make a single message of several lines.  By contrast, if
      the program closes the pipe after each line of output, then each
      line makes a separate message.
 
-   If you use more files than the system allows you to have open, 'gawk'
+   If you use more files than the system allows you to have open, ‘gawk’
 attempts to multiplex the available open files among your data files.
-'gawk''s ability to do this depends upon the facilities of your
+‘gawk’’s ability to do this depends upon the facilities of your
 operating system, so it may not always work.  It is therefore both good
-practice and good portability advice to always use 'close()' on your
+practice and good portability advice to always use ‘close()’ on your
 files when you are done with them.  In fact, if you are using a lot of
 pipes, it is essential that you close commands when done.  For example,
 consider something like this:
@@ -7748,85 +7748,85 @@ consider something like this:
      }
 
    This example creates a new pipeline based on data in _each_ record.
-Without the call to 'close()' indicated in the comment, 'awk' creates
+Without the call to ‘close()’ indicated in the comment, ‘awk’ creates
 child processes to run the commands, until it eventually runs out of
 file descriptors for more pipelines.
 
    Even though each command has finished (as indicated by the
-end-of-file return status from 'getline'), the child process is not
+end-of-file return status from ‘getline’), the child process is not
 terminated;(1) more importantly, the file descriptor for the pipe is not
-closed and released until 'close()' is called or 'awk' exits.
+closed and released until ‘close()’ is called or ‘awk’ exits.
 
-   'close()' silently does nothing if given an argument that does not
+   ‘close()’ silently does nothing if given an argument that does not
 represent a file, pipe, or coprocess that was opened with a redirection.
 In such a case, it returns a negative value, indicating an error.  In
-addition, 'gawk' sets 'ERRNO' to a string indicating the error.
+addition, ‘gawk’ sets ‘ERRNO’ to a string indicating the error.
 
-   Note also that 'close(FILENAME)' has no "magic" effects on the
+   Note also that ‘close(FILENAME)’ has no “magic” effects on the
 implicit loop that reads through the files named on the command line.
 It is, more likely, a close of a file that was never opened with a
-redirection, so 'awk' silently does nothing, except return a negative
+redirection, so ‘awk’ silently does nothing, except return a negative
 value.
 
-   When using the '|&' operator to communicate with a coprocess, it is
+   When using the ‘|&’ operator to communicate with a coprocess, it is
 occasionally useful to be able to close one end of the two-way pipe
 without closing the other.  This is done by supplying a second argument
-to 'close()'.  As in any other call to 'close()', the first argument is
+to ‘close()’.  As in any other call to ‘close()’, the first argument is
 the name of the command or special file used to start the coprocess.
-The second argument should be a string, with either of the values '"to"'
-or '"from"'.  Case does not matter.  As this is an advanced feature,
+The second argument should be a string, with either of the values ‘"to"’
+or ‘"from"’.  Case does not matter.  As this is an advanced feature,
 discussion is delayed until *note Two-way I/O::, which describes it in
 more detail and gives an example.
 
-                    Using 'close()''s Return Value
+                    Using ‘close()’’s Return Value
 
-   In many older versions of Unix 'awk', the 'close()' function is
+   In many older versions of Unix ‘awk’, the ‘close()’ function is
 actually a statement.  (d.c.)  It is a syntax error to try and use the
-return value from 'close()':
+return value from ‘close()’:
 
      command = "..."
      command | getline info
      retval = close(command)  # syntax error in many Unix awks
 
-   'gawk' treats 'close()' as a function.  The return value is -1 if the
+   ‘gawk’ treats ‘close()’ as a function.  The return value is −1 if 
the
 argument names something that was never opened with a redirection, or if
 there is a system problem closing the file or process.  In these cases,
-'gawk' sets the predefined variable 'ERRNO' to a string describing the
+‘gawk’ sets the predefined variable ‘ERRNO’ to a string describing the
 problem.
 
-   In 'gawk', starting with version 4.2, when closing a pipe or
+   In ‘gawk’, starting with version 4.2, when closing a pipe or
 coprocess (input or output), the return value is the exit status of the
 command, as described in *note Table 5.1:
 table-close-pipe-return-values.(2)  Otherwise, it is the return value
-from the system's 'close()' or 'fclose()' C functions when closing input
+from the system’s ‘close()’ or ‘fclose()’ C functions when closing 
input
 or output files, respectively.  This value is zero if the close
-succeeds, or -1 if it fails.
+succeeds, or −1 if it fails.
 
 
-Situation                            Return value from 'close()'
+Situation                            Return value from ‘close()’
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-Normal exit of command               Command's exit status
+Normal exit of command               Command’s exit status
 Death by signal of command           256 + number of murderous signal
 Death by signal of command with      512 + number of murderous signal
 core dump
-Some kind of error                   -1
+Some kind of error                   −1
 
-Table 5.1: Return values from 'close()' of a pipe
+Table 5.1: Return values from ‘close()’ of a pipe
 
-   The POSIX standard is very vague; it says that 'close()' returns zero
+   The POSIX standard is very vague; it says that ‘close()’ returns zero
 on success and a nonzero value otherwise.  In general, different
 implementations vary in what they report when closing pipes; thus, the
 return value cannot be used portably.  (d.c.)  In POSIX mode (*note
-Options::), 'gawk' just returns zero when closing a pipe.
+Options::), ‘gawk’ just returns zero when closing a pipe.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) The technical terminology is rather morbid.  The finished child
-is called a "zombie," and cleaning up after it is referred to as
-"reaping."
+is called a “zombie,” and cleaning up after it is referred to as
+“reaping.”
 
    (2) Prior to version 4.2, the return value from closing a pipe or
-co-process was the full 16-bit exit value as defined by the 'wait()'
+co-process was the full 16-bit exit value as defined by the ‘wait()’
 system call.
 
 
@@ -7835,31 +7835,31 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Nonfatal,  Next: Output 
Summary,  Prev: Close Files And
 5.10 Enabling Nonfatal Output
 =============================
 
-This minor node describes a 'gawk'-specific feature.
+This minor node describes a ‘gawk’-specific feature.
 
-   In standard 'awk', output with 'print' or 'printf' to a nonexistent
+   In standard ‘awk’, output with ‘print’ or ‘printf’ to a 
nonexistent
 file, or some other I/O error (such as filling up the disk) is a fatal
 error.
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "hi" > "/no/such/file" }'
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:1: fatal: can't redirect to `/no/such/file' (No
-     error-> such file or directory)
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:1: fatal: can't redirect to `/no/such/file' (No
+     error→ such file or directory)
 
-   'gawk' makes it possible to detect that an error has occurred,
+   ‘gawk’ makes it possible to detect that an error has occurred,
 allowing you to possibly recover from the error, or at least print an
 error message of your choosing before exiting.  You can do this in one
 of two ways:
 
-   * For all output files, by assigning any value to
-     'PROCINFO["NONFATAL"]'.
+   • For all output files, by assigning any value to
+     ‘PROCINFO["NONFATAL"]’.
 
-   * On a per-file basis, by assigning any value to 'PROCINFO[FILENAME,
-     "NONFATAL"]'.  Here, FILENAME is the name of the file to which you
+   • On a per-file basis, by assigning any value to ‘PROCINFO[FILENAME,
+     "NONFATAL"]’.  Here, FILENAME is the name of the file to which you
      wish output to be nonfatal.
 
-   Once you have enabled nonfatal output, you must check 'ERRNO' after
-every relevant 'print' or 'printf' statement to see if something went
-wrong.  It is also a good idea to initialize 'ERRNO' to zero before
+   Once you have enabled nonfatal output, you must check ‘ERRNO’ after
+every relevant ‘print’ or ‘printf’ statement to see if something went
+wrong.  It is also a good idea to initialize ‘ERRNO’ to zero before
 attempting the output.  For example:
 
      $ gawk '
@@ -7872,22 +7872,22 @@ attempting the output.  For example:
      >         exit 1
      >     }
      > }'
-     error-> Output failed: No such file or directory
+     error→ Output failed: No such file or directory
 
-   Here, 'gawk' did not produce a fatal error; instead it let the 'awk'
+   Here, ‘gawk’ did not produce a fatal error; instead it let the ‘awk’
 program code detect the problem and handle it.
 
    This mechanism works also for standard output and standard error.
-For standard output, you may use 'PROCINFO["-", "NONFATAL"]' or
-'PROCINFO["/dev/stdout", "NONFATAL"]'.  For standard error, use
-'PROCINFO["/dev/stderr", "NONFATAL"]'.
+For standard output, you may use ‘PROCINFO["-", "NONFATAL"]’ or
+‘PROCINFO["/dev/stdout", "NONFATAL"]’.  For standard error, use
+‘PROCINFO["/dev/stderr", "NONFATAL"]’.
 
    When attempting to open a TCP/IP socket (*note TCP/IP Networking::),
-'gawk' tries multiple times.  The 'GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES' environment
+‘gawk’ tries multiple times.  The ‘GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES’ environment
 variable (*note Other Environment Variables::) allows you to override
-'gawk''s builtin default number of attempts.  However, once nonfatal I/O
-is enabled for a given socket, 'gawk' only retries once, relying on
-'awk'-level code to notice that there was a problem.
+‘gawk’’s builtin default number of attempts.  However, once nonfatal I/O
+is enabled for a given socket, ‘gawk’ only retries once, relying on
+‘awk’-level code to notice that there was a problem.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Output Summary,  Next: Output Exercises,  Prev: 
Nonfatal,  Up: Printing
@@ -7895,26 +7895,26 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Output Summary,  Next: Output 
Exercises,  Prev: Nonfatal
 5.11 Summary
 ============
 
-   * The 'print' statement prints comma-separated expressions.  Each
-     expression is separated by the value of 'OFS' and terminated by the
-     value of 'ORS'.  'OFMT' provides the conversion format for numeric
-     values for the 'print' statement.
+   • The ‘print’ statement prints comma-separated expressions.  Each
+     expression is separated by the value of ‘OFS’ and terminated by the
+     value of ‘ORS’.  ‘OFMT’ provides the conversion format for numeric
+     values for the ‘print’ statement.
 
-   * The 'printf' statement provides finer-grained control over output,
+   • The ‘printf’ statement provides finer-grained control over output,
      with format-control letters for different data types and various
      flags that modify the behavior of the format-control letters.
 
-   * Output from both 'print' and 'printf' may be redirected to files,
+   • Output from both ‘print’ and ‘printf’ may be redirected to 
files,
      pipes, and coprocesses.
 
-   * 'gawk' provides special file names for access to standard input,
+   • ‘gawk’ provides special file names for access to standard input,
      output, and error, and for network communications.
 
-   * Use 'close()' to close open file, pipe, and coprocess redirections.
+   • Use ‘close()’ to close open file, pipe, and coprocess redirections.
      For coprocesses, it is possible to close only one direction of the
      communications.
 
-   * Normally errors with 'print' or 'printf' are fatal.  'gawk' lets
+   • Normally errors with ‘print’ or ‘printf’ are fatal.  ‘gawk’ 
lets
      you make output errors be nonfatal either for all files or on a
      per-file basis.  You must then check for errors after every
      relevant output statement.
@@ -7931,10 +7931,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Output Exercises,  Prev: Output 
Summary,  Up: Printing
                        print "----- ------" }
                      { print $1, "     ", $2 }' inventory-shipped
 
-     from *note Output Separators::, by using a new value of 'OFS'.
+     from *note Output Separators::, by using a new value of ‘OFS’.
 
-  2. Use the 'printf' statement to line up the headings and table data
-     for the 'inventory-shipped' example that was covered in *note
+  2. Use the ‘printf’ statement to line up the headings and table data
+     for the ‘inventory-shipped’ example that was covered in *note
      Print::.
 
   3. What happens if you forget the double quotes when redirecting
@@ -7948,7 +7948,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Expressions,  Next: Patterns and 
Actions,  Prev: Printin
 6 Expressions
 *************
 
-Expressions are the basic building blocks of 'awk' patterns and actions.
+Expressions are the basic building blocks of ‘awk’ patterns and actions.
 An expression evaluates to a value that you can print, test, or pass to
 a function.  Additionally, an expression can assign a new value to a
 variable or a field by using an assignment operator.
@@ -7956,14 +7956,14 @@ variable or a field by using an assignment operator.
    An expression can serve as a pattern or action statement on its own.
 Most other kinds of statements contain one or more expressions that
 specify the data on which to operate.  As in other languages,
-expressions in 'awk' can include variables, array references, constants,
+expressions in ‘awk’ can include variables, array references, constants,
 and function calls, as well as combinations of these with various
 operators.
 
 * Menu:
 
 * Values::                      Constants, Variables, and Regular Expressions.
-* All Operators::               'gawk''s operators.
+* All Operators::               ‘gawk’’s operators.
 * Truth Values and Conditions:: Testing for true and false.
 * Function Calls::              A function call is an expression.
 * Precedence::                  How various operators nest.
@@ -7994,12 +7994,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Constants,  Next: Using 
Constant Regexps,  Up: Values
 6.1.1 Constant Expressions
 --------------------------
 
-The simplest type of expression is the "constant", which always has the
+The simplest type of expression is the “constant”, which always has the
 same value.  There are three types of constants: numeric, string, and
 regular expression.
 
    Each is used in the appropriate context when you need a data value
-that isn't going to change.  Numeric constants can have different forms,
+that isn’t going to change.  Numeric constants can have different forms,
 but are internally stored in an identical manner.
 
 * Menu:
@@ -8014,7 +8014,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Scalar Constants,  Next: 
Nondecimal-numbers,  Up: Consta
 6.1.1.1 Numeric and String Constants
 ....................................
 
-A "numeric constant" stands for a number.  This number can be an
+A “numeric constant” stands for a number.  This number can be an
 integer, a decimal fraction, or a number in scientific (exponential)
 notation.(1)  Here are some examples of numeric constants that all have
 the same value:
@@ -8023,15 +8023,15 @@ the same value:
      1.05e+2
      1050e-1
 
-   A "string constant" consists of a sequence of characters enclosed in
+   A “string constant” consists of a sequence of characters enclosed in
 double quotation marks.  For example:
 
      "parrot"
 
-represents the string whose contents are 'parrot'.  Strings in 'gawk'
+represents the string whose contents are ‘parrot’.  Strings in ‘gawk’
 can be of any length, and they can contain any of the possible eight-bit
 ASCII characters, including ASCII NUL (character code zero).  Other
-'awk' implementations may have difficulty with some character codes.
+‘awk’ implementations may have difficulty with some character codes.
 
    Some languages allow you to continue long strings across multiple
 lines by ending the line with a backslash.  For example in C:
@@ -8046,41 +8046,41 @@ lines by ending the line with a backslash.  For example 
in C:
      }
 
 In such a case, the C compiler removes both the backslash and the
-newline, producing a string as if it had been typed '"hello, world\n"'.
+newline, producing a string as if it had been typed ‘"hello, world\n"’.
 This is useful when a single string needs to contain a large amount of
 text.
 
    The POSIX standard says explicitly that newlines are not allowed
-inside string constants.  And indeed, all 'awk' implementations report
+inside string constants.  And indeed, all ‘awk’ implementations report
 an error if you try to do so.  For example:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "hello,
      > world" }'
-     -| gawk: cmd. line:1: BEGIN { print "hello,
-     -| gawk: cmd. line:1:               ^ unterminated string
-     -| gawk: cmd. line:1: BEGIN { print "hello,
-     -| gawk: cmd. line:1:               ^ syntax error
+     ⊣ gawk: cmd. line:1: BEGIN { print "hello,
+     ⊣ gawk: cmd. line:1:               ^ unterminated string
+     ⊣ gawk: cmd. line:1: BEGIN { print "hello,
+     ⊣ gawk: cmd. line:1:               ^ syntax error
 
-   Although POSIX doesn't define what happens if you use an escaped
-newline, as in the previous C example, all known versions of 'awk' allow
+   Although POSIX doesn’t define what happens if you use an escaped
+newline, as in the previous C example, all known versions of ‘awk’ allow
 you to do so.  Unfortunately, what each one does with such a string
-varies.  (d.c.)  'gawk', 'mawk', and the OpenSolaris POSIX 'awk' (*note
+varies.  (d.c.)  ‘gawk’, ‘mawk’, and the OpenSolaris POSIX ‘awk’ 
(*note
 Other Versions::) elide the backslash and newline, as in C:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "hello, \
      > world" }'
-     -| hello, world
+     ⊣ hello, world
 
-   In POSIX mode (*note Options::), 'gawk' does not allow escaped
+   In POSIX mode (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ does not allow escaped
 newlines.  Otherwise, it behaves as just described.
 
-   BWK 'awk' and BusyBox 'awk' remove the backslash but leave the
+   BWK ‘awk’ and BusyBox ‘awk’ remove the backslash but leave the
 newline intact, as part of the string:
 
      $ nawk 'BEGIN { print "hello, \
      > world" }'
-     -| hello,
-     -| world
+     ⊣ hello,
+     ⊣ world
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
@@ -8095,72 +8095,72 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Nondecimal-numbers,  Next: 
Regexp Constants,  Prev: Scal
 6.1.1.2 Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers
 .....................................
 
-In 'awk', all numbers are in decimal (i.e., base 10).  Many other
+In ‘awk’, all numbers are in decimal (i.e., base 10).  Many other
 programming languages allow you to specify numbers in other bases, often
 octal (base 8) and hexadecimal (base 16).  In octal, the numbers go 0,
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, and so on.  Just as '11' in decimal is
-1 times 10 plus 1, so '11' in octal is 1 times 8 plus 1.  This equals 9
+1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, and so on.  Just as ‘11’ in decimal is
+1 times 10 plus 1, so ‘11’ in octal is 1 times 8 plus 1.  This equals 9
 in decimal.  In hexadecimal, there are 16 digits.  Because the everyday
-decimal number system only has ten digits ('0'-'9'), the letters 'a'
-through 'f' represent the rest.  (Case in the letters is usually
-irrelevant; hexadecimal 'a' and 'A' have the same value.)  Thus, '11' in
+decimal number system only has ten digits (‘0’–‘9’), the letters 
‘a’
+through ‘f’ represent the rest.  (Case in the letters is usually
+irrelevant; hexadecimal ‘a’ and ‘A’ have the same value.)  Thus, 
‘11’ in
 hexadecimal is 1 times 16 plus 1, which equals 17 in decimal.
 
-   Just by looking at plain '11', you can't tell what base it's in.  So,
+   Just by looking at plain ‘11’, you can’t tell what base it’s in.  
So,
 in C, C++, and other languages derived from C, there is a special
-notation to signify the base.  Octal numbers start with a leading '0',
-and hexadecimal numbers start with a leading '0x' or '0X':
+notation to signify the base.  Octal numbers start with a leading ‘0’,
+and hexadecimal numbers start with a leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’:
 
-'11'
+‘11’
      Decimal value 11
 
-'011'
+‘011’
      Octal 11, decimal value 9
 
-'0x11'
+‘0x11’
      Hexadecimal 11, decimal value 17
 
    This example shows the difference:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { printf "%d, %d, %d\n", 011, 11, 0x11 }'
-     -| 9, 11, 17
+     ⊣ 9, 11, 17
 
    Being able to use octal and hexadecimal constants in your programs is
 most useful when working with data that cannot be represented
 conveniently as characters or as regular numbers, such as binary data of
 various sorts.
 
-   'gawk' allows the use of octal and hexadecimal constants in your
+   ‘gawk’ allows the use of octal and hexadecimal constants in your
 program text.  However, such numbers in the input data are not treated
 differently; doing so by default would break old programs.  (If you
-really need to do this, use the '--non-decimal-data' command-line
+really need to do this, use the ‘--non-decimal-data’ command-line
 option; *note Nondecimal Data::.)  If you have octal or hexadecimal
-data, you can use the 'strtonum()' function (*note String Functions::)
+data, you can use the ‘strtonum()’ function (*note String Functions::)
 to convert the data into a number.  Most of the time, you will want to
 use octal or hexadecimal constants when working with the built-in
 bit-manipulation functions; see *note Bitwise Functions:: for more
 information.
 
-   Unlike in some early C implementations, '8' and '9' are not valid in
-octal constants.  For example, 'gawk' treats '018' as decimal 18:
+   Unlike in some early C implementations, ‘8’ and ‘9’ are not valid in
+octal constants.  For example, ‘gawk’ treats ‘018’ as decimal 18:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print "021 is", 021 ; print 018 }'
-     -| 021 is 17
-     -| 18
+     ⊣ 021 is 17
+     ⊣ 18
 
-   Octal and hexadecimal source code constants are a 'gawk' extension.
-If 'gawk' is in compatibility mode (*note Options::), they are not
+   Octal and hexadecimal source code constants are a ‘gawk’ extension.
+If ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode (*note Options::), they are not
 available.
 
-              A Constant's Base Does Not Affect Its Value
+              A Constant’s Base Does Not Affect Its Value
 
    Once a numeric constant has been converted internally into a number,
-'gawk' no longer remembers what the original form of the constant was;
+‘gawk’ no longer remembers what the original form of the constant was;
 the internal value is always used.  This has particular consequences for
 conversion of numbers to strings:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { printf "0x11 is <%s>\n", 0x11 }'
-     -| 0x11 is <17>
+     ⊣ 0x11 is <17>
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Constants,  Prev: Nondecimal-numbers,  Up: 
Constants
@@ -8168,9 +8168,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Constants,  Prev: 
Nondecimal-numbers,  Up: Consta
 6.1.1.3 Regular Expression Constants
 ....................................
 
-A "regexp constant" is a regular expression description enclosed in
-slashes, such as '/^beginning and end$/'.  Most regexps used in 'awk'
-programs are constant, but the '~' and '!~' matching operators can also
+A “regexp constant” is a regular expression description enclosed in
+slashes, such as ‘/^beginning and end$/’.  Most regexps used in ‘awk’
+programs are constant, but the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ matching operators can also
 match computed or dynamic regexps (which are typically just ordinary
 strings or variables that contain a regexp, but could be more complex
 expressions).
@@ -8182,14 +8182,14 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Using Constant Regexps,  Next: 
Variables,  Prev: Constan
 ----------------------------------------
 
 Regular expression constants consist of text describing a regular
-expression enclosed in slashes (such as '/the +answer/').  This minor
-node describes how such constants work in POSIX 'awk' and 'gawk', and
-then goes on to describe "strongly typed regexp constants", which are a
-'gawk' extension.
+expression enclosed in slashes (such as ‘/the +answer/’).  This minor
+node describes how such constants work in POSIX ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’, and
+then goes on to describe “strongly typed regexp constants”, which are a
+‘gawk’ extension.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Standard Regexp Constants::   Regexp constants in standard 'awk'.
+* Standard Regexp Constants::   Regexp constants in standard ‘awk’.
 * Strong Regexp Constants::     Strongly typed regexp constants.
 
 
@@ -8198,11 +8198,11 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Standard Regexp Constants,  
Next: Strong Regexp Constant
 6.1.2.1 Standard Regular Expression Constants
 .............................................
 
-When used on the righthand side of the '~' or '!~' operators, a regexp
+When used on the righthand side of the ‘~’ or ‘!~’ operators, a regexp
 constant merely stands for the regexp that is to be matched.  However,
-regexp constants (such as '/foo/') may be used like simple expressions.
+regexp constants (such as ‘/foo/’) may be used like simple expressions.
 When a regexp constant appears by itself, it has the same meaning as if
-it appeared in a pattern (i.e., '($0 ~ /foo/)').  (d.c.)  *Note
+it appeared in a pattern (i.e., ‘($0 ~ /foo/)’).  (d.c.)  *Note
 Expression Patterns::.  This means that the following two code segments:
 
      if ($0 ~ /barfly/ || $0 ~ /camelot/)
@@ -8220,27 +8220,27 @@ author probably intended:
      # Note that /foo/ is on the left of the ~
      if (/foo/ ~ $1) print "found foo"
 
-This code is "obviously" testing '$1' for a match against the regexp
-'/foo/'.  But in fact, the expression '/foo/ ~ $1' really means '($0 ~
-/foo/) ~ $1'.  In other words, first match the input record against the
-regexp '/foo/'.  The result is either zero or one, depending upon the
+This code is “obviously” testing ‘$1’ for a match against the regexp
+‘/foo/’.  But in fact, the expression ‘/foo/ ~ $1’ really means ‘($0 
~
+/foo/) ~ $1’.  In other words, first match the input record against the
+regexp ‘/foo/’.  The result is either zero or one, depending upon the
 success or failure of the match.  That result is then matched against
 the first field in the record.  Because it is unlikely that you would
-ever really want to make this kind of test, 'gawk' issues a warning when
+ever really want to make this kind of test, ‘gawk’ issues a warning when
 it sees this construct in a program.  Another consequence of this rule
 is that the assignment statement:
 
      matches = /foo/
 
-assigns either zero or one to the variable 'matches', depending upon the
+assigns either zero or one to the variable ‘matches’, depending upon the
 contents of the current input record.
 
    Constant regular expressions are also used as the first argument for
-the 'gensub()', 'sub()', and 'gsub()' functions, as the second argument
-of the 'match()' function, and as the third argument of the 'split()'
-and 'patsplit()' functions (*note String Functions::).  Modern
-implementations of 'awk', including 'gawk', allow the third argument of
-'split()' to be a regexp constant, but some older implementations do
+the ‘gensub()’, ‘sub()’, and ‘gsub()’ functions, as the second 
argument
+of the ‘match()’ function, and as the third argument of the ‘split()’
+and ‘patsplit()’ functions (*note String Functions::).  Modern
+implementations of ‘awk’, including ‘gawk’, allow the third argument of
+‘split()’ to be a regexp constant, but some older implementations do
 not.  (d.c.)  Because some built-in functions accept regexp constants as
 arguments, confusion can arise when attempting to use regexp constants
 as arguments to user-defined functions (*note User-defined::).  For
@@ -8263,10 +8263,10 @@ example:
      }
 
    In this example, the programmer wants to pass a regexp constant to
-the user-defined function 'mysub()', which in turn passes it on to
-either 'sub()' or 'gsub()'.  However, what really happens is that the
-'pat' parameter is assigned a value of either one or zero, depending
-upon whether or not '$0' matches '/hi/'.  'gawk' issues a warning when
+the user-defined function ‘mysub()’, which in turn passes it on to
+either ‘sub()’ or ‘gsub()’.  However, what really happens is that the
+‘pat’ parameter is assigned a value of either one or zero, depending
+upon whether or not ‘$0’ matches ‘/hi/’.  ‘gawk’ issues a warning 
when
 it sees a regexp constant used as a parameter to a user-defined
 function, because passing a truth value in this way is probably not what
 was intended.
@@ -8277,14 +8277,14 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Strong Regexp Constants,  Prev: 
Standard Regexp Constant
 6.1.2.2 Strongly Typed Regexp Constants
 .......................................
 
-This minor node describes a 'gawk'-specific feature.
+This minor node describes a ‘gawk’-specific feature.
 
-   As we saw in the previous minor node, regexp constants ('/.../') hold
-a strange position in the 'awk' language.  In most contexts, they act
-like an expression: '$0 ~ /.../'.  In other contexts, they denote only a
-regexp to be matched.  In no case are they really a "first class
-citizen" of the language.  That is, you cannot define a scalar variable
-whose type is "regexp" in the same sense that you can define a variable
+   As we saw in the previous minor node, regexp constants (‘/.../’) hold
+a strange position in the ‘awk’ language.  In most contexts, they act
+like an expression: ‘$0 ~ /.../’.  In other contexts, they denote only a
+regexp to be matched.  In no case are they really a “first class
+citizen” of the language.  That is, you cannot define a scalar variable
+whose type is “regexp” in the same sense that you can define a variable
 to be a number or a string:
 
      num = 42        Numeric variable
@@ -8292,12 +8292,12 @@ to be a number or a string:
      re = /foo/      Wrong! re is the result of $0 ~ /foo/
 
    For a number of more advanced use cases, it would be nice to have
-regexp constants that are "strongly typed"; in other words, that denote
+regexp constants that are “strongly typed”; in other words, that denote
 a regexp useful for matching, and not an expression.
 
-   'gawk' provides this feature.  A strongly typed regexp constant looks
+   ‘gawk’ provides this feature.  A strongly typed regexp constant looks
 almost like a regular regexp constant, except that it is preceded by an
-'@' sign:
+‘@’ sign:
 
      re = @/foo/     Regexp variable
 
@@ -8305,28 +8305,28 @@ almost like a regular regexp constant, except that it 
is preceded by an
 regular regexp constant can, because this would make the language even
 more confusing.  Instead, you may use them only in certain contexts:
 
-   * On the righthand side of the '~' and '!~' operators: 'some_var ~
-     @/foo/' (*note Regexp Usage::).
+   • On the righthand side of the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ operators: 
‘some_var ~
+     @/foo/’ (*note Regexp Usage::).
 
-   * In the 'case' part of a 'switch' statement (*note Switch
+   • In the ‘case’ part of a ‘switch’ statement (*note Switch
      Statement::).
 
-   * As an argument to one of the built-in functions that accept regexp
-     constants: 'gensub()', 'gsub()', 'match()', 'patsplit()',
-     'split()', and 'sub()' (*note String Functions::).
+   • As an argument to one of the built-in functions that accept regexp
+     constants: ‘gensub()’, ‘gsub()’, ‘match()’, ‘patsplit()’,
+     ‘split()’, and ‘sub()’ (*note String Functions::).
 
-   * As a parameter in a call to a user-defined function (*note
+   • As a parameter in a call to a user-defined function (*note
      User-defined::).
 
-   * As the return value of a user-defined function.
+   • As the return value of a user-defined function.
 
-   * On the righthand side of an assignment to a variable: 'some_var =
-     @/foo/'.  In this case, the type of 'some_var' is regexp.
-     Additionally, 'some_var' can be used with '~' and '!~', passed to
+   • On the righthand side of an assignment to a variable: ‘some_var =
+     @/foo/’.  In this case, the type of ‘some_var’ is regexp.
+     Additionally, ‘some_var’ can be used with ‘~’ and ‘!~’, 
passed to
      one of the built-in functions listed above, or passed as a
      parameter to a user-defined function.
 
-   You may use the '-v' option (*note Options::) to assign a
+   You may use the ‘-v’ option (*note Options::) to assign a
 strongly-typed regexp constant to a variable on the command line, like
 so:
 
@@ -8335,7 +8335,7 @@ so:
 You may also make such assignments as regular command-line arguments
 (*note Other Arguments::).
 
-   You may use the 'typeof()' built-in function (*note Type Functions::)
+   You may use the ‘typeof()’ built-in function (*note Type Functions::)
 to determine if a variable or function parameter is a regexp variable.
 
    The true power of this feature comes from the ability to create
@@ -8350,15 +8350,15 @@ convert to zero.  When used in string conversions, they 
convert to the
 string value of the original regexp text.
 
    There is an additional, interesting corner case.  When used as the
-third argument to 'sub()' or 'gsub()', they retain their type.  Thus, if
+third argument to ‘sub()’ or ‘gsub()’, they retain their type.  Thus, 
if
 you have something like this:
 
      re = @/don't panic/
      sub(/don't/, "do", re)
      print typeof(re), re
 
-then 're' retains its type, but now attempts to match the string 'do
-panic'.  This provides a (very indirect) way to create regexp-typed
+then ‘re’ retains its type, but now attempts to match the string ‘do
+panic’.  This provides a (very indirect) way to create regexp-typed
 variables at runtime.
 
 
@@ -8367,10 +8367,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Variables,  Next: Conversion,  
Prev: Using Constant Rege
 6.1.3 Variables
 ---------------
 
-"Variables" are ways of storing values at one point in your program for
+“Variables” are ways of storing values at one point in your program for
 use later in another part of your program.  They can be manipulated
 entirely within the program text, and they can also be assigned values
-on the 'awk' command line.
+on the ‘awk’ command line.
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -8388,33 +8388,33 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Using Variables,  Next: 
Assignment Options,  Up: Variabl
 Variables let you give names to values and refer to them later.
 Variables have already been used in many of the examples.  The name of a
 variable must be a sequence of letters, digits, or underscores, and it
-may not begin with a digit.  Here, a "letter" is any one of the 52
+may not begin with a digit.  Here, a “letter” is any one of the 52
 upper- and lowercase English letters.  Other characters that may be
 defined as letters in non-English locales are not valid in variable
-names.  Case is significant in variable names; 'a' and 'A' are distinct
+names.  Case is significant in variable names; ‘a’ and ‘A’ are distinct
 variables.
 
    A variable name is a valid expression by itself; it represents the
-variable's current value.  Variables are given new values with
-"assignment operators", "increment operators", and "decrement operators"
-(*note Assignment Ops::).  In addition, the 'sub()' and 'gsub()'
-functions can change a variable's value, and the 'match()', 'split()',
-and 'patsplit()' functions can change the contents of their array
+variable’s current value.  Variables are given new values with
+“assignment operators”, “increment operators”, and “decrement 
operators”
+(*note Assignment Ops::).  In addition, the ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’
+functions can change a variable’s value, and the ‘match()’, 
‘split()’,
+and ‘patsplit()’ functions can change the contents of their array
 parameters (*note String Functions::).
 
-   A few variables have special built-in meanings, such as 'FS' (the
-field separator) and 'NF' (the number of fields in the current input
+   A few variables have special built-in meanings, such as ‘FS’ (the
+field separator) and ‘NF’ (the number of fields in the current input
 record).  *Note Built-in Variables:: for a list of the predefined
 variables.  These predefined variables can be used and assigned just
 like all other variables, but their values are also used or changed
-automatically by 'awk'.  All predefined variables' names are entirely
+automatically by ‘awk’.  All predefined variables’ names are entirely
 uppercase.
 
-   Variables in 'awk' can be assigned either numeric or string values.
+   Variables in ‘awk’ can be assigned either numeric or string values.
 The kind of value a variable holds can change over the life of a
 program.  By default, variables are initialized to the empty string,
 which is zero if converted to a number.  There is no need to explicitly
-initialize a variable in 'awk', which is what you would do in C and in
+initialize a variable in ‘awk’, which is what you would do in C and in
 most other traditional languages.
 
 
@@ -8423,54 +8423,54 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Assignment Options,  Prev: 
Using Variables,  Up: Variabl
 6.1.3.2 Assigning Variables on the Command Line
 ...............................................
 
-Any 'awk' variable can be set by including a "variable assignment" among
-the arguments on the command line when 'awk' is invoked (*note Other
+Any ‘awk’ variable can be set by including a “variable assignment” 
among
+the arguments on the command line when ‘awk’ is invoked (*note Other
 Arguments::).  Such an assignment has the following form:
 
      VARIABLE=TEXT
 
-With it, a variable is set either at the beginning of the 'awk' run or
-in between input files.  When the assignment is preceded with the '-v'
+With it, a variable is set either at the beginning of the ‘awk’ run or
+in between input files.  When the assignment is preceded with the ‘-v’
 option, as in the following:
 
      -v VARIABLE=TEXT
 
-the variable is set at the very beginning, even before the 'BEGIN' rules
-execute.  The '-v' option and its assignment must precede all the file
+the variable is set at the very beginning, even before the ‘BEGIN’ rules
+execute.  The ‘-v’ option and its assignment must precede all the file
 name arguments, as well as the program text.  (*Note Options:: for more
-information about the '-v' option.)  Otherwise, the variable assignment
+information about the ‘-v’ option.)  Otherwise, the variable assignment
 is performed at a time determined by its position among the input file
-arguments--after the processing of the preceding input file argument.
+arguments—after the processing of the preceding input file argument.
 For example:
 
      awk '{ print $n }' n=4 inventory-shipped n=2 mail-list
 
-prints the value of field number 'n' for all input records.  Before the
-first file is read, the command line sets the variable 'n' equal to
+prints the value of field number ‘n’ for all input records.  Before the
+first file is read, the command line sets the variable ‘n’ equal to
 four.  This causes the fourth field to be printed in lines from
-'inventory-shipped'.  After the first file has finished, but before the
-second file is started, 'n' is set to two, so that the second field is
-printed in lines from 'mail-list':
+‘inventory-shipped’.  After the first file has finished, but before the
+second file is started, ‘n’ is set to two, so that the second field is
+printed in lines from ‘mail-list’:
 
      $ awk '{ print $n }' n=4 inventory-shipped n=2 mail-list
-     -| 15
-     -| 24
+     ⊣ 15
+     ⊣ 24
      ...
-     -| 555-5553
-     -| 555-3412
+     ⊣ 555-5553
+     ⊣ 555-3412
      ...
 
    Command-line arguments are made available for explicit examination by
-the 'awk' program in the 'ARGV' array (*note ARGC and ARGV::).  'awk'
+the ‘awk’ program in the ‘ARGV’ array (*note ARGC and ARGV::).  
‘awk’
 processes the values of command-line assignments for escape sequences
 (*note Escape Sequences::).  (d.c.)
 
    Normally, variables assigned on the command line (with or without the
-'-v' option) are treated as strings.  When such variables are used as
-numbers, 'awk''s normal automatic conversion of strings to numbers takes
-place, and everything "just works."
+‘-v’ option) are treated as strings.  When such variables are used as
+numbers, ‘awk’’s normal automatic conversion of strings to numbers takes
+place, and everything “just works.”
 
-   However, 'gawk' supports variables whose types are "regexp".  You can
+   However, ‘gawk’ supports variables whose types are “regexp”.  You 
can
 assign variables of this type using the following syntax:
 
      gawk -v 're1=@/foo|bar/' '...' /path/to/file1 're2=@/baz|quux/' 
/path/to/file2
@@ -8486,23 +8486,23 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Conversion,  Prev: Variables,  
Up: Values
 
 Number-to-string and string-to-number conversion are generally
 straightforward.  There can be subtleties to be aware of; this minor
-node discusses this important facet of 'awk'.
+node discusses this important facet of ‘awk’.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Strings And Numbers::         How 'awk' Converts Between Strings And
+* Strings And Numbers::         How ‘awk’ Converts Between Strings And
                                 Numbers.
 * Locale influences conversions:: How the locale may affect conversions.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Strings And Numbers,  Next: Locale influences 
conversions,  Up: Conversion
 
-6.1.4.1 How 'awk' Converts Between Strings and Numbers
+6.1.4.1 How ‘awk’ Converts Between Strings and Numbers
 ......................................................
 
 Strings are converted to numbers and numbers are converted to strings,
-if the context of the 'awk' program demands it.  For example, if the
-value of either 'foo' or 'bar' in the expression 'foo + bar' happens to
+if the context of the ‘awk’ program demands it.  For example, if the
+value of either ‘foo’ or ‘bar’ in the expression ‘foo + bar’ 
happens to
 be a string, it is converted to a number before the addition is
 performed.  If numeric values appear in string concatenation, they are
 converted to strings.  Consider the following:
@@ -8511,53 +8511,53 @@ converted to strings.  Consider the following:
      print (two three) + 4
 
 This prints the (numeric) value 27.  The numeric values of the variables
-'two' and 'three' are converted to strings and concatenated together.
+‘two’ and ‘three’ are converted to strings and concatenated together.
 The resulting string is converted back to the number 23, to which 4 is
 then added.
 
    If, for some reason, you need to force a number to be converted to a
-string, concatenate that number with the empty string, '""'.  To force a
+string, concatenate that number with the empty string, ‘""’.  To force a
 string to be converted to a number, add zero to that string.  A string
 is converted to a number by interpreting any numeric prefix of the
-string as numerals: '"2.5"' converts to 2.5, '"1e3"' converts to 1,000,
-and '"25fix"' has a numeric value of 25.  Strings that can't be
+string as numerals: ‘"2.5"’ converts to 2.5, ‘"1e3"’ converts to 1,000,
+and ‘"25fix"’ has a numeric value of 25.  Strings that can’t be
 interpreted as valid numbers convert to zero.
 
    The exact manner in which numbers are converted into strings is
-controlled by the 'awk' predefined variable 'CONVFMT' (*note Built-in
-Variables::).  Numbers are converted using the 'sprintf()' function with
-'CONVFMT' as the format specifier (*note String Functions::).
+controlled by the ‘awk’ predefined variable ‘CONVFMT’ (*note Built-in
+Variables::).  Numbers are converted using the ‘sprintf()’ function with
+‘CONVFMT’ as the format specifier (*note String Functions::).
 
-   'CONVFMT''s default value is '"%.6g"', which creates a value with at
+   ‘CONVFMT’’s default value is ‘"%.6g"’, which creates a value with 
at
 most six significant digits.  For some applications, you might want to
 change it to specify more precision.  On most modern machines, 17 digits
-is usually enough to capture a floating-point number's value exactly.(1)
+is usually enough to capture a floating-point number’s value exactly.(1)
 
-   Strange results can occur if you set 'CONVFMT' to a string that
-doesn't tell 'sprintf()' how to format floating-point numbers in a
-useful way.  For example, if you forget the '%' in the format, 'awk'
+   Strange results can occur if you set ‘CONVFMT’ to a string that
+doesn’t tell ‘sprintf()’ how to format floating-point numbers in a
+useful way.  For example, if you forget the ‘%’ in the format, ‘awk’
 converts all numbers to the same constant string.
 
    As a special case, if a number is an integer, then the result of
 converting it to a string is _always_ an integer, no matter what the
-value of 'CONVFMT' may be.  Given the following code fragment:
+value of ‘CONVFMT’ may be.  Given the following code fragment:
 
      CONVFMT = "%2.2f"
      a = 12
      b = a ""
 
-'b' has the value '"12"', not '"12.00"'.  (d.c.)
+‘b’ has the value ‘"12"’, not ‘"12.00"’.  (d.c.)
 
-           Pre-POSIX 'awk' Used 'OFMT' for String Conversion
+           Pre-POSIX ‘awk’ Used ‘OFMT’ for String Conversion
 
-   Prior to the POSIX standard, 'awk' used the value of 'OFMT' for
-converting numbers to strings.  'OFMT' specifies the output format to
-use when printing numbers with 'print'.  'CONVFMT' was introduced in
+   Prior to the POSIX standard, ‘awk’ used the value of ‘OFMT’ for
+converting numbers to strings.  ‘OFMT’ specifies the output format to
+use when printing numbers with ‘print’.  ‘CONVFMT’ was introduced in
 order to separate the semantics of conversion from the semantics of
-printing.  Both 'CONVFMT' and 'OFMT' have the same default value:
-'"%.6g"'.  In the vast majority of cases, old 'awk' programs do not
+printing.  Both ‘CONVFMT’ and ‘OFMT’ have the same default value:
+‘"%.6g"’.  In the vast majority of cases, old ‘awk’ programs do not
 change their behavior.  *Note Print:: for more information on the
-'print' statement.
+‘print’ statement.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
@@ -8571,20 +8571,20 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Locale influences conversions,  
Prev: Strings And Number
 ........................................
 
 Where you are can matter when it comes to converting between numbers and
-strings.  The local character set and language--the "locale"--can affect
-numeric formats.  In particular, for 'awk' programs, it affects the
+strings.  The local character set and language—the “locale”—can affect
+numeric formats.  In particular, for ‘awk’ programs, it affects the
 decimal point character and the thousands-separator character.  The
-'"C"' locale, and most English-language locales, use the period
-character ('.') as the decimal point and don't have a thousands
+‘"C"’ locale, and most English-language locales, use the period
+character (‘.’) as the decimal point and don’t have a thousands
 separator.  However, many (if not most) European and non-English locales
-use the comma (',') as the decimal point character.  European locales
+use the comma (‘,’) as the decimal point character.  European locales
 often use either a space or a period as the thousands separator, if they
 have one.
 
-   The POSIX standard says that 'awk' always uses the period as the
-decimal point when reading the 'awk' program source code, and for
+   The POSIX standard says that ‘awk’ always uses the period as the
+decimal point when reading the ‘awk’ program source code, and for
 command-line variable assignments (*note Other Arguments::).  However,
-when interpreting input data, for 'print' and 'printf' output, and for
+when interpreting input data, for ‘print’ and ‘printf’ output, and for
 number-to-string conversion, the local decimal point character is used.
 (d.c.)  In all cases, numbers in source code and in input data cannot
 have a thousands separator.  Here are some examples indicating the
@@ -8592,47 +8592,47 @@ difference in behavior, on a GNU/Linux system:
 
      $ export POSIXLY_CORRECT=1                        Force POSIX behavior
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { printf "%g\n", 3.1415927 }'
-     -| 3.14159
+     ⊣ 3.14159
      $ LC_ALL=en_DK.utf-8 gawk 'BEGIN { printf "%g\n", 3.1415927 }'
-     -| 3,14159
+     ⊣ 3,14159
      $ echo 4,321 | gawk '{ print $1 + 1 }'
-     -| 5
+     ⊣ 5
      $ echo 4,321 | LC_ALL=en_DK.utf-8 gawk '{ print $1 + 1 }'
-     -| 5,321
+     ⊣ 5,321
 
-The 'en_DK.utf-8' locale is for English in Denmark, where the comma acts
-as the decimal point separator.  In the normal '"C"' locale, 'gawk'
-treats '4,321' as 4, while in the Danish locale, it's treated as the
+The ‘en_DK.utf-8’ locale is for English in Denmark, where the comma acts
+as the decimal point separator.  In the normal ‘"C"’ locale, ‘gawk’
+treats ‘4,321’ as 4, while in the Danish locale, it’s treated as the
 full number including the fractional part, 4.321.
 
-   Some earlier versions of 'gawk' fully complied with this aspect of
+   Some earlier versions of ‘gawk’ fully complied with this aspect of
 the standard.  However, many users in non-English locales complained
 about this behavior, because their data used a period as the decimal
 point, so the default behavior was restored to use a period as the
-decimal point character.  You can use the '--use-lc-numeric' option
-(*note Options::) to force 'gawk' to use the locale's decimal point
-character.  ('gawk' also uses the locale's decimal point character when
-in POSIX mode, either via '--posix' or the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
+decimal point character.  You can use the ‘--use-lc-numeric’ option
+(*note Options::) to force ‘gawk’ to use the locale’s decimal point
+character.  (‘gawk’ also uses the locale’s decimal point character when
+in POSIX mode, either via ‘--posix’ or the ‘POSIXLY_CORRECT’ 
environment
 variable, as shown previously.)
 
    *note Table 6.1: table-locale-affects. describes the cases in which
-the locale's decimal point character is used and when a period is used.
+the locale’s decimal point character is used and when a period is used.
 Some of these features have not been described yet.
 
 
-Feature     Default        '--posix' or
-                           '--use-lc-numeric'
+Feature     Default        ‘--posix’ or
+                           ‘--use-lc-numeric’
 ------------------------------------------------------------
-'%'g'       Use locale     Use locale
-'%g'        Use period     Use locale
+‘%'g’       Use locale     Use locale
+‘%g’        Use period     Use locale
 Input       Use period     Use locale
-'strtonum()'Use period     Use locale
+‘strtonum()’Use period     Use locale
 
 Table 6.1: Locale decimal point versus a period
 
    Finally, modern-day formal standards and the IEEE standard
 floating-point representation can have an unusual but important effect
-on the way 'gawk' converts some special string values to numbers.  The
+on the way ‘gawk’ converts some special string values to numbers.  The
 details are presented in *note POSIX Floating Point Problems::.
 
 
@@ -8641,12 +8641,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: All Operators,  Next: Truth 
Values and Conditions,  Prev
 6.2 Operators: Doing Something with Values
 ==========================================
 
-This minor node introduces the "operators" that make use of the values
+This minor node introduces the “operators” that make use of the values
 provided by constants and variables.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Arithmetic Ops::              Arithmetic operations ('+', '-',
+* Arithmetic Ops::              Arithmetic operations (‘+’, ‘-’,
                                 etc.)
 * Concatenation::               Concatenating strings.
 * Assignment Ops::              Changing the value of a variable or a field.
@@ -8658,87 +8658,87 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Arithmetic Ops,  Next: 
Concatenation,  Up: All Operators
 6.2.1 Arithmetic Operators
 --------------------------
 
-The 'awk' language uses the common arithmetic operators when evaluating
+The ‘awk’ language uses the common arithmetic operators when evaluating
 expressions.  All of these arithmetic operators follow normal precedence
 rules and work as you would expect them to.
 
-   The following example uses a file named 'grades', which contains a
-list of student names as well as three test scores per student (it's a
+   The following example uses a file named ‘grades’, which contains a
+list of student names as well as three test scores per student (it’s a
 small class):
 
      Pat   100 97 58
      Sandy  84 72 93
      Chris  72 92 89
 
-This program takes the file 'grades' and prints the average of the
+This program takes the file ‘grades’ and prints the average of the
 scores:
 
      $ awk '{ sum = $2 + $3 + $4 ; avg = sum / 3
      >        print $1, avg }' grades
-     -| Pat 85
-     -| Sandy 83
-     -| Chris 84.3333
+     ⊣ Pat 85
+     ⊣ Sandy 83
+     ⊣ Chris 84.3333
 
-   The following list provides the arithmetic operators in 'awk', in
+   The following list provides the arithmetic operators in ‘awk’, in
 order from the highest precedence to the lowest:
 
-'X ^ Y'
-'X ** Y'
-     Exponentiation; X raised to the Y power.  '2 ^ 3' has the value
-     eight; the character sequence '**' is equivalent to '^'.  (c.e.)
+‘X ^ Y’
+‘X ** Y’
+     Exponentiation; X raised to the Y power.  ‘2 ^ 3’ has the value
+     eight; the character sequence ‘**’ is equivalent to ‘^’.  (c.e.)
 
-'- X'
+‘- X’
      Negation.
 
-'+ X'
+‘+ X’
      Unary plus; the expression is converted to a number.
 
-'X * Y'
+‘X * Y’
      Multiplication.
 
-'X / Y'
-     Division; because all numbers in 'awk' are floating-point numbers,
-     the result is _not_ rounded to an integer--'3 / 4' has the value
+‘X / Y’
+     Division; because all numbers in ‘awk’ are floating-point numbers,
+     the result is _not_ rounded to an integer—‘3 / 4’ has the value
      0.75.  (It is a common mistake, especially for C programmers, to
-     forget that _all_ numbers in 'awk' are floating point, and that
+     forget that _all_ numbers in ‘awk’ are floating point, and that
      division of integer-looking constants produces a real number, not
      an integer.)
 
-'X % Y'
+‘X % Y’
      Remainder; further discussion is provided in the text, just after
      this list.
 
-'X + Y'
+‘X + Y’
      Addition.
 
-'X - Y'
+‘X - Y’
      Subtraction.
 
    Unary plus and minus have the same precedence, the multiplication
 operators all have the same precedence, and addition and subtraction
 have the same precedence.
 
-   When computing the remainder of 'X % Y', the quotient is rounded
+   When computing the remainder of ‘X % Y’, the quotient is rounded
 toward zero to an integer and multiplied by Y.  This result is
-subtracted from X; this operation is sometimes known as "trunc-mod."
-The following relation always holds:
+subtracted from X; this operation is sometimes known as “trunc-mod.” The
+following relation always holds:
 
      b * int(a / b) + (a % b) == a
 
    One possibly undesirable effect of this definition of remainder is
-that 'X % Y' is negative if X is negative.  Thus:
+that ‘X % Y’ is negative if X is negative.  Thus:
 
      -17 % 8 = -1
 
 This definition is compliant with the POSIX standard, which says that
-the '%' operator produces results equivalent to using the standard C
-'fmod()' function, and that function in turn works as just described.
+the ‘%’ operator produces results equivalent to using the standard C
+‘fmod()’ function, and that function in turn works as just described.
 
-   In other 'awk' implementations, the signedness of the remainder may
+   In other ‘awk’ implementations, the signedness of the remainder may
 be machine-dependent.
 
-     NOTE: The POSIX standard only specifies the use of '^' for
-     exponentiation.  For maximum portability, do not use the '**'
+     NOTE: The POSIX standard only specifies the use of ‘^’ for
+     exponentiation.  For maximum portability, do not use the ‘**’
      operator.
 
 
@@ -8748,7 +8748,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Concatenation,  Next: Assignment 
Ops,  Prev: Arithmetic
 --------------------------
 
      It seemed like a good idea at the time.
-                         -- _Brian Kernighan_
+                          — _Brian Kernighan_
 
    There is only one string operation: concatenation.  It does not have
 a specific operator to represent it.  Instead, concatenation is
@@ -8756,75 +8756,75 @@ performed by writing expressions next to one another, 
with no operator.
 For example:
 
      $ awk '{ print "Field number one: " $1 }' mail-list
-     -| Field number one: Amelia
-     -| Field number one: Anthony
+     ⊣ Field number one: Amelia
+     ⊣ Field number one: Anthony
      ...
 
-   Without the space in the string constant after the ':', the line runs
+   Without the space in the string constant after the ‘:’, the line runs
 together.  For example:
 
      $ awk '{ print "Field number one:" $1 }' mail-list
-     -| Field number one:Amelia
-     -| Field number one:Anthony
+     ⊣ Field number one:Amelia
+     ⊣ Field number one:Anthony
      ...
 
    Because string concatenation does not have an explicit operator, it
 is often necessary to ensure that it happens at the right time by using
 parentheses to enclose the items to concatenate.  For example, you might
-expect that the following code fragment concatenates 'file' and 'name':
+expect that the following code fragment concatenates ‘file’ and ‘name’:
 
      file = "file"
      name = "name"
      print "something meaningful" > file name
 
-This produces a syntax error with some versions of Unix 'awk'.(1)  It is
+This produces a syntax error with some versions of Unix ‘awk’.(1)  It is
 necessary to use the following:
 
      print "something meaningful" > (file name)
 
    Parentheses should be used around concatenation in all but the most
-common contexts, such as on the righthand side of '='.  Be careful about
+common contexts, such as on the righthand side of ‘=’.  Be careful about
 the kinds of expressions used in string concatenation.  In particular,
 the order of evaluation of expressions used for concatenation is
-undefined in the 'awk' language.  Consider this example:
+undefined in the ‘awk’ language.  Consider this example:
 
      BEGIN {
          a = "don't"
          print (a " " (a = "panic"))
      }
 
-It is not defined whether the second assignment to 'a' happens before or
-after the value of 'a' is retrieved for producing the concatenated
-value.  The result could be either 'don't panic', or 'panic panic'.
+It is not defined whether the second assignment to ‘a’ happens before or
+after the value of ‘a’ is retrieved for producing the concatenated
+value.  The result could be either ‘don't panic’, or ‘panic panic’.
 
    The precedence of concatenation, when mixed with other operators, is
 often counter-intuitive.  Consider this example:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print -12 " " -24 }'
-     -| -12-24
+     ⊣ -12-24
 
-   This "obviously" is concatenating -12, a space, and -24.  But where
+   This “obviously” is concatenating −12, a space, and −24.  But where
 did the space disappear to?  The answer lies in the combination of
-operator precedences and 'awk''s automatic conversion rules.  To get the
+operator precedences and ‘awk’’s automatic conversion rules.  To get the
 desired result, write the program this way:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN { print -12 " " (-24) }'
-     -| -12 -24
+     ⊣ -12 -24
 
-   This forces 'awk' to treat the '-' on the '-24' as unary.  Otherwise,
-it's parsed as follows:
+   This forces ‘awk’ to treat the ‘-’ on the ‘-24’ as unary.  
Otherwise,
+it’s parsed as follows:
 
-         -12 ('" "' - 24)
-     => -12 (0 - 24)
-     => -12 (-24)
-     => -12-24
+         −12 (‘" "’ − 24)
+     ⇒ −12 (0 − 24)
+     ⇒ −12 (−24)
+     ⇒ −12−24
 
    As mentioned earlier, when mixing concatenation with other operators,
-_parenthesize_.  Otherwise, you're never quite sure what you'll get.
+_parenthesize_.  Otherwise, you’re never quite sure what you’ll get.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) It happens that BWK 'awk', 'gawk', and 'mawk' all "get it right,"
+   (1) It happens that BWK ‘awk’, ‘gawk’, and ‘mawk’ all “get it 
right,”
 but you should not rely on this.
 
 
@@ -8833,42 +8833,42 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Assignment Ops,  Next: 
Increment Ops,  Prev: Concatenati
 6.2.3 Assignment Expressions
 ----------------------------
 
-An "assignment" is an expression that stores a (usually different) value
-into a variable.  For example, let's assign the value one to the
-variable 'z':
+An “assignment” is an expression that stores a (usually different) value
+into a variable.  For example, let’s assign the value one to the
+variable ‘z’:
 
      z = 1
 
-   After this expression is executed, the variable 'z' has the value
-one.  Whatever old value 'z' had before the assignment is forgotten.
+   After this expression is executed, the variable ‘z’ has the value
+one.  Whatever old value ‘z’ had before the assignment is forgotten.
 
    Assignments can also store string values.  For example, the following
-stores the value '"this food is good"' in the variable 'message':
+stores the value ‘"this food is good"’ in the variable ‘message’:
 
      thing = "food"
      predicate = "good"
      message = "this " thing " is " predicate
 
-This also illustrates string concatenation.  The '=' sign is called an
-"assignment operator".  It is the simplest assignment operator because
+This also illustrates string concatenation.  The ‘=’ sign is called an
+“assignment operator”.  It is the simplest assignment operator because
 the value of the righthand operand is stored unchanged.  Most operators
 (addition, concatenation, and so on) have no effect except to compute a
-value.  If the value isn't used, there's no reason to use the operator.
+value.  If the value isn’t used, there’s no reason to use the operator.
 An assignment operator is different; it does produce a value, but even
 if you ignore it, the assignment still makes itself felt through the
-alteration of the variable.  We call this a "side effect".
+alteration of the variable.  We call this a “side effect”.
 
    The lefthand operand of an assignment need not be a variable (*note
 Variables::); it can also be a field (*note Changing Fields::) or an
-array element (*note Arrays::).  These are all called "lvalues", which
+array element (*note Arrays::).  These are all called “lvalues”, which
 means they can appear on the lefthand side of an assignment operator.
 The righthand operand may be any expression; it produces the new value
 that the assignment stores in the specified variable, field, or array
-element.  (Such values are called "rvalues".)
+element.  (Such values are called “rvalues”.)
 
    It is important to note that variables do _not_ have permanent types.
-A variable's type is simply the type of whatever value was last assigned
-to it.  In the following program fragment, the variable 'foo' has a
+A variable’s type is simply the type of whatever value was last assigned
+to it.  In the following program fragment, the variable ‘foo’ has a
 numeric value at first, and a string value later on:
 
      foo = 1
@@ -8876,43 +8876,43 @@ numeric value at first, and a string value later on:
      foo = "bar"
      print foo
 
-When the second assignment gives 'foo' a string value, the fact that it
+When the second assignment gives ‘foo’ a string value, the fact that it
 previously had a numeric value is forgotten.
 
    String values that do not begin with a digit have a numeric value of
-zero.  After executing the following code, the value of 'foo' is five:
+zero.  After executing the following code, the value of ‘foo’ is five:
 
      foo = "a string"
      foo = foo + 5
 
      NOTE: Using a variable as a number and then later as a string can
      be confusing and is poor programming style.  The previous two
-     examples illustrate how 'awk' works, _not_ how you should write
+     examples illustrate how ‘awk’ works, _not_ how you should write
      your programs!
 
-   An assignment is an expression, so it has a value--the same value
-that is assigned.  Thus, 'z = 1' is an expression with the value one.
-One consequence of this is that you can write multiple assignments
-together, such as:
+   An assignment is an expression, so it has a value—the same value that
+is assigned.  Thus, ‘z = 1’ is an expression with the value one.  One
+consequence of this is that you can write multiple assignments together,
+such as:
 
      x = y = z = 5
 
-This example stores the value five in all three variables ('x', 'y', and
-'z').  It does so because the value of 'z = 5', which is five, is stored
-into 'y' and then the value of 'y = z = 5', which is five, is stored
-into 'x'.
+This example stores the value five in all three variables (‘x’, ‘y’, 
and
+‘z’).  It does so because the value of ‘z = 5’, which is five, is 
stored
+into ‘y’ and then the value of ‘y = z = 5’, which is five, is stored
+into ‘x’.
 
    Assignments may be used anywhere an expression is called for.  For
-example, it is valid to write 'x != (y = 1)' to set 'y' to one, and then
-test whether 'x' equals one.  But this style tends to make programs hard
+example, it is valid to write ‘x != (y = 1)’ to set ‘y’ to one, and 
then
+test whether ‘x’ equals one.  But this style tends to make programs hard
 to read; such nesting of assignments should be avoided, except perhaps
 in a one-shot program.
 
-   Aside from '=', there are several other assignment operators that do
+   Aside from ‘=’, there are several other assignment operators that do
 arithmetic with the old value of the variable.  For example, the
-operator '+=' computes a new value by adding the righthand value to the
+operator ‘+=’ computes a new value by adding the righthand value to the
 old value of the variable.  Thus, the following assignment adds five to
-the value of 'foo':
+the value of ‘foo’:
 
      foo += 5
 
@@ -8922,7 +8922,7 @@ This is equivalent to the following:
 
 Use whichever makes the meaning of your program clearer.
 
-   There are situations where using '+=' (or any assignment operator) is
+   There are situations where using ‘+=’ (or any assignment operator) is
 _not_ the same as simply repeating the lefthand operand in the righthand
 expression.  For example:
 
@@ -8937,9 +8937,9 @@ expression.  For example:
             print x, bar[x]
      }
 
-The indices of 'bar' are practically guaranteed to be different, because
-'rand()' returns different values each time it is called.  (Arrays and
-the 'rand()' function haven't been covered yet.  *Note Arrays::, and
+The indices of ‘bar’ are practically guaranteed to be different, because
+‘rand()’ returns different values each time it is called.  (Arrays and
+the ‘rand()’ function haven’t been covered yet.  *Note Arrays::, and
 *note Numeric Functions:: for more information.)  This example
 illustrates an important fact about assignment operators: the lefthand
 expression is only evaluated _once_.
@@ -8950,7 +8950,7 @@ first, the lefthand or the righthand.  Consider this 
example:
      i = 1
      a[i += 2] = i + 1
 
-The value of 'a[3]' could be either two or four.
+The value of ‘a[3]’ could be either two or four.
 
    *note Table 6.2: table-assign-ops. lists the arithmetic assignment
 operators.  In each case, the righthand operand is an expression whose
@@ -8959,39 +8959,39 @@ value is converted to a number.
 
 Operator               Effect
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-LVALUE '+='            Add INCREMENT to the value of LVALUE.
+LVALUE ‘+=’            Add INCREMENT to the value of LVALUE.
 INCREMENT
-LVALUE '-='            Subtract DECREMENT from the value of LVALUE.
+LVALUE ‘-=’            Subtract DECREMENT from the value of LVALUE.
 DECREMENT
-LVALUE '*='            Multiply the value of LVALUE by COEFFICIENT.
+LVALUE ‘*=’            Multiply the value of LVALUE by COEFFICIENT.
 COEFFICIENT
-LVALUE '/=' DIVISOR    Divide the value of LVALUE by DIVISOR.
-LVALUE '%=' MODULUS    Set LVALUE to its remainder by MODULUS.
-LVALUE '^=' POWER      Raise LVALUE to the power POWER.
-LVALUE '**=' POWER     Raise LVALUE to the power POWER.  (c.e.)
+LVALUE ‘/=’ DIVISOR    Divide the value of LVALUE by DIVISOR.
+LVALUE ‘%=’ MODULUS    Set LVALUE to its remainder by MODULUS.
+LVALUE ‘^=’ POWER      Raise LVALUE to the power POWER.
+LVALUE ‘**=’ POWER     Raise LVALUE to the power POWER.  (c.e.)
 
 Table 6.2: Arithmetic assignment operators
 
-     NOTE: Only the '^=' operator is specified by POSIX. For maximum
-     portability, do not use the '**=' operator.
+     NOTE: Only the ‘^=’ operator is specified by POSIX. For maximum
+     portability, do not use the ‘**=’ operator.
 
-      Syntactic Ambiguities Between '/=' and Regular Expressions
+      Syntactic Ambiguities Between ‘/=’ and Regular Expressions
 
-   There is a syntactic ambiguity between the '/=' assignment operator
-and regexp constants whose first character is an '='.  (d.c.)  This is
-most notable in some commercial 'awk' versions.  For example:
+   There is a syntactic ambiguity between the ‘/=’ assignment operator
+and regexp constants whose first character is an ‘=’.  (d.c.)  This is
+most notable in some commercial ‘awk’ versions.  For example:
 
      $ awk /==/ /dev/null
-     error-> awk: syntax error at source line 1
-     error->  context is
-     error->         >>> /= <<<
-     error-> awk: bailing out at source line 1
+     error→ awk: syntax error at source line 1
+     error→  context is
+     error→         >>> /= <<<
+     error→ awk: bailing out at source line 1
 
 A workaround is:
 
      awk '/[=]=/' /dev/null
 
-   'gawk' does not have this problem; BWK 'awk' and 'mawk' also do not.
+   ‘gawk’ does not have this problem; BWK ‘awk’ and ‘mawk’ also do 
not.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Increment Ops,  Prev: Assignment Ops,  Up: All 
Operators
@@ -8999,63 +8999,63 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Increment Ops,  Prev: 
Assignment Ops,  Up: All Operators
 6.2.4 Increment and Decrement Operators
 ---------------------------------------
 
-"Increment" and "decrement operators" increase or decrease the value of
+“Increment” and “decrement operators” increase or decrease the value of
 a variable by one.  An assignment operator can do the same thing, so the
-increment operators add no power to the 'awk' language; however, they
+increment operators add no power to the ‘awk’ language; however, they
 are convenient abbreviations for very common operations.
 
-   The operator used for adding one is written '++'.  It can be used to
+   The operator used for adding one is written ‘++’.  It can be used to
 increment a variable either before or after taking its value.  To
-"pre-increment" a variable 'v', write '++v'.  This adds one to the value
-of 'v'--that new value is also the value of the expression.  (The
-assignment expression 'v += 1' is completely equivalent.)  Writing the
-'++' after the variable specifies "post-increment".  This increments the
+“pre-increment” a variable ‘v’, write ‘++v’.  This adds one to the 
value
+of ‘v’—that new value is also the value of the expression.  (The
+assignment expression ‘v += 1’ is completely equivalent.)  Writing the
+‘++’ after the variable specifies “post-increment”.  This increments 
the
 variable value just the same; the difference is that the value of the
-increment expression itself is the variable's _old_ value.  Thus, if
-'foo' has the value four, then the expression 'foo++' has the value
-four, but it changes the value of 'foo' to five.  In other words, the
+increment expression itself is the variable’s _old_ value.  Thus, if
+‘foo’ has the value four, then the expression ‘foo++’ has the value
+four, but it changes the value of ‘foo’ to five.  In other words, the
 operator returns the old value of the variable, but with the side effect
 of incrementing it.
 
-   The post-increment 'foo++' is nearly the same as writing '(foo += 1)
-- 1'.  It is not perfectly equivalent because all numbers in 'awk' are
-floating point--in floating point, 'foo + 1 - 1' does not necessarily
-equal 'foo'.  But the difference is minute as long as you stick to
+   The post-increment ‘foo++’ is nearly the same as writing ‘(foo += 1)
+- 1’.  It is not perfectly equivalent because all numbers in ‘awk’ are
+floating point—in floating point, ‘foo + 1 - 1’ does not necessarily
+equal ‘foo’.  But the difference is minute as long as you stick to
 numbers that are fairly small (less than 10e12).
 
    Fields and array elements are incremented just like variables.  (Use
-'$(i++)' when you want to do a field reference and a variable increment
+‘$(i++)’ when you want to do a field reference and a variable increment
 at the same time.  The parentheses are necessary because of the
-precedence of the field reference operator '$'.)
+precedence of the field reference operator ‘$’.)
 
-   The decrement operator '--' works just like '++', except that it
-subtracts one instead of adding it.  As with '++', it can be used before
+   The decrement operator ‘--’ works just like ‘++’, except that it
+subtracts one instead of adding it.  As with ‘++’, it can be used before
 the lvalue to pre-decrement or after it to post-decrement.  Following is
 a summary of increment and decrement expressions:
 
-'++LVALUE'
+‘++LVALUE’
      Increment LVALUE, returning the new value as the value of the
      expression.
 
-'LVALUE++'
+‘LVALUE++’
      Increment LVALUE, returning the _old_ value of LVALUE as the value
      of the expression.
 
-'--LVALUE'
+‘--LVALUE’
      Decrement LVALUE, returning the new value as the value of the
-     expression.  (This expression is like '++LVALUE', but instead of
+     expression.  (This expression is like ‘++LVALUE’, but instead of
      adding, it subtracts.)
 
-'LVALUE--'
+‘LVALUE--’
      Decrement LVALUE, returning the _old_ value of LVALUE as the value
-     of the expression.  (This expression is like 'LVALUE++', but
+     of the expression.  (This expression is like ‘LVALUE++’, but
      instead of adding, it subtracts.)
 
                        Operator Evaluation Order
 
      Doctor, it hurts when I do this!
-     Then don't do that!
-                           -- _Groucho Marx_
+     Then don’t do that!
+                           — _Groucho Marx_
 
 What happens for something like the following?
 
@@ -9069,9 +9069,9 @@ Or something even stranger?
      print b
 
    In other words, when do the various side effects prescribed by the
-postfix operators ('b++') take effect?  When side effects happen is
-"implementation-defined".  In other words, it is up to the particular
-version of 'awk'.  The result for the first example may be 12 or 13, and
+postfix operators (‘b++’) take effect?  When side effects happen is
+“implementation-defined”.  In other words, it is up to the particular
+version of ‘awk’.  The result for the first example may be 12 or 13, and
 for the second, it may be 22 or 23.
 
    In short, doing things like this is not recommended and definitely
@@ -9084,20 +9084,20 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Truth Values and Conditions,  
Next: Function Calls,  Pre
 6.3 Truth Values and Conditions
 ===============================
 
-In certain contexts, expression values also serve as "truth values";
+In certain contexts, expression values also serve as “truth values”;
 i.e., they determine what should happen next as the program runs.  This
-minor node describes how 'awk' defines "true" and "false" and how values
+minor node describes how ‘awk’ defines “true” and “false” and how 
values
 are compared.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Truth Values::                What is "true" and what is "false".
+* Truth Values::                What is “true” and what is “false”.
 * Typing and Comparison::       How variables acquire types and how this
                                 affects comparison of numbers and strings with
-                                '<', etc.
+                                ‘<’, etc.
 * Boolean Ops::                 Combining comparison expressions using boolean
-                                operators '||' ("or"), '&&'
-                                ("and") and '!' ("not").
+                                operators ‘||’ (“or”), ‘&&’
+                                (“and”) and ‘!’ (“not”).
 * Conditional Exp::             Conditional expressions select between two
                                 subexpressions under control of a third
                                 subexpression.
@@ -9105,16 +9105,16 @@ are compared.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Truth Values,  Next: Typing and Comparison,  Up: Truth 
Values and Conditions
 
-6.3.1 True and False in 'awk'
+6.3.1 True and False in ‘awk’
 -----------------------------
 
 Many programming languages have a special representation for the
-concepts of "true" and "false."  Such languages usually use the special
-constants 'true' and 'false', or perhaps their uppercase equivalents.
-However, 'awk' is different.  It borrows a very simple concept of true
-and false from C. In 'awk', any nonzero numeric value _or_ any nonempty
-string value is true.  Any other value (zero or the null string, '""')
-is false.  The following program prints 'A strange truth value' three
+concepts of “true” and “false.” Such languages usually use the special
+constants ‘true’ and ‘false’, or perhaps their uppercase equivalents.
+However, ‘awk’ is different.  It borrows a very simple concept of true
+and false from C. In ‘awk’, any nonzero numeric value _or_ any nonempty
+string value is true.  Any other value (zero or the null string, ‘""’)
+is false.  The following program prints ‘A strange truth value’ three
 times:
 
      BEGIN {
@@ -9126,8 +9126,8 @@ times:
             print "A strange truth value"
      }
 
-   There is a surprising consequence of the "nonzero or non-null" rule:
-the string constant '"0"' is actually true, because it is non-null.
+   There is a surprising consequence of the “nonzero or non-null” rule:
+the string constant ‘"0"’ is actually true, because it is non-null.
 (d.c.)
 
 
@@ -9137,12 +9137,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Typing and Comparison,  Next: 
Boolean Ops,  Prev: Truth
 ------------------------------------------------
 
      The Guide is definitive.  Reality is frequently inaccurate.
-      -- _Douglas Adams, 'The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'_
+       — _Douglas Adams, ‘The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy’_
 
-   Unlike in other programming languages, in 'awk' variables do not have
+   Unlike in other programming languages, in ‘awk’ variables do not have
 a fixed type.  Instead, they can be either a number or a string,
 depending upon the value that is assigned to them.  We look now at how
-variables are typed, and how 'awk' compares variables.
+variables are typed, and how ‘awk’ compares variables.
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -9156,23 +9156,23 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Variable Typing,  Next: 
Comparison Operators,  Up: Typin
 6.3.2.1 String Type versus Numeric Type
 .......................................
 
-Scalar objects in 'awk' (variables, array elements, and fields) are
+Scalar objects in ‘awk’ (variables, array elements, and fields) are
 _dynamically_ typed.  This means their type can change as the program
-runs, from "untyped" before any use,(1) to string or number, and then
+runs, from “untyped” before any use,(1) to string or number, and then
 from string to number or number to string, as the program progresses.
-('gawk' also provides regexp-typed scalars, but let's ignore that for
+(‘gawk’ also provides regexp-typed scalars, but let’s ignore that for
 now; *note Strong Regexp Constants::.)
 
-   You can't do much with untyped variables, other than tell that they
-are untyped.  The following program tests 'a' against '""' and '0'; the
-test succeeds when 'a' has never been assigned a value.  It also uses
-the built-in 'typeof()' function (not presented yet; *note Type
-Functions::) to show 'a''s type:
+   You can’t do much with untyped variables, other than tell that they
+are untyped.  The following program tests ‘a’ against ‘""’ and 
‘0’; the
+test succeeds when ‘a’ has never been assigned a value.  It also uses
+the built-in ‘typeof()’ function (not presented yet; *note Type
+Functions::) to show ‘a’’s type:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print (a == "" && a == 0 ?
      > "a is untyped" : "a has a type!") ; print typeof(a) }'
-     -| a is untyped
-     -| unassigned
+     ⊣ a is untyped
+     ⊣ unassigned
 
    A scalar has numeric type when assigned a numeric value, such as from
 a numeric constant, or from another scalar with numeric type:
@@ -9191,58 +9191,58 @@ such as from a string constant, or from another scalar 
with string type:
      string
 
    So far, this is all simple and straightforward.  What happens,
-though, when 'awk' has to process data from a user?  Let's start with
+though, when ‘awk’ has to process data from a user?  Let’s start with
 field data.  What should the following command produce as output?
 
      echo hello | awk '{ printf("%s %s < 42\n", $1,
                                 ($1 < 42 ? "is" : "is not")) }'
 
-Since 'hello' is alphabetic data, 'awk' can only do a string comparison.
-Internally, it converts '42' into '"42"' and compares the two string
-values '"hello"' and '"42"'.  Here's the result:
+Since ‘hello’ is alphabetic data, ‘awk’ can only do a string 
comparison.
+Internally, it converts ‘42’ into ‘"42"’ and compares the two string
+values ‘"hello"’ and ‘"42"’.  Here’s the result:
 
      $ echo hello | awk '{ printf("%s %s < 42\n", $1,
      >                            ($1 < 42 ? "is" : "is not")) }'
-     -| hello is not < 42
+     ⊣ hello is not < 42
 
    However, what happens when data from a user _looks like_ a number?
 On the one hand, in reality, the input data consists of characters, not
 binary numeric values.  But, on the other hand, the data looks numeric,
-and 'awk' really ought to treat it as such.  And indeed, it does:
+and ‘awk’ really ought to treat it as such.  And indeed, it does:
 
      $ echo 37 | awk '{ printf("%s %s < 42\n", $1,
      >                         ($1 < 42 ? "is" : "is not")) }'
-     -| 37 is < 42
+     ⊣ 37 is < 42
 
-   Here are the rules for when 'awk' treats data as a number, and for
+   Here are the rules for when ‘awk’ treats data as a number, and for
 when it treats data as a string.
 
-   The POSIX standard uses the term "numeric string" for input data that
-looks numeric.  The '37' in the previous example is a numeric string.
+   The POSIX standard uses the term “numeric string” for input data that
+looks numeric.  The ‘37’ in the previous example is a numeric string.
 So what is the type of a numeric string?  Answer: numeric.
 
    The type of a variable is important because the types of two
 variables determine how they are compared.  Variable typing follows
 these definitions and rules:
 
-   * A numeric constant or the result of a numeric operation has the
-     "numeric" attribute.
+   • A numeric constant or the result of a numeric operation has the
+     “numeric” attribute.
 
-   * A string constant or the result of a string operation has the
-     "string" attribute.
+   • A string constant or the result of a string operation has the
+     “string” attribute.
 
-   * Fields, 'getline' input, 'FILENAME', 'ARGV' elements, 'ENVIRON'
-     elements, and the elements of an array created by 'match()',
-     'split()', and 'patsplit()' that are numeric strings have the
-     "strnum" attribute.(2)  Otherwise, they have the "string"
-     attribute.  Uninitialized variables also have the "strnum"
+   • Fields, ‘getline’ input, ‘FILENAME’, ‘ARGV’ elements, 
‘ENVIRON’
+     elements, and the elements of an array created by ‘match()’,
+     ‘split()’, and ‘patsplit()’ that are numeric strings have the
+     “strnum” attribute.(2)  Otherwise, they have the “string”
+     attribute.  Uninitialized variables also have the “strnum”
      attribute.
 
-   * Attributes propagate across assignments but are not changed by any
+   • Attributes propagate across assignments but are not changed by any
      use.
 
    The last rule is particularly important.  In the following program,
-'a' has numeric type, even though it is later used in a string
+‘a’ has numeric type, even though it is later used in a string
 operation:
 
      BEGIN {
@@ -9266,56 +9266,56 @@ NUMERIC |       string          numeric         numeric
 STRNUM  |       string          numeric         numeric
 --------+----------------------------------------------
 
-   The basic idea is that user input that looks numeric--and _only_ user
-input--should be treated as numeric, even though it is actually made of
+   The basic idea is that user input that looks numeric—and _only_ user
+input—should be treated as numeric, even though it is actually made of
 characters and is therefore also a string.  Thus, for example, the
-string constant '" +3.14"', when it appears in program source code, is a
-string--even though it looks numeric--and is _never_ treated as a number
+string constant ‘" +3.14"’, when it appears in program source code, is a
+string—even though it looks numeric—and is _never_ treated as a number
 for comparison purposes.
 
-   In short, when one operand is a "pure" string, such as a string
+   In short, when one operand is a “pure” string, such as a string
 constant, then a string comparison is performed.  Otherwise, a numeric
 comparison is performed.  (The primary difference between a number and a
-strnum is that for strnums 'gawk' preserves the original string value
+strnum is that for strnums ‘gawk’ preserves the original string value
 that the scalar had when it came in.)
 
    This point bears additional emphasis: Input that looks numeric _is_
 numeric.  All other input is treated as strings.
 
-   Thus, the six-character input string ' +3.14' receives the strnum
-attribute.  In contrast, the eight characters '" +3.14"' appearing in
+   Thus, the six-character input string ‘ +3.14’ receives the strnum
+attribute.  In contrast, the eight characters ‘" +3.14"’ appearing in
 program text comprise a string constant.  The following examples print
-'1' when the comparison between the two different constants is true, and
-'0' otherwise:
+‘1’ when the comparison between the two different constants is true, and
+‘0’ otherwise:
 
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($0 == " +3.14") }'    True
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ 1
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($0 == "+3.14") }'     False
-     -| 0
+     ⊣ 0
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($0 == "3.14") }'      False
-     -| 0
+     ⊣ 0
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($0 == 3.14) }'        True
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ 1
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($1 == " +3.14") }'    False
-     -| 0
+     ⊣ 0
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($1 == "+3.14") }'     True
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ 1
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($1 == "3.14") }'      False
-     -| 0
+     ⊣ 0
      $ echo ' +3.14' | awk '{ print($1 == 3.14) }'        True
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ 1
 
    You can see the type of an input field (or other user input) using
-'typeof()':
+‘typeof()’:
 
      $ echo hello 37 | gawk '{ print typeof($1), typeof($2) }'
-     -| string strnum
+     ⊣ string strnum
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) 'gawk' calls this "unassigned", as the following example shows.
+   (1) ‘gawk’ calls this “unassigned”, as the following example shows.
 
-   (2) Thus, a POSIX numeric string and 'gawk''s strnum are the same
+   (2) Thus, a POSIX numeric string and ‘gawk’’s strnum are the same
 thing.
 
 
@@ -9324,40 +9324,40 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Comparison Operators,  Next: 
POSIX String Comparison,  P
 6.3.2.2 Comparison Operators
 ............................
 
-"Comparison expressions" compare strings or numbers for relationships
-such as equality.  They are written using "relational operators", which
+“Comparison expressions” compare strings or numbers for relationships
+such as equality.  They are written using “relational operators”, which
 are a superset of those in C. *note Table 6.3: table-relational-ops.
 describes them.
 
 
 Expression         Result
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-X '<' Y            True if X is less than Y
-X '<=' Y           True if X is less than or equal to Y
-X '>' Y            True if X is greater than Y
-X '>=' Y           True if X is greater than or equal to Y
-X '==' Y           True if X is equal to Y
-X '!=' Y           True if X is not equal to Y
-X '~' Y            True if the string X matches the regexp denoted by Y
-X '!~' Y           True if the string X does not match the regexp
+X ‘<’ Y            True if X is less than Y
+X ‘<=’ Y           True if X is less than or equal to Y
+X ‘>’ Y            True if X is greater than Y
+X ‘>=’ Y           True if X is greater than or equal to Y
+X ‘==’ Y           True if X is equal to Y
+X ‘!=’ Y           True if X is not equal to Y
+X ‘~’ Y            True if the string X matches the regexp denoted by Y
+X ‘!~’ Y           True if the string X does not match the regexp
                    denoted by Y
-SUBSCRIPT 'in'     True if the array ARRAY has an element with the
+SUBSCRIPT ‘in’     True if the array ARRAY has an element with the
 ARRAY              subscript SUBSCRIPT
 
 Table 6.3: Relational operators
 
    Comparison expressions have the value one if true and zero if false.
 When comparing operands of mixed types, numeric operands are converted
-to strings using the value of 'CONVFMT' (*note Conversion::).
+to strings using the value of ‘CONVFMT’ (*note Conversion::).
 
    Strings are compared by comparing the first character of each, then
-the second character of each, and so on.  Thus, '"10"' is less than
-'"9"'.  If there are two strings where one is a prefix of the other, the
-shorter string is less than the longer one.  Thus, '"abc"' is less than
-'"abcd"'.
+the second character of each, and so on.  Thus, ‘"10"’ is less than
+‘"9"’.  If there are two strings where one is a prefix of the other, the
+shorter string is less than the longer one.  Thus, ‘"abc"’ is less than
+‘"abcd"’.
 
-   It is very easy to accidentally mistype the '==' operator and leave
-off one of the '=' characters.  The result is still valid 'awk' code,
+   It is very easy to accidentally mistype the ‘==’ operator and leave
+off one of the ‘=’ characters.  The result is still valid ‘awk’ code,
 but the program does not do what is intended:
 
      if (a = b)   # oops! should be a == b
@@ -9365,71 +9365,71 @@ but the program does not do what is intended:
      else
         ...
 
-Unless 'b' happens to be zero or the null string, the 'if' part of the
+Unless ‘b’ happens to be zero or the null string, the ‘if’ part of the
 test always succeeds.  Because the operators are so similar, this kind
 of error is very difficult to spot when scanning the source code.
 
    The following list of expressions illustrates the kinds of
-comparisons 'awk' performs, as well as what the result of each
+comparisons ‘awk’ performs, as well as what the result of each
 comparison is:
 
-'1.5 <= 2.0'
+‘1.5 <= 2.0’
      Numeric comparison (true)
 
-'"abc" >= "xyz"'
+‘"abc" >= "xyz"’
      String comparison (false)
 
-'1.5 != " +2"'
+‘1.5 != " +2"’
      String comparison (true)
 
-'"1e2" < "3"'
+‘"1e2" < "3"’
      String comparison (true)
 
-'a = 2; b = "2"'
-'a == b'
+‘a = 2; b = "2"’
+‘a == b’
      String comparison (true)
 
-'a = 2; b = " +2"'
-'a == b'
+‘a = 2; b = " +2"’
+‘a == b’
      String comparison (false)
 
    In this example:
 
      $ echo 1e2 3 | awk '{ print ($1 < $2) ? "true" : "false" }'
-     -| false
+     ⊣ false
 
-the result is 'false' because both '$1' and '$2' are user input.  They
-are numeric strings--therefore both have the strnum attribute, dictating
+the result is ‘false’ because both ‘$1’ and ‘$2’ are user input.  
They
+are numeric strings—therefore both have the strnum attribute, dictating
 a numeric comparison.  The purpose of the comparison rules and the use
-of numeric strings is to attempt to produce the behavior that is "least
-surprising," while still "doing the right thing."
+of numeric strings is to attempt to produce the behavior that is “least
+surprising,” while still “doing the right thing.”
 
    String comparisons and regular expression comparisons are very
 different.  For example:
 
      x == "foo"
 
-has the value one, or is true if the variable 'x' is precisely 'foo'.
+has the value one, or is true if the variable ‘x’ is precisely ‘foo’.
 By contrast:
 
      x ~ /foo/
 
-has the value one if 'x' contains 'foo', such as '"Oh, what a fool am
-I!"'.
+has the value one if ‘x’ contains ‘foo’, such as ‘"Oh, what a fool am
+I!"’.
 
-   The righthand operand of the '~' and '!~' operators may be either a
-regexp constant ('/'...'/') or an ordinary expression.  In the latter
+   The righthand operand of the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ operators may be either a
+regexp constant (‘/’...‘/’) or an ordinary expression.  In the latter
 case, the value of the expression as a string is used as a dynamic
 regexp (*note Regexp Usage::; also *note Computed Regexps::).
 
    A constant regular expression in slashes by itself is also an
-expression.  '/REGEXP/' is an abbreviation for the following comparison
+expression.  ‘/REGEXP/’ is an abbreviation for the following comparison
 expression:
 
      $0 ~ /REGEXP/
 
-   One special place where '/foo/' is _not_ an abbreviation for '$0 ~
-/foo/' is when it is the righthand operand of '~' or '!~'.  *Note Using
+   One special place where ‘/foo/’ is _not_ an abbreviation for ‘$0 ~
+/foo/’ is when it is the righthand operand of ‘~’ or ‘!~’.  *Note 
Using
 Constant Regexps::, where this is discussed in more detail.
 
 
@@ -9439,40 +9439,40 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: POSIX String Comparison,  Prev: 
Comparison Operators,  U
 .........................................................
 
 The POSIX standard used to say that all string comparisons are performed
-based on the locale's "collating order".  This is the order in which
+based on the locale’s “collating order”.  This is the order in which
 characters sort, as defined by the locale (for more discussion, *note
 Locales::).  This order is usually very different from the results
 obtained when doing straight byte-by-byte comparison.(1)
 
    Because this behavior differs considerably from existing practice,
-'gawk' only implemented it when in POSIX mode (*note Options::).  Here
-is an example to illustrate the difference, in an 'en_US.UTF-8' locale:
+‘gawk’ only implemented it when in POSIX mode (*note Options::).  Here
+is an example to illustrate the difference, in an ‘en_US.UTF-8’ locale:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { printf("ABC < abc = %s\n",
      >                     ("ABC" < "abc" ? "TRUE" : "FALSE")) }'
-     -| ABC < abc = TRUE
+     ⊣ ABC < abc = TRUE
      $ gawk --posix 'BEGIN { printf("ABC < abc = %s\n",
      >                             ("ABC" < "abc" ? "TRUE" : "FALSE")) }'
-     -| ABC < abc = FALSE
+     ⊣ ABC < abc = FALSE
 
    Fortunately, as of August 2016, comparison based on locale collating
-order is no longer required for the '==' and '!=' operators.(2)
-However, comparison based on locales is still required for '<', '<=',
-'>', and '>='.  POSIX thus recommends as follows:
+order is no longer required for the ‘==’ and ‘!=’ operators.(2)
+However, comparison based on locales is still required for ‘<’, ‘<=’,
+‘>’, and ‘>=’.  POSIX thus recommends as follows:
 
-     Since the '==' operator checks whether strings are identical, not
+     Since the ‘==’ operator checks whether strings are identical, not
      whether they collate equally, applications needing to check whether
      strings collate equally can use:
 
           a <= b && a >= b
 
-   As of version 4.2, 'gawk' continues to use locale collating order for
-'<', '<=', '>', and '>=' only in POSIX mode.
+   As of version 4.2, ‘gawk’ continues to use locale collating order for
+‘<’, ‘<=’, ‘>’, and ‘>=’ only in POSIX mode.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Technically, string comparison is supposed to behave the same way
-as if the strings were compared with the C 'strcoll()' function.
+as if the strings were compared with the C ‘strcoll()’ function.
 
    (2) See the Austin Group website
 (http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=1070).
@@ -9483,16 +9483,16 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Boolean Ops,  Next: Conditional 
Exp,  Prev: Typing and C
 6.3.3 Boolean Expressions
 -------------------------
 
-A "Boolean expression" is a combination of comparison expressions or
-matching expressions, using the Boolean operators "or" ('||'), "and"
-('&&'), and "not" ('!'), along with parentheses to control nesting.  The
+A “Boolean expression” is a combination of comparison expressions or
+matching expressions, using the Boolean operators “or” (‘||’), 
“and”
+(‘&&’), and “not” (‘!’), along with parentheses to control 
nesting.  The
 truth value of the Boolean expression is computed by combining the truth
 values of the component expressions.  Boolean expressions are also
-referred to as "logical expressions".  The terms are equivalent.
+referred to as “logical expressions”.  The terms are equivalent.
 
    Boolean expressions can be used wherever comparison and matching
-expressions can be used.  They can be used in 'if', 'while', 'do', and
-'for' statements (*note Statements::).  They have numeric values (one if
+expressions can be used.  They can be used in ‘if’, ‘while’, ‘do’, 
and
+‘for’ statements (*note Statements::).  They have numeric values (one if
 true, zero if false) that come into play if the result of the Boolean
 expression is stored in a variable or used in arithmetic.
 
@@ -9500,55 +9500,55 @@ expression is stored in a variable or used in 
arithmetic.
 can use one as a pattern to control the execution of rules.  The Boolean
 operators are:
 
-'BOOLEAN1 && BOOLEAN2'
+‘BOOLEAN1 && BOOLEAN2’
      True if both BOOLEAN1 and BOOLEAN2 are true.  For example, the
      following statement prints the current input record if it contains
-     both 'edu' and 'li':
+     both ‘edu’ and ‘li’:
 
           if ($0 ~ /edu/ && $0 ~ /li/) print
 
      The subexpression BOOLEAN2 is evaluated only if BOOLEAN1 is true.
      This can make a difference when BOOLEAN2 contains expressions that
-     have side effects.  In the case of '$0 ~ /foo/ && ($2 == bar++)',
-     the variable 'bar' is not incremented if there is no substring
-     'foo' in the record.
+     have side effects.  In the case of ‘$0 ~ /foo/ && ($2 == bar++)’,
+     the variable ‘bar’ is not incremented if there is no substring
+     ‘foo’ in the record.
 
-'BOOLEAN1 || BOOLEAN2'
+‘BOOLEAN1 || BOOLEAN2’
      True if at least one of BOOLEAN1 or BOOLEAN2 is true.  For example,
      the following statement prints all records in the input that
-     contain _either_ 'edu' or 'li':
+     contain _either_ ‘edu’ or ‘li’:
 
           if ($0 ~ /edu/ || $0 ~ /li/) print
 
      The subexpression BOOLEAN2 is evaluated only if BOOLEAN1 is false.
      This can make a difference when BOOLEAN2 contains expressions that
      have side effects.  (Thus, this test never really distinguishes
-     records that contain both 'edu' and 'li'--as soon as 'edu' is
+     records that contain both ‘edu’ and ‘li’—as soon as ‘edu’ is
      matched, the full test succeeds.)
 
-'! BOOLEAN'
+‘! BOOLEAN’
      True if BOOLEAN is false.  For example, the following program
-     prints 'no home!' in the unusual event that the 'HOME' environment
+     prints ‘no home!’ in the unusual event that the ‘HOME’ environment
      variable is not defined:
 
           BEGIN { if (! ("HOME" in ENVIRON))
                       print "no home!" }
 
-     (The 'in' operator is described in *note Reference to Elements::.)
+     (The ‘in’ operator is described in *note Reference to Elements::.)
 
-   The '&&' and '||' operators are called "short-circuit" operators
+   The ‘&&’ and ‘||’ operators are called “short-circuit” operators
 because of the way they work.  Evaluation of the full expression is
-"short-circuited" if the result can be determined partway through its
+“short-circuited” if the result can be determined partway through its
 evaluation.
 
-   Statements that end with '&&' or '||' can be continued simply by
+   Statements that end with ‘&&’ or ‘||’ can be continued simply by
 putting a newline after them.  But you cannot put a newline in front of
 either of these operators without using backslash continuation (*note
 Statements/Lines::).
 
-   The actual value of an expression using the '!' operator is either
+   The actual value of an expression using the ‘!’ operator is either
 one or zero, depending upon the truth value of the expression it is
-applied to.  The '!' operator is often useful for changing the sense of
+applied to.  The ‘!’ operator is often useful for changing the sense of
 a flag variable from false to true and back again.  For example, the
 following program is one way to print lines in between special
 bracketing lines:
@@ -9557,30 +9557,30 @@ bracketing lines:
      interested      { print }
      $1 == "END"     { interested = ! interested; next }
 
-The variable 'interested', as with all 'awk' variables, starts out
+The variable ‘interested’, as with all ‘awk’ variables, starts out
 initialized to zero, which is also false.  When a line is seen whose
-first field is 'START', the value of 'interested' is toggled to true,
-using '!'.  The next rule prints lines as long as 'interested' is true.
-When a line is seen whose first field is 'END', 'interested' is toggled
+first field is ‘START’, the value of ‘interested’ is toggled to true,
+using ‘!’.  The next rule prints lines as long as ‘interested’ is true.
+When a line is seen whose first field is ‘END’, ‘interested’ is toggled
 back to false.(1)
 
-   Most commonly, the '!' operator is used in the conditions of 'if' and
-'while' statements, where it often makes more sense to phrase the logic
+   Most commonly, the ‘!’ operator is used in the conditions of ‘if’ 
and
+‘while’ statements, where it often makes more sense to phrase the logic
 in the negative:
 
      if (! SOME CONDITION || SOME OTHER CONDITION) {
          ... DO WHATEVER PROCESSING ...
      }
 
-     NOTE: The 'next' statement is discussed in *note Next Statement::.
-     'next' tells 'awk' to skip the rest of the rules, get the next
+     NOTE: The ‘next’ statement is discussed in *note Next Statement::.
+     ‘next’ tells ‘awk’ to skip the rest of the rules, get the next
      record, and start processing the rules over again at the top.  The
-     reason it's there is to avoid printing the bracketing 'START' and
-     'END' lines.
+     reason it’s there is to avoid printing the bracketing ‘START’ and
+     ‘END’ lines.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) This program has a bug; it prints lines starting with 'END'.  How
+   (1) This program has a bug; it prints lines starting with ‘END’.  How
 would you fix it?
 
 
@@ -9589,38 +9589,38 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Conditional Exp,  Prev: Boolean 
Ops,  Up: Truth Values a
 6.3.4 Conditional Expressions
 -----------------------------
 
-A "conditional expression" is a special kind of expression that has
-three operands.  It allows you to use one expression's value to select
-one of two other expressions.  The conditional expression in 'awk' is
+A “conditional expression” is a special kind of expression that has
+three operands.  It allows you to use one expression’s value to select
+one of two other expressions.  The conditional expression in ‘awk’ is
 the same as in the C language, as shown here:
 
      SELECTOR ? IF-TRUE-EXP : IF-FALSE-EXP
 
 There are three subexpressions.  The first, SELECTOR, is always computed
-first.  If it is "true" (not zero or not null), then IF-TRUE-EXP is
+first.  If it is “true” (not zero or not null), then IF-TRUE-EXP is
 computed next, and its value becomes the value of the whole expression.
 Otherwise, IF-FALSE-EXP is computed next, and its value becomes the
 value of the whole expression.  For example, the following expression
-produces the absolute value of 'x':
+produces the absolute value of ‘x’:
 
      x >= 0 ? x : -x
 
    Each time the conditional expression is computed, only one of
 IF-TRUE-EXP and IF-FALSE-EXP is used; the other is ignored.  This is
 important when the expressions have side effects.  For example, this
-conditional expression examines element 'i' of either array 'a' or array
-'b', and increments 'i':
+conditional expression examines element ‘i’ of either array ‘a’ or 
array
+‘b’, and increments ‘i’:
 
      x == y ? a[i++] : b[i++]
 
-This is guaranteed to increment 'i' exactly once, because each time only
+This is guaranteed to increment ‘i’ exactly once, because each time only
 one of the two increment expressions is executed and the other is not.
 *Note Arrays::, for more information about arrays.
 
-   As a minor 'gawk' extension, a statement that uses '?:' can be
+   As a minor ‘gawk’ extension, a statement that uses ‘?:’ can be
 continued simply by putting a newline after either character.  However,
 putting a newline in front of either character does not work without
-using backslash continuation (*note Statements/Lines::).  If '--posix'
+using backslash continuation (*note Statements/Lines::).  If ‘--posix’
 is specified (*note Options::), this extension is disabled.
 
 
@@ -9629,24 +9629,24 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Calls,  Next: 
Precedence,  Prev: Truth Values a
 6.4 Function Calls
 ==================
 
-A "function" is a name for a particular calculation.  This enables you
+A “function” is a name for a particular calculation.  This enables you
 to ask for it by name at any point in the program.  For example, the
-function 'sqrt()' computes the square root of a number.
+function ‘sqrt()’ computes the square root of a number.
 
-   A fixed set of functions are "built in", which means they are
-available in every 'awk' program.  The 'sqrt()' function is one of
+   A fixed set of functions are “built in”, which means they are
+available in every ‘awk’ program.  The ‘sqrt()’ function is one of
 these.  *Note Built-in:: for a list of built-in functions and their
 descriptions.  In addition, you can define functions for use in your
 program.  *Note User-defined:: for instructions on how to do this.
-Finally, 'gawk' lets you write functions in C or C++ that may be called
+Finally, ‘gawk’ lets you write functions in C or C++ that may be called
 from your program (*note Dynamic Extensions::).
 
-   The way to use a function is with a "function call" expression, which
+   The way to use a function is with a “function call” expression, which
 consists of the function name followed immediately by a list of
-"arguments" in parentheses.  The arguments are expressions that provide
-the raw materials for the function's calculations.  When there is more
+“arguments” in parentheses.  The arguments are expressions that provide
+the raw materials for the function’s calculations.  When there is more
 than one argument, they are separated by commas.  If there are no
-arguments, just write '()' after the function name.  The following
+arguments, just write ‘()’ after the function name.  The following
 examples show function calls with and without arguments:
 
      sqrt(x^2 + y^2)        one argument
@@ -9655,14 +9655,14 @@ examples show function calls with and without arguments:
 
      CAUTION: Do not put any space between the function name and the
      opening parenthesis!  A user-defined function name looks just like
-     the name of a variable--a space would make the expression look like
+     the name of a variable—a space would make the expression look like
      concatenation of a variable with an expression inside parentheses.
      With built-in functions, space before the parenthesis is harmless,
      but it is best not to get into the habit of using space to avoid
      mistakes with user-defined functions.
 
    Each function expects a particular number of arguments.  For example,
-the 'sqrt()' function must be called with a single argument, the number
+the ‘sqrt()’ function must be called with a single argument, the number
 of which to take the square root:
 
      sqrt(ARGUMENT)
@@ -9675,31 +9675,31 @@ treated as local variables.  Such local variables act 
like the empty
 string if referenced where a string value is required, and like zero if
 referenced where a numeric value is required (*note User-defined::).
 
-   As an advanced feature, 'gawk' provides indirect function calls,
+   As an advanced feature, ‘gawk’ provides indirect function calls,
 which is a way to choose the function to call at runtime, instead of
 when you write the source code to your program.  We defer discussion of
 this feature until later; see *note Indirect Calls::.
 
    Like every other expression, the function call has a value, often
-called the "return value", which is computed by the function based on
+called the “return value”, which is computed by the function based on
 the arguments you give it.  In this example, the return value of
-'sqrt(ARGUMENT)' is the square root of ARGUMENT.  The following program
+‘sqrt(ARGUMENT)’ is the square root of ARGUMENT.  The following program
 reads numbers, one number per line, and prints the square root of each
 one:
 
      $ awk '{ print "The square root of", $1, "is", sqrt($1) }'
      1
-     -| The square root of 1 is 1
+     ⊣ The square root of 1 is 1
      3
-     -| The square root of 3 is 1.73205
+     ⊣ The square root of 3 is 1.73205
      5
-     -| The square root of 5 is 2.23607
+     ⊣ The square root of 5 is 2.23607
      Ctrl-d
 
    A function can also have side effects, such as assigning values to
-certain variables or doing I/O. This program shows how the 'match()'
-function (*note String Functions::) changes the variables 'RSTART' and
-'RLENGTH':
+certain variables or doing I/O. This program shows how the ‘match()’
+function (*note String Functions::) changes the variables ‘RSTART’ and
+‘RLENGTH’:
 
      {
          if (match($1, $2))
@@ -9712,11 +9712,11 @@ Here is a sample run:
 
      $ awk -f matchit.awk
      aaccdd  c+
-     -| 3 2
+     ⊣ 3 2
      foo     bar
-     -| no match
+     ⊣ no match
      abcdefg e
-     -| 5 1
+     ⊣ 5 1
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Precedence,  Next: Locales,  Prev: Function Calls,  
Up: Expressions
@@ -9724,10 +9724,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Precedence,  Next: Locales,  
Prev: Function Calls,  Up:
 6.5 Operator Precedence (How Operators Nest)
 ============================================
 
-"Operator precedence" determines how operators are grouped when
-different operators appear close by in one expression.  For example, '*'
-has higher precedence than '+'; thus, 'a + b * c' means to multiply 'b'
-and 'c', and then add 'a' to the product (i.e., 'a + (b * c)').
+“Operator precedence” determines how operators are grouped when
+different operators appear close by in one expression.  For example, ‘*’
+has higher precedence than ‘+’; thus, ‘a + b * c’ means to multiply 
‘b’
+and ‘c’, and then add ‘a’ to the product (i.e., ‘a + (b * c)’).
 
    The normal precedence of the operators can be overruled by using
 parentheses.  Think of the precedence rules as saying where the
@@ -9740,82 +9740,82 @@ help prevent any such mistakes.
 
    When operators of equal precedence are used together, the leftmost
 operator groups first, except for the assignment, conditional, and
-exponentiation operators, which group in the opposite order.  Thus, 'a -
-b + c' groups as '(a - b) + c' and 'a = b = c' groups as 'a = (b = c)'.
+exponentiation operators, which group in the opposite order.  Thus, ‘a -
+b + c’ groups as ‘(a - b) + c’ and ‘a = b = c’ groups as ‘a = (b = 
c)’.
 
    Normally the precedence of prefix unary operators does not matter,
 because there is only one way to interpret them: innermost first.  Thus,
-'$++i' means '$(++i)' and '++$x' means '++($x)'.  However, when another
+‘$++i’ means ‘$(++i)’ and ‘++$x’ means ‘++($x)’.  However, 
when another
 operator follows the operand, then the precedence of the unary operators
-can matter.  '$x^2' means '($x)^2', but '-x^2' means '-(x^2)', because
-'-' has lower precedence than '^', whereas '$' has higher precedence.
+can matter.  ‘$x^2’ means ‘($x)^2’, but ‘-x^2’ means ‘-(x^2)’, 
because
+‘-’ has lower precedence than ‘^’, whereas ‘$’ has higher 
precedence.
 Also, operators cannot be combined in a way that violates the precedence
-rules; for example, '$$0++--' is not a valid expression because the
-first '$' has higher precedence than the '++'; to avoid the problem the
-expression can be rewritten as '$($0++)--'.
+rules; for example, ‘$$0++--’ is not a valid expression because the
+first ‘$’ has higher precedence than the ‘++’; to avoid the problem the
+expression can be rewritten as ‘$($0++)--’.
 
-   This list presents 'awk''s operators, in order of highest to lowest
+   This list presents ‘awk’’s operators, in order of highest to lowest
 precedence:
 
-'('...')'
+‘(’...‘)’
      Grouping.
 
-'$'
+‘$’
      Field reference.
 
-'++ --'
+‘++ --’
      Increment, decrement.
 
-'^ **'
+‘^ **’
      Exponentiation.  These operators group right to left.
 
-'+ - !'
-     Unary plus, minus, logical "not."
+‘+ - !’
+     Unary plus, minus, logical “not.”
 
-'* / %'
+‘* / %’
      Multiplication, division, remainder.
 
-'+ -'
+‘+ -’
      Addition, subtraction.
 
 String concatenation
      There is no special symbol for concatenation.  The operands are
      simply written side by side (*note Concatenation::).
 
-'< <= == != > >= >> | |&'
+‘< <= == != > >= >> | |&’
      Relational and redirection.  The relational operators and the
      redirections have the same precedence level.  Characters such as
-     '>' serve both as relationals and as redirections; the context
+     ‘>’ serve both as relationals and as redirections; the context
      distinguishes between the two meanings.
 
-     Note that the I/O redirection operators in 'print' and 'printf'
+     Note that the I/O redirection operators in ‘print’ and ‘printf’
      statements belong to the statement level, not to expressions.  The
      redirection does not produce an expression that could be the
      operand of another operator.  As a result, it does not make sense
      to use a redirection operator near another operator of lower
-     precedence without parentheses.  Such combinations (e.g., 'print
-     foo > a ? b : c') result in syntax errors.  The correct way to
-     write this statement is 'print foo > (a ? b : c)'.
+     precedence without parentheses.  Such combinations (e.g., ‘print
+     foo > a ? b : c’) result in syntax errors.  The correct way to
+     write this statement is ‘print foo > (a ? b : c)’.
 
-'~ !~'
+‘~ !~’
      Matching, nonmatching.
 
-'in'
+‘in’
      Array membership.
 
-'&&'
-     Logical "and."
+‘&&’
+     Logical “and.”
 
-'||'
-     Logical "or."
+‘||’
+     Logical “or.”
 
-'?:'
+‘?:’
      Conditional.  This operator groups right to left.
 
-'= += -= *= /= %= ^= **='
+‘= += -= *= /= %= ^= **=’
      Assignment.  These operators group right to left.
 
-     NOTE: The '|&', '**', and '**=' operators are not specified by
+     NOTE: The ‘|&’, ‘**’, and ‘**=’ operators are not specified by
      POSIX. For maximum portability, do not use them.
 
 
@@ -9824,34 +9824,34 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Locales,  Next: Expressions 
Summary,  Prev: Precedence,
 6.6 Where You Are Makes a Difference
 ====================================
 
-Modern systems support the notion of "locales": a way to tell the system
+Modern systems support the notion of “locales”: a way to tell the system
 about the local character set and language.  The ISO C standard defines
-a default '"C"' locale, which is an environment that is typical of what
+a default ‘"C"’ locale, which is an environment that is typical of what
 many C programmers are used to.
 
    Once upon a time, the locale setting used to affect regexp matching,
 but this is no longer true (*note Ranges and Locales::).
 
-   Locales can affect record splitting.  For the normal case of 'RS =
-"\n"', the locale is largely irrelevant.  For other single-character
-record separators, setting 'LC_ALL=C' in the environment will give you
-much better performance when reading records.  Otherwise, 'gawk' has to
+   Locales can affect record splitting.  For the normal case of ‘RS =
+"\n"’, the locale is largely irrelevant.  For other single-character
+record separators, setting ‘LC_ALL=C’ in the environment will give you
+much better performance when reading records.  Otherwise, ‘gawk’ has to
 make several function calls, _per input character_, to find the record
 terminator.
 
    Locales can affect how dates and times are formatted (*note Time
 Functions::).  For example, a common way to abbreviate the date
-September 4, 2015, in the United States is "9/4/15."  In many countries
-in Europe, however, it is abbreviated "4.9.15."  Thus, the '%x'
-specification in a '"US"' locale might produce '9/4/15', while in a
-'"EUROPE"' locale, it might produce '4.9.15'.
+September 4, 2015, in the United States is “9/4/15.” In many countries
+in Europe, however, it is abbreviated “4.9.15.” Thus, the ‘%x’
+specification in a ‘"US"’ locale might produce ‘9/4/15’, while in a
+‘"EUROPE"’ locale, it might produce ‘4.9.15’.
 
    According to POSIX, string comparison is also affected by locales
 (similar to regular expressions).  The details are presented in *note
 POSIX String Comparison::.
 
    Finally, the locale affects the value of the decimal point character
-used when 'gawk' parses input data.  This is discussed in detail in
+used when ‘gawk’ parses input data.  This is discussed in detail in
 *note Conversion::.
 
 
@@ -9860,54 +9860,54 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Expressions Summary,  Prev: 
Locales,  Up: Expressions
 6.7 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * Expressions are the basic elements of computation in programs.
+   • Expressions are the basic elements of computation in programs.
      They are built from constants, variables, function calls, and
      combinations of the various kinds of values with operators.
 
-   * 'awk' supplies three kinds of constants: numeric, string, and
-     regexp.  'gawk' lets you specify numeric constants in octal and
+   • ‘awk’ supplies three kinds of constants: numeric, string, and
+     regexp.  ‘gawk’ lets you specify numeric constants in octal and
      hexadecimal (bases 8 and 16) as well as decimal (base 10).  In
-     certain contexts, a standalone regexp constant such as '/foo/' has
-     the same meaning as '$0 ~ /foo/'.
+     certain contexts, a standalone regexp constant such as ‘/foo/’ has
+     the same meaning as ‘$0 ~ /foo/’.
 
-   * Variables hold values between uses in computations.  A number of
-     built-in variables provide information to your 'awk' program, and a
-     number of others let you control how 'awk' behaves.
+   • Variables hold values between uses in computations.  A number of
+     built-in variables provide information to your ‘awk’ program, and a
+     number of others let you control how ‘awk’ behaves.
 
-   * Numbers are automatically converted to strings, and strings to
-     numbers, as needed by 'awk'.  Numeric values are converted as if
-     they were formatted with 'sprintf()' using the format in 'CONVFMT'.
+   • Numbers are automatically converted to strings, and strings to
+     numbers, as needed by ‘awk’.  Numeric values are converted as if
+     they were formatted with ‘sprintf()’ using the format in 
‘CONVFMT’.
      Locales can influence the conversions.
 
-   * 'awk' provides the usual arithmetic operators (addition,
+   • ‘awk’ provides the usual arithmetic operators (addition,
      subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus), and unary plus and
      minus.  It also provides comparison operators, Boolean operators,
      an array membership testing operator, and regexp matching
      operators.  String concatenation is accomplished by placing two
      expressions next to each other; there is no explicit operator.  The
-     three-operand '?:' operator provides an "if-else" test within
+     three-operand ‘?:’ operator provides an “if-else” test within
      expressions.
 
-   * Assignment operators provide convenient shorthands for common
+   • Assignment operators provide convenient shorthands for common
      arithmetic operations.
 
-   * In 'awk', a value is considered to be true if it is nonzero _or_
+   • In ‘awk’, a value is considered to be true if it is nonzero _or_
      non-null.  Otherwise, the value is false.
 
-   * A variable's type is set upon each assignment and may change over
+   • A variable’s type is set upon each assignment and may change over
      its lifetime.  The type determines how it behaves in comparisons
      (string or numeric).
 
-   * Function calls return a value that may be used as part of a larger
+   • Function calls return a value that may be used as part of a larger
      expression.  Expressions used to pass parameter values are fully
-     evaluated before the function is called.  'awk' provides built-in
+     evaluated before the function is called.  ‘awk’ provides built-in
      and user-defined functions; this is described in *note Functions::.
 
-   * Operator precedence specifies the order in which operations are
-     performed, unless explicitly overridden by parentheses.  'awk''s
+   • Operator precedence specifies the order in which operations are
+     performed, unless explicitly overridden by parentheses.  ‘awk’’s
      operator precedence is compatible with that of C.
 
-   * Locales can affect the format of data as output by an 'awk'
+   • Locales can affect the format of data as output by an ‘awk’
      program, and occasionally the format for data read as input.
 
 
@@ -9916,20 +9916,20 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Patterns and Actions,  Next: 
Arrays,  Prev: Expressions,
 7 Patterns, Actions, and Variables
 **********************************
 
-As you have already seen, each 'awk' statement consists of a pattern
+As you have already seen, each ‘awk’ statement consists of a pattern
 with an associated action.  This major node describes how you build
 patterns and actions, what kinds of things you can do within actions,
-and 'awk''s predefined variables.
+and ‘awk’’s predefined variables.
 
-   The pattern-action rules and the statements available for use within
-actions form the core of 'awk' programming.  In a sense, everything
+   The pattern–action rules and the statements available for use within
+actions form the core of ‘awk’ programming.  In a sense, everything
 covered up to here has been the foundation that programs are built on
-top of.  Now it's time to start building something useful.
+top of.  Now it’s time to start building something useful.
 
 * Menu:
 
 * Pattern Overview::            What goes into a pattern.
-* Using Shell Variables::       How to use shell variables with 'awk'.
+* Using Shell Variables::       How to use shell variables with ‘awk’.
 * Action Overview::             What goes into an action.
 * Statements::                  Describes the various control statements in
                                 detail.
@@ -9951,34 +9951,34 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Pattern Overview,  Next: Using 
Shell Variables,  Up: Pat
 * BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::           Two special patterns for advanced control.
 * Empty::                       The empty pattern, which matches every record.
 
-Patterns in 'awk' control the execution of rules--a rule is executed
-when its pattern matches the current input record.  The following is a
-summary of the types of 'awk' patterns:
+Patterns in ‘awk’ control the execution of rules—a rule is executed when
+its pattern matches the current input record.  The following is a
+summary of the types of ‘awk’ patterns:
 
-'/REGULAR EXPRESSION/'
+‘/REGULAR EXPRESSION/’
      A regular expression.  It matches when the text of the input record
      fits the regular expression.  (*Note Regexp::.)
 
-'EXPRESSION'
+‘EXPRESSION’
      A single expression.  It matches when its value is nonzero (if a
      number) or non-null (if a string).  (*Note Expression Patterns::.)
 
-'BEGPAT, ENDPAT'
-     A pair of patterns separated by a comma, specifying a "range" of
+‘BEGPAT, ENDPAT’
+     A pair of patterns separated by a comma, specifying a “range” of
      records.  The range includes both the initial record that matches
      BEGPAT and the final record that matches ENDPAT.  (*Note Ranges::.)
 
-'BEGIN'
-'END'
+‘BEGIN’
+‘END’
      Special patterns for you to supply startup or cleanup actions for
-     your 'awk' program.  (*Note BEGIN/END::.)
+     your ‘awk’ program.  (*Note BEGIN/END::.)
 
-'BEGINFILE'
-'ENDFILE'
+‘BEGINFILE’
+‘ENDFILE’
      Special patterns for you to supply startup or cleanup actions to be
      done on a per-file basis.  (*Note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::.)
 
-'EMPTY'
+‘EMPTY’
      The empty pattern matches every input record.  (*Note Empty::.)
 
 
@@ -9989,7 +9989,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Regexp Patterns,  Next: 
Expression Patterns,  Up: Patter
 
 Regular expressions are one of the first kinds of patterns presented in
 this book.  This kind of pattern is simply a regexp constant in the
-pattern part of a rule.  Its meaning is '$0 ~ /PATTERN/'.  The pattern
+pattern part of a rule.  Its meaning is ‘$0 ~ /PATTERN/’.  The pattern
 matches when the input record matches the regexp.  For example:
 
      /foo|bar|baz/  { buzzwords++ }
@@ -10001,75 +10001,75 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Expression Patterns,  Next: 
Ranges,  Prev: Regexp Patter
 7.1.2 Expressions as Patterns
 -----------------------------
 
-Any 'awk' expression is valid as an 'awk' pattern.  The pattern matches
-if the expression's value is nonzero (if a number) or non-null (if a
+Any ‘awk’ expression is valid as an ‘awk’ pattern.  The pattern matches
+if the expression’s value is nonzero (if a number) or non-null (if a
 string).  The expression is reevaluated each time the rule is tested
-against a new input record.  If the expression uses fields such as '$1',
-the value depends directly on the new input record's text; otherwise, it
-depends on only what has happened so far in the execution of the 'awk'
+against a new input record.  If the expression uses fields such as ‘$1’,
+the value depends directly on the new input record’s text; otherwise, it
+depends on only what has happened so far in the execution of the ‘awk’
 program.
 
    Comparison expressions, using the comparison operators described in
 *note Typing and Comparison::, are a very common kind of pattern.
 Regexp matching and nonmatching are also very common expressions.  The
-left operand of the '~' and '!~' operators is a string.  The right
+left operand of the ‘~’ and ‘!~’ operators is a string.  The right
 operand is either a constant regular expression enclosed in slashes
-('/REGEXP/'), or any expression whose string value is used as a dynamic
+(‘/REGEXP/’), or any expression whose string value is used as a dynamic
 regular expression (*note Computed Regexps::).  The following example
 prints the second field of each input record whose first field is
-precisely 'li':
+precisely ‘li’:
 
      $ awk '$1 == "li" { print $2 }' mail-list
 
 (There is no output, because there is no person with the exact name
-'li'.)  Contrast this with the following regular expression match, which
-accepts any record with a first field that contains 'li':
+‘li’.)  Contrast this with the following regular expression match, which
+accepts any record with a first field that contains ‘li’:
 
      $ awk '$1 ~ /li/ { print $2 }' mail-list
-     -| 555-5553
-     -| 555-6699
+     ⊣ 555-5553
+     ⊣ 555-6699
 
    A regexp constant as a pattern is also a special case of an
-expression pattern.  The expression '/li/' has the value one if 'li'
-appears in the current input record.  Thus, as a pattern, '/li/' matches
-any record containing 'li'.
+expression pattern.  The expression ‘/li/’ has the value one if ‘li’
+appears in the current input record.  Thus, as a pattern, ‘/li/’ matches
+any record containing ‘li’.
 
    Boolean expressions are also commonly used as patterns.  Whether the
 pattern matches an input record depends on whether its subexpressions
 match.  For example, the following command prints all the records in
-'mail-list' that contain both 'edu' and 'li':
+‘mail-list’ that contain both ‘edu’ and ‘li’:
 
      $ awk '/edu/ && /li/' mail-list
-     -| Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
+     ⊣ Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
 
-   The following command prints all records in 'mail-list' that contain
-_either_ 'edu' or 'li' (or both, of course):
+   The following command prints all records in ‘mail-list’ that contain
+_either_ ‘edu’ or ‘li’ (or both, of course):
 
      $ awk '/edu/ || /li/' mail-list
-     -| Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
-     -| Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliquotiens@yahoo.com R
-     -| Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
-     -| Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
-     -| Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
-     -| Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
+     ⊣ Amelia       555-5553     amelia.zodiacusque@gmail.com    F
+     ⊣ Broderick    555-0542     broderick.aliquotiens@yahoo.com R
+     ⊣ Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
+     ⊣ Julie        555-6699     julie.perscrutabor@skeeve.com   F
+     ⊣ Samuel       555-3430     samuel.lanceolis@shu.edu        A
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
 
-   The following command prints all records in 'mail-list' that do _not_
-contain the string 'li':
+   The following command prints all records in ‘mail-list’ that do _not_
+contain the string ‘li’:
 
      $ awk '! /li/' mail-list
-     -| Anthony      555-3412     anthony.asserturo@hotmail.com   A
-     -| Becky        555-7685     becky.algebrarum@gmail.com      A
-     -| Bill         555-1675     bill.drowning@hotmail.com       A
-     -| Camilla      555-2912     camilla.infusarum@skynet.be     R
-     -| Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
-     -| Martin       555-6480     martin.codicibus@hotmail.com    A
-     -| Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
+     ⊣ Anthony      555-3412     anthony.asserturo@hotmail.com   A
+     ⊣ Becky        555-7685     becky.algebrarum@gmail.com      A
+     ⊣ Bill         555-1675     bill.drowning@hotmail.com       A
+     ⊣ Camilla      555-2912     camilla.infusarum@skynet.be     R
+     ⊣ Fabius       555-1234     fabius.undevicesimus@ucb.edu    F
+     ⊣ Martin       555-6480     martin.codicibus@hotmail.com    A
+     ⊣ Jean-Paul    555-2127     jeanpaul.campanorum@nyu.edu     R
 
    The subexpressions of a Boolean operator in a pattern can be constant
-regular expressions, comparisons, or any other 'awk' expressions.  Range
+regular expressions, comparisons, or any other ‘awk’ expressions.  Range
 patterns are not expressions, so they cannot appear inside Boolean
-patterns.  Likewise, the special patterns 'BEGIN', 'END', 'BEGINFILE',
-and 'ENDFILE', which never match any input record, are not expressions
+patterns.  Likewise, the special patterns ‘BEGIN’, ‘END’, 
‘BEGINFILE’,
+and ‘ENDFILE’, which never match any input record, are not expressions
 and cannot appear inside Boolean patterns.
 
    The precedence of the different operators that can appear in patterns
@@ -10081,63 +10081,63 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Ranges,  Next: BEGIN/END,  
Prev: Expression Patterns,  U
 7.1.3 Specifying Record Ranges with Patterns
 --------------------------------------------
 
-A "range pattern" is made of two patterns separated by a comma, in the
-form 'BEGPAT, ENDPAT'.  It is used to match ranges of consecutive input
+A “range pattern” is made of two patterns separated by a comma, in the
+form ‘BEGPAT, ENDPAT’.  It is used to match ranges of consecutive input
 records.  The first pattern, BEGPAT, controls where the range begins,
 while ENDPAT controls where the pattern ends.  For example, the
 following:
 
      awk '$1 == "on", $1 == "off"' myfile
 
-prints every record in 'myfile' between 'on'/'off' pairs, inclusive.
+prints every record in ‘myfile’ between ‘on’/‘off’ pairs, 
inclusive.
 
    A range pattern starts out by matching BEGPAT against every input
-record.  When a record matches BEGPAT, the range pattern is "turned on",
+record.  When a record matches BEGPAT, the range pattern is “turned on”,
 and the range pattern matches this record as well.  As long as the range
 pattern stays turned on, it automatically matches every input record
 read.  The range pattern also matches ENDPAT against every input record;
-when this succeeds, the range pattern is "turned off" again for the
+when this succeeds, the range pattern is “turned off” again for the
 following record.  Then the range pattern goes back to checking BEGPAT
 against each record.
 
    The record that turns on the range pattern and the one that turns it
-off both match the range pattern.  If you don't want to operate on these
-records, you can write 'if' statements in the rule's action to
+off both match the range pattern.  If you don’t want to operate on these
+records, you can write ‘if’ statements in the rule’s action to
 distinguish them from the records you are interested in.
 
    It is possible for a pattern to be turned on and off by the same
 record.  If the record satisfies both conditions, then the action is
 executed for just that record.  For example, suppose there is text
-between two identical markers (e.g., the '%' symbol), each on its own
+between two identical markers (e.g., the ‘%’ symbol), each on its own
 line, that should be ignored.  A first attempt would be to combine a
-range pattern that describes the delimited text with the 'next'
+range pattern that describes the delimited text with the ‘next’
 statement (not discussed yet, *note Next Statement::).  This causes
-'awk' to skip any further processing of the current record and start
+‘awk’ to skip any further processing of the current record and start
 over again with the next input record.  Such a program looks like this:
 
      /^%$/,/^%$/    { next }
                     { print }
 
 This program fails because the range pattern is both turned on and
-turned off by the first line, which just has a '%' on it.  To accomplish
+turned off by the first line, which just has a ‘%’ on it.  To accomplish
 this task, write the program in the following manner, using a flag:
 
      /^%$/     { skip = ! skip; next }
      skip == 1 { next } # skip lines with `skip' set
 
-   In a range pattern, the comma (',') has the lowest precedence of all
+   In a range pattern, the comma (‘,’) has the lowest precedence of all
 the operators (i.e., it is evaluated last).  Thus, the following program
 attempts to combine a range pattern with another, simpler test:
 
      echo Yes | awk '/1/,/2/ || /Yes/'
 
-   The intent of this program is '(/1/,/2/) || /Yes/'.  However, 'awk'
-interprets this as '/1/, (/2/ || /Yes/)'.  This cannot be changed or
+   The intent of this program is ‘(/1/,/2/) || /Yes/’.  However, ‘awk’
+interprets this as ‘/1/, (/2/ || /Yes/)’.  This cannot be changed or
 worked around; range patterns do not combine with other patterns:
 
      $ echo Yes | gawk '(/1/,/2/) || /Yes/'
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:1: (/1/,/2/) || /Yes/
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:1:           ^ syntax error
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:1: (/1/,/2/) || /Yes/
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:1:           ^ syntax error
 
    As a minor point of interest, although it is poor style, POSIX allows
 you to put a newline after the comma in a range pattern.  (d.c.)
@@ -10145,15 +10145,15 @@ you to put a newline after the comma in a range 
pattern.  (d.c.)
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: BEGIN/END,  Next: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE,  Prev: Ranges,  
Up: Pattern Overview
 
-7.1.4 The 'BEGIN' and 'END' Special Patterns
+7.1.4 The ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ Special Patterns
 --------------------------------------------
 
 All the patterns described so far are for matching input records.  The
-'BEGIN' and 'END' special patterns are different.  They supply startup
-and cleanup actions for 'awk' programs.  'BEGIN' and 'END' rules must
+‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ special patterns are different.  They supply startup
+and cleanup actions for ‘awk’ programs.  ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules 
must
 have actions; there is no default action for these rules because there
-is no current record when they run.  'BEGIN' and 'END' rules are often
-referred to as "'BEGIN' and 'END' blocks" by longtime 'awk' programmers.
+is no current record when they run.  ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules are often
+referred to as “‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ blocks” by longtime ‘awk’ 
programmers.
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -10166,169 +10166,169 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Using BEGIN/END,  Next: I/O 
And BEGIN/END,  Up: BEGIN/EN
 7.1.4.1 Startup and Cleanup Actions
 ...................................
 
-A 'BEGIN' rule is executed once only, before the first input record is
-read.  Likewise, an 'END' rule is executed once only, after all the
+A ‘BEGIN’ rule is executed once only, before the first input record is
+read.  Likewise, an ‘END’ rule is executed once only, after all the
 input is read.  For example:
 
      $ awk '
      > BEGIN { print "Analysis of \"li\"" }
      > /li/  { ++n }
      > END   { print "\"li\" appears in", n, "records." }' mail-list
-     -| Analysis of "li"
-     -| "li" appears in 4 records.
+     ⊣ Analysis of "li"
+     ⊣ "li" appears in 4 records.
 
    This program finds the number of records in the input file
-'mail-list' that contain the string 'li'.  The 'BEGIN' rule prints a
-title for the report.  There is no need to use the 'BEGIN' rule to
-initialize the counter 'n' to zero, as 'awk' does this automatically
-(*note Variables::).  The second rule increments the variable 'n' every
-time a record containing the pattern 'li' is read.  The 'END' rule
-prints the value of 'n' at the end of the run.
-
-   The special patterns 'BEGIN' and 'END' cannot be used in ranges or
+‘mail-list’ that contain the string ‘li’.  The ‘BEGIN’ rule prints 
a
+title for the report.  There is no need to use the ‘BEGIN’ rule to
+initialize the counter ‘n’ to zero, as ‘awk’ does this automatically
+(*note Variables::).  The second rule increments the variable ‘n’ every
+time a record containing the pattern ‘li’ is read.  The ‘END’ rule
+prints the value of ‘n’ at the end of the run.
+
+   The special patterns ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ cannot be used in ranges or
 with Boolean operators (indeed, they cannot be used with any operators).
-An 'awk' program may have multiple 'BEGIN' and/or 'END' rules.  They are
-executed in the order in which they appear: all the 'BEGIN' rules at
-startup and all the 'END' rules at termination.
-
-   'BEGIN' and 'END' rules may be intermixed with other rules.  This
-feature was added in the 1987 version of 'awk' and is included in the
-POSIX standard.  The original (1978) version of 'awk' required the
-'BEGIN' rule to be placed at the beginning of the program, the 'END'
+An ‘awk’ program may have multiple ‘BEGIN’ and/or ‘END’ rules.  
They are
+executed in the order in which they appear: all the ‘BEGIN’ rules at
+startup and all the ‘END’ rules at termination.
+
+   ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules may be intermixed with other rules.  This
+feature was added in the 1987 version of ‘awk’ and is included in the
+POSIX standard.  The original (1978) version of ‘awk’ required the
+‘BEGIN’ rule to be placed at the beginning of the program, the ‘END’
 rule to be placed at the end, and only allowed one of each.  This is no
 longer required, but it is a good idea to follow this template in terms
 of program organization and readability.
 
-   Multiple 'BEGIN' and 'END' rules are useful for writing library
-functions, because each library file can have its own 'BEGIN' and/or
-'END' rule to do its own initialization and/or cleanup.  The order in
+   Multiple ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules are useful for writing library
+functions, because each library file can have its own ‘BEGIN’ and/or
+‘END’ rule to do its own initialization and/or cleanup.  The order in
 which library functions are named on the command line controls the order
-in which their 'BEGIN' and 'END' rules are executed.  Therefore, you
+in which their ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules are executed.  Therefore, you
 have to be careful when writing such rules in library files so that the
-order in which they are executed doesn't matter.  *Note Options:: for
+order in which they are executed doesn’t matter.  *Note Options:: for
 more information on using library functions.  *Note Library Functions::,
 for a number of useful library functions.
 
-   If an 'awk' program has only 'BEGIN' rules and no other rules, then
-the program exits after the 'BEGIN' rules are run.(1)  However, if an
-'END' rule exists, then the input is read, even if there are no other
-rules in the program.  This is necessary in case the 'END' rule checks
-the 'FNR' and 'NR' variables, or the fields.
+   If an ‘awk’ program has only ‘BEGIN’ rules and no other rules, then
+the program exits after the ‘BEGIN’ rules are run.(1)  However, if an
+‘END’ rule exists, then the input is read, even if there are no other
+rules in the program.  This is necessary in case the ‘END’ rule checks
+the ‘FNR’ and ‘NR’ variables, or the fields.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The original version of 'awk' kept reading and ignoring input
+   (1) The original version of ‘awk’ kept reading and ignoring input
 until the end of the file was seen.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: I/O And BEGIN/END,  Prev: Using BEGIN/END,  Up: 
BEGIN/END
 
-7.1.4.2 Input/Output from 'BEGIN' and 'END' Rules
+7.1.4.2 Input/Output from ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ Rules
 .................................................
 
 There are several (sometimes subtle) points to be aware of when doing
-I/O from a 'BEGIN' or 'END' rule.  The first has to do with the value of
-'$0' in a 'BEGIN' rule.  Because 'BEGIN' rules are executed before any
+I/O from a ‘BEGIN’ or ‘END’ rule.  The first has to do with the value 
of
+‘$0’ in a ‘BEGIN’ rule.  Because ‘BEGIN’ rules are executed before 
any
 input is read, there simply is no input record, and therefore no fields,
-when executing 'BEGIN' rules.  References to '$0' and the fields yield a
-null string or zero, depending upon the context.  One way to give '$0' a
-real value is to execute a 'getline' command without a variable (*note
-Getline::).  Another way is simply to assign a value to '$0'.
+when executing ‘BEGIN’ rules.  References to ‘$0’ and the fields yield 
a
+null string or zero, depending upon the context.  One way to give ‘$0’ a
+real value is to execute a ‘getline’ command without a variable (*note
+Getline::).  Another way is simply to assign a value to ‘$0’.
 
    The second point is similar to the first, but from the other
-direction.  Traditionally, due largely to implementation issues, '$0'
-and 'NF' were _undefined_ inside an 'END' rule.  The POSIX standard
-specifies that 'NF' is available in an 'END' rule.  It contains the
+direction.  Traditionally, due largely to implementation issues, ‘$0’
+and ‘NF’ were _undefined_ inside an ‘END’ rule.  The POSIX standard
+specifies that ‘NF’ is available in an ‘END’ rule.  It contains the
 number of fields from the last input record.  Most probably due to an
-oversight, the standard does not say that '$0' is also preserved,
+oversight, the standard does not say that ‘$0’ is also preserved,
 although logically one would think that it should be.  In fact, all of
-BWK 'awk', 'mawk', and 'gawk' preserve the value of '$0' for use in
-'END' rules.  Be aware, however, that some other implementations and
-many older versions of Unix 'awk' do not.
-
-   The third point follows from the first two.  The meaning of 'print'
-inside a 'BEGIN' or 'END' rule is the same as always: 'print $0'.  If
-'$0' is the null string, then this prints an empty record.  Many
-longtime 'awk' programmers use an unadorned 'print' in 'BEGIN' and 'END'
-rules to mean 'print ""', relying on '$0' being null.  Although one
-might generally get away with this in 'BEGIN' rules, it is a very bad
-idea in 'END' rules, at least in 'gawk'.  It is also poor style, because
+BWK ‘awk’, ‘mawk’, and ‘gawk’ preserve the value of ‘$0’ for 
use in
+‘END’ rules.  Be aware, however, that some other implementations and
+many older versions of Unix ‘awk’ do not.
+
+   The third point follows from the first two.  The meaning of ‘print’
+inside a ‘BEGIN’ or ‘END’ rule is the same as always: ‘print $0’.  
If
+‘$0’ is the null string, then this prints an empty record.  Many
+longtime ‘awk’ programmers use an unadorned ‘print’ in ‘BEGIN’ and 
‘END’
+rules to mean ‘print ""’, relying on ‘$0’ being null.  Although one
+might generally get away with this in ‘BEGIN’ rules, it is a very bad
+idea in ‘END’ rules, at least in ‘gawk’.  It is also poor style, 
because
 if an empty line is needed in the output, the program should print one
 explicitly.
 
-   Finally, the 'next' and 'nextfile' statements are not allowed in a
-'BEGIN' rule, because the implicit
+   Finally, the ‘next’ and ‘nextfile’ statements are not allowed in a
+‘BEGIN’ rule, because the implicit
 read-a-record-and-match-against-the-rules loop has not started yet.
-Similarly, those statements are not valid in an 'END' rule, because all
+Similarly, those statements are not valid in an ‘END’ rule, because all
 the input has been read.  (*Note Next Statement:: and *note Nextfile
 Statement::.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE,  Next: Empty,  Prev: BEGIN/END,  
Up: Pattern Overview
 
-7.1.5 The 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE' Special Patterns
+7.1.5 The ‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’ Special Patterns
 ----------------------------------------------------
 
-This minor node describes a 'gawk'-specific feature.
+This minor node describes a ‘gawk’-specific feature.
 
-   Two special kinds of rule, 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE', give you
-"hooks" into 'gawk''s command-line file processing loop.  As with the
-'BEGIN' and 'END' rules (*note BEGIN/END::), 'BEGINFILE' rules in a
-program execute in the order they are read by 'gawk'.  Similarly, all
-'ENDFILE' rules also execute in the order they are read.
+   Two special kinds of rule, ‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’, give you
+“hooks” into ‘gawk’’s command-line file processing loop.  As with the
+‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules (*note BEGIN/END::), ‘BEGINFILE’ rules in a
+program execute in the order they are read by ‘gawk’.  Similarly, all
+‘ENDFILE’ rules also execute in the order they are read.
 
-   The bodies of the 'BEGINFILE' rules execute just before 'gawk' reads
-the first record from a file.  'FILENAME' is set to the name of the
-current file, and 'FNR' is set to zero.
+   The bodies of the ‘BEGINFILE’ rules execute just before ‘gawk’ reads
+the first record from a file.  ‘FILENAME’ is set to the name of the
+current file, and ‘FNR’ is set to zero.
 
-   Prior to version 5.1.1 of 'gawk', as an accident of the
-implementation, '$0' and the fields retained any previous values they
-had in 'BEGINFILE' rules.  Starting with version 5.1.1, '$0' and the
+   Prior to version 5.1.1 of ‘gawk’, as an accident of the
+implementation, ‘$0’ and the fields retained any previous values they
+had in ‘BEGINFILE’ rules.  Starting with version 5.1.1, ‘$0’ and the
 fields are cleared, since no record has been read yet from the file that
 is about to be processed.
 
-   The 'BEGINFILE' rule provides you the opportunity to accomplish two
+   The ‘BEGINFILE’ rule provides you the opportunity to accomplish two
 tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to perform:
 
-   * You can test if the file is readable.  Normally, it is a fatal
+   • You can test if the file is readable.  Normally, it is a fatal
      error if a file named on the command line cannot be opened for
      reading.  However, you can bypass the fatal error and move on to
      the next file on the command line.
 
-     You do this by checking if the 'ERRNO' variable is not the empty
-     string; if so, then 'gawk' was not able to open the file.  In this
-     case, your program can execute the 'nextfile' statement (*note
-     Nextfile Statement::).  This causes 'gawk' to skip the file
-     entirely.  Otherwise, 'gawk' exits with the usual fatal error.
+     You do this by checking if the ‘ERRNO’ variable is not the empty
+     string; if so, then ‘gawk’ was not able to open the file.  In this
+     case, your program can execute the ‘nextfile’ statement (*note
+     Nextfile Statement::).  This causes ‘gawk’ to skip the file
+     entirely.  Otherwise, ‘gawk’ exits with the usual fatal error.
 
-   * If you have written extensions that modify the record handling (by
-     inserting an "input parser"; *note Input Parsers::), you can invoke
-     them at this point, before 'gawk' has started processing the file.
+   • If you have written extensions that modify the record handling (by
+     inserting an “input parser”; *note Input Parsers::), you can invoke
+     them at this point, before ‘gawk’ has started processing the file.
      (This is a _very_ advanced feature, currently used only by the
-     'gawkextlib' project
+     ‘gawkextlib’ project
      (https://sourceforge.net/projects/gawkextlib).)
 
-   The 'ENDFILE' rule is called when 'gawk' has finished processing the
+   The ‘ENDFILE’ rule is called when ‘gawk’ has finished processing the
 last record in an input file.  For the last input file, it will be
-called before any 'END' rules.  The 'ENDFILE' rule is executed even for
+called before any ‘END’ rules.  The ‘ENDFILE’ rule is executed even for
 empty input files.
 
    Normally, when an error occurs when reading input in the normal
-input-processing loop, the error is fatal.  However, if a 'BEGINFILE'
-rule is present, the error becomes non-fatal, and instead 'ERRNO' is
+input-processing loop, the error is fatal.  However, if a ‘BEGINFILE’
+rule is present, the error becomes non-fatal, and instead ‘ERRNO’ is
 set.  This makes it possible to catch and process I/O errors at the
-level of the 'awk' program.
+level of the ‘awk’ program.
 
-   The 'next' statement (*note Next Statement::) is not allowed inside
-either a 'BEGINFILE' or an 'ENDFILE' rule.  The 'nextfile' statement is
-allowed only inside a 'BEGINFILE' rule, not inside an 'ENDFILE' rule.
+   The ‘next’ statement (*note Next Statement::) is not allowed inside
+either a ‘BEGINFILE’ or an ‘ENDFILE’ rule.  The ‘nextfile’ 
statement is
+allowed only inside a ‘BEGINFILE’ rule, not inside an ‘ENDFILE’ rule.
 
-   The 'getline' statement (*note Getline::) is restricted inside both
-'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE': only redirected forms of 'getline' are
+   The ‘getline’ statement (*note Getline::) is restricted inside both
+‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’: only redirected forms of ‘getline’ are
 allowed.
 
-   'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE' are 'gawk' extensions.  In most other 'awk'
-implementations, or if 'gawk' is in compatibility mode (*note
+   ‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’ are ‘gawk’ extensions.  In most other 
‘awk’
+implementations, or if ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode (*note
 Options::), they are not special.
 
 
@@ -10350,13 +10350,13 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Using Shell Variables,  Next: 
Action Overview,  Prev: Pa
 7.2 Using Shell Variables in Programs
 =====================================
 
-'awk' programs are often used as components in larger programs written
+‘awk’ programs are often used as components in larger programs written
 in shell.  For example, it is very common to use a shell variable to
-hold a pattern that the 'awk' program searches for.  There are two ways
-to get the value of the shell variable into the body of the 'awk'
+hold a pattern that the ‘awk’ program searches for.  There are two ways
+to get the value of the shell variable into the body of the ‘awk’
 program.
 
-   A common method is to use shell quoting to substitute the variable's
+   A common method is to use shell quoting to substitute the variable’s
 value into the program inside the script.  For example, consider the
 following program:
 
@@ -10365,18 +10365,18 @@ following program:
      awk "/$pattern/ "'{ nmatches++ }
           END { print nmatches, "found" }' /path/to/data
 
-The 'awk' program consists of two pieces of quoted text that are
+The ‘awk’ program consists of two pieces of quoted text that are
 concatenated together to form the program.  The first part is
-double-quoted, which allows substitution of the 'pattern' shell variable
+double-quoted, which allows substitution of the ‘pattern’ shell variable
 inside the quotes.  The second part is single-quoted.
 
    Variable substitution via quoting works, but can potentially be
-messy.  It requires a good understanding of the shell's quoting rules
-(*note Quoting::), and it's often difficult to correctly match up the
+messy.  It requires a good understanding of the shell’s quoting rules
+(*note Quoting::), and it’s often difficult to correctly match up the
 quotes when reading the program.
 
-   A better method is to use 'awk''s variable assignment feature (*note
-Assignment Options::) to assign the shell variable's value to an 'awk'
+   A better method is to use ‘awk’’s variable assignment feature (*note
+Assignment Options::) to assign the shell variable’s value to an ‘awk’
 variable.  Then use dynamic regexps to match the pattern (*note Computed
 Regexps::).  The following shows how to redo the previous example using
 this technique:
@@ -10386,14 +10386,14 @@ this technique:
      awk -v pat="$pattern" '$0 ~ pat { nmatches++ }
             END { print nmatches, "found" }' /path/to/data
 
-Now, the 'awk' program is just one single-quoted string.  The assignment
-'-v pat="$pattern"' still requires double quotes, in case there is
-whitespace in the value of '$pattern'.  The 'awk' variable 'pat' could
-be named 'pattern' too, but that would be more confusing.  Using a
+Now, the ‘awk’ program is just one single-quoted string.  The assignment
+‘-v pat="$pattern"’ still requires double quotes, in case there is
+whitespace in the value of ‘$pattern’.  The ‘awk’ variable ‘pat’ 
could
+be named ‘pattern’ too, but that would be more confusing.  Using a
 variable also provides more flexibility, as the variable can be used
-anywhere inside the program--for printing, as an array subscript, or for
-any other use--without requiring the quoting tricks at every point in
-the program.
+anywhere inside the program—for printing, as an array subscript, or for
+any other use—without requiring the quoting tricks at every point in the
+program.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Action Overview,  Next: Statements,  Prev: Using Shell 
Variables,  Up: Patterns and Actions
@@ -10401,31 +10401,31 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Action Overview,  Next: 
Statements,  Prev: Using Shell V
 7.3 Actions
 ===========
 
-An 'awk' program or script consists of a series of rules and function
+An ‘awk’ program or script consists of a series of rules and function
 definitions interspersed.  (Functions are described later.  *Note
 User-defined::.)  A rule contains a pattern and an action, either of
-which (but not both) may be omitted.  The purpose of the "action" is to
-tell 'awk' what to do once a match for the pattern is found.  Thus, in
-outline, an 'awk' program generally looks like this:
+which (but not both) may be omitted.  The purpose of the “action” is to
+tell ‘awk’ what to do once a match for the pattern is found.  Thus, in
+outline, an ‘awk’ program generally looks like this:
 
-     [PATTERN]  '{ ACTION }'
-      PATTERN  ['{ ACTION }']
+     [PATTERN]  ‘{ ACTION }’
+      PATTERN  [‘{ ACTION }’]
      ...
-     'function NAME(ARGS) { ... }'
+     ‘function NAME(ARGS) { ... }’
      ...
 
-   An action consists of one or more 'awk' "statements", enclosed in
-braces ('{...}').  Each statement specifies one thing to do.  The
+   An action consists of one or more ‘awk’ “statements”, enclosed in
+braces (‘{...}’).  Each statement specifies one thing to do.  The
 statements are separated by newlines or semicolons.  The braces around
 an action must be used even if the action contains only one statement,
 or if it contains no statements at all.  However, if you omit the action
 entirely, omit the braces as well.  An omitted action is equivalent to
-'{ print $0 }':
+‘{ print $0 }’:
 
-     /foo/  { }     match 'foo', do nothing -- empty action
-     /foo/          match 'foo', print the record -- omitted action
+     /foo/  { }     match foo, do nothing --- empty action
+     /foo/          match foo, print the record --- omitted action
 
-   The following types of statements are supported in 'awk':
+   The following types of statements are supported in ‘awk’:
 
 Expressions
      Call functions or assign values to variables (*note Expressions::).
@@ -10434,22 +10434,22 @@ Expressions
      (*note Assignment Ops::).
 
 Control statements
-     Specify the control flow of 'awk' programs.  The 'awk' language
-     gives you C-like constructs ('if', 'for', 'while', and 'do') as
+     Specify the control flow of ‘awk’ programs.  The ‘awk’ language
+     gives you C-like constructs (‘if’, ‘for’, ‘while’, and 
‘do’) as
      well as a few special ones (*note Statements::).
 
 Compound statements
      Enclose one or more statements in braces.  A compound statement is
      used in order to put several statements together in the body of an
-     'if', 'while', 'do', or 'for' statement.
+     ‘if’, ‘while’, ‘do’, or ‘for’ statement.
 
 Input statements
-     Use the 'getline' command (*note Getline::).  Also supplied in
-     'awk' are the 'next' statement (*note Next Statement::) and the
-     'nextfile' statement (*note Nextfile Statement::).
+     Use the ‘getline’ command (*note Getline::).  Also supplied in
+     ‘awk’ are the ‘next’ statement (*note Next Statement::) and the
+     ‘nextfile’ statement (*note Nextfile Statement::).
 
 Output statements
-     Such as 'print' and 'printf'.  *Note Printing::.
+     Such as ‘print’ and ‘printf’.  *Note Printing::.
 
 Deletion statements
      For deleting array elements.  *Note Delete::.
@@ -10460,21 +10460,21 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Statements,  Next: Built-in 
Variables,  Prev: Action Ove
 7.4 Control Statements in Actions
 =================================
 
-"Control statements", such as 'if', 'while', and so on, control the flow
-of execution in 'awk' programs.  Most of 'awk''s control statements are
+“Control statements”, such as ‘if’, ‘while’, and so on, control 
the flow
+of execution in ‘awk’ programs.  Most of ‘awk’’s control statements 
are
 patterned after similar statements in C.
 
-   All the control statements start with special keywords, such as 'if'
-and 'while', to distinguish them from simple expressions.  Many control
-statements contain other statements.  For example, the 'if' statement
+   All the control statements start with special keywords, such as ‘if’
+and ‘while’, to distinguish them from simple expressions.  Many control
+statements contain other statements.  For example, the ‘if’ statement
 contains another statement that may or may not be executed.  The
-contained statement is called the "body".  To include more than one
-statement in the body, group them into a single "compound statement"
+contained statement is called the “body”.  To include more than one
+statement in the body, group them into a single “compound statement”
 with braces, separating them with newlines or semicolons.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* If Statement::                Conditionally execute some 'awk'
+* If Statement::                Conditionally execute some ‘awk’
                                 statements.
 * While Statement::             Loop until some condition is satisfied.
 * Do Statement::                Do specified action while looping until some
@@ -10488,22 +10488,22 @@ with braces, separating them with newlines or 
semicolons.
                                 loop.
 * Next Statement::              Stop processing the current input record.
 * Nextfile Statement::          Stop processing the current file.
-* Exit Statement::              Stop execution of 'awk'.
+* Exit Statement::              Stop execution of ‘awk’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: If Statement,  Next: While Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.1 The 'if'-'else' Statement
+7.4.1 The ‘if’-‘else’ Statement
 -------------------------------
 
-The 'if'-'else' statement is 'awk''s decision-making statement.  It
+The ‘if’-‘else’ statement is ‘awk’’s decision-making statement.  
It
 looks like this:
 
-     'if (CONDITION) THEN-BODY' ['else ELSE-BODY']
+     ‘if (CONDITION) THEN-BODY’ [‘else ELSE-BODY’]
 
 The CONDITION is an expression that controls what the rest of the
 statement does.  If the CONDITION is true, THEN-BODY is executed;
-otherwise, ELSE-BODY is executed.  The 'else' part of the statement is
+otherwise, ELSE-BODY is executed.  The ‘else’ part of the statement is
 optional.  The condition is considered false if its value is zero or the
 null string; otherwise, the condition is true.  Refer to the following:
 
@@ -10512,45 +10512,45 @@ null string; otherwise, the condition is true.  Refer 
to the following:
      else
          print "x is odd"
 
-   In this example, if the expression 'x % 2 == 0' is true (i.e., if the
-value of 'x' is evenly divisible by two), then the first 'print'
-statement is executed; otherwise, the second 'print' statement is
-executed.  If the 'else' keyword appears on the same line as THEN-BODY
+   In this example, if the expression ‘x % 2 == 0’ is true (i.e., if the
+value of ‘x’ is evenly divisible by two), then the first ‘print’
+statement is executed; otherwise, the second ‘print’ statement is
+executed.  If the ‘else’ keyword appears on the same line as THEN-BODY
 and THEN-BODY is not a compound statement (i.e., not surrounded by
-braces), then a semicolon must separate THEN-BODY from the 'else'.  To
+braces), then a semicolon must separate THEN-BODY from the ‘else’.  To
 illustrate this, the previous example can be rewritten as:
 
      if (x % 2 == 0) print "x is even"; else
              print "x is odd"
 
-If the ';' is left out, 'awk' can't interpret the statement and it
-produces a syntax error.  Don't actually write programs this way,
-because a human reader might fail to see the 'else' if it is not the
+If the ‘;’ is left out, ‘awk’ can’t interpret the statement and it
+produces a syntax error.  Don’t actually write programs this way,
+because a human reader might fail to see the ‘else’ if it is not the
 first thing on its line.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: While Statement,  Next: Do Statement,  Prev: If 
Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.2 The 'while' Statement
+7.4.2 The ‘while’ Statement
 ---------------------------
 
-In programming, a "loop" is a part of a program that can be executed two
-or more times in succession.  The 'while' statement is the simplest
-looping statement in 'awk'.  It repeatedly executes a statement as long
+In programming, a “loop” is a part of a program that can be executed two
+or more times in succession.  The ‘while’ statement is the simplest
+looping statement in ‘awk’.  It repeatedly executes a statement as long
 as a condition is true.  For example:
 
      while (CONDITION)
        BODY
 
-BODY is a statement called the "body" of the loop, and CONDITION is an
+BODY is a statement called the “body” of the loop, and CONDITION is an
 expression that controls how long the loop keeps running.  The first
-thing the 'while' statement does is test the CONDITION.  If the
+thing the ‘while’ statement does is test the CONDITION.  If the
 CONDITION is true, it executes the statement BODY.  (The CONDITION is
 true when the value is not zero and not a null string.)  After BODY has
 been executed, CONDITION is tested again, and if it is still true, BODY
 executes again.  This process repeats until the CONDITION is no longer
 true.  If the CONDITION is initially false, the body of the loop never
-executes and 'awk' continues with the statement following the loop.
+executes and ‘awk’ continues with the statement following the loop.
 This example prints the first three fields of each record, one per line:
 
      awk '
@@ -10564,10 +10564,10 @@ This example prints the first three fields of each 
record, one per line:
 
 The body of this loop is a compound statement enclosed in braces,
 containing two statements.  The loop works in the following manner:
-first, the value of 'i' is set to one.  Then, the 'while' statement
-tests whether 'i' is less than or equal to three.  This is true when 'i'
-equals one, so the 'i'th field is printed.  Then the 'i++' increments
-the value of 'i' and the loop repeats.  The loop terminates when 'i'
+first, the value of ‘i’ is set to one.  Then, the ‘while’ statement
+tests whether ‘i’ is less than or equal to three.  This is true when 
‘i’
+equals one, so the ‘i’th field is printed.  Then the ‘i++’ increments
+the value of ‘i’ and the loop repeats.  The loop terminates when ‘i’
 reaches four.
 
    A newline is not required between the condition and the body;
@@ -10579,10 +10579,10 @@ program is harder to read without it.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Do Statement,  Next: For Statement,  Prev: While 
Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.3 The 'do'-'while' Statement
+7.4.3 The ‘do’-‘while’ Statement
 --------------------------------
 
-The 'do' loop is a variation of the 'while' looping statement.  The 'do'
+The ‘do’ loop is a variation of the ‘while’ looping statement.  The 
‘do’
 loop executes the BODY once and then repeats the BODY as long as the
 CONDITION is true.  It looks like this:
 
@@ -10592,13 +10592,13 @@ CONDITION is true.  It looks like this:
 
    Even if the CONDITION is false at the start, the BODY executes at
 least once (and only once, unless executing BODY makes CONDITION true).
-Contrast this with the corresponding 'while' statement:
+Contrast this with the corresponding ‘while’ statement:
 
      while (CONDITION)
          BODY
 
 This statement does not execute the BODY even once if the CONDITION is
-false to begin with.  The following is an example of a 'do' statement:
+false to begin with.  The following is an example of a ‘do’ statement:
 
      {
          i = 1
@@ -10608,27 +10608,27 @@ false to begin with.  The following is an example of 
a 'do' statement:
          } while (i <= 10)
      }
 
-This program prints each input record 10 times.  However, it isn't a
-very realistic example, because in this case an ordinary 'while' would
+This program prints each input record 10 times.  However, it isn’t a
+very realistic example, because in this case an ordinary ‘while’ would
 do just as well.  This situation reflects actual experience; only
-occasionally is there a real use for a 'do' statement.
+occasionally is there a real use for a ‘do’ statement.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: For Statement,  Next: Switch Statement,  Prev: Do 
Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.4 The 'for' Statement
+7.4.4 The ‘for’ Statement
 -------------------------
 
-The 'for' statement makes it more convenient to count iterations of a
-loop.  The general form of the 'for' statement looks like this:
+The ‘for’ statement makes it more convenient to count iterations of a
+loop.  The general form of the ‘for’ statement looks like this:
 
      for (INITIALIZATION; CONDITION; INCREMENT)
        BODY
 
-The INITIALIZATION, CONDITION, and INCREMENT parts are arbitrary 'awk'
-expressions, and BODY stands for any 'awk' statement.
+The INITIALIZATION, CONDITION, and INCREMENT parts are arbitrary ‘awk’
+expressions, and BODY stands for any ‘awk’ statement.
 
-   The 'for' statement starts by executing INITIALIZATION.  Then, as
+   The ‘for’ statement starts by executing INITIALIZATION.  Then, as
 long as the CONDITION is true, it repeatedly executes BODY and then
 INCREMENT.  Typically, INITIALIZATION sets a variable to either zero or
 one, INCREMENT adds one to it, and CONDITION compares it against the
@@ -10645,17 +10645,17 @@ field per output line.
 
    C and C++ programmers might expect to be able to use the comma
 operator to set more than one variable in the INITIALIZATION part of the
-'for' loop, or to increment multiple variables in the INCREMENT part of
+‘for’ loop, or to increment multiple variables in the INCREMENT part of
 the loop, like so:
 
      for (i = 0, j = length(a); i < j; i++, j--) ...   C/C++, not awk!
 
-You cannot do this; the comma operator is not supported in 'awk'.  There
+You cannot do this; the comma operator is not supported in ‘awk’.  There
 are workarounds, but they are nonobvious and can lead to code that is
 difficult to read and understand.  It is best, therefore, to simply
 write additional initializations as separate statements preceding the
-'for' loop and to place additional increment statements at the end of
-the loop's body.
+‘for’ loop and to place additional increment statements at the end of
+the loop’s body.
 
    Most often, INCREMENT is an increment expression, as in the earlier
 example.  But this is not required; it can be any expression whatsoever.
@@ -10666,12 +10666,12 @@ between 1 and 100:
          print i
 
    If there is nothing to be done, any of the three expressions in the
-parentheses following the 'for' keyword may be omitted.  Thus,
-'for (; x > 0;)' is equivalent to 'while (x > 0)'.  If the CONDITION is
-omitted, it is treated as true, effectively yielding an "infinite loop"
+parentheses following the ‘for’ keyword may be omitted.  Thus,
+‘for (; x > 0;)’ is equivalent to ‘while (x > 0)’.  If the CONDITION is
+omitted, it is treated as true, effectively yielding an “infinite loop”
 (i.e., a loop that never terminates).
 
-   In most cases, a 'for' loop is an abbreviation for a 'while' loop, as
+   In most cases, a ‘for’ loop is an abbreviation for a ‘while’ loop, 
as
 shown here:
 
      INITIALIZATION
@@ -10680,47 +10680,47 @@ shown here:
        INCREMENT
      }
 
-The only exception is when the 'continue' statement (*note Continue
-Statement::) is used inside the loop.  Changing a 'for' statement to a
-'while' statement in this way can change the effect of the 'continue'
+The only exception is when the ‘continue’ statement (*note Continue
+Statement::) is used inside the loop.  Changing a ‘for’ statement to a
+‘while’ statement in this way can change the effect of the ‘continue’
 statement inside the loop.
 
-   The 'awk' language has a 'for' statement in addition to a 'while'
-statement because a 'for' loop is often both less work to type and more
+   The ‘awk’ language has a ‘for’ statement in addition to a 
‘while’
+statement because a ‘for’ loop is often both less work to type and more
 natural to think of.  Counting the number of iterations is very common
 in loops.  It can be easier to think of this counting as part of looping
 rather than as something to do inside the loop.
 
-   There is an alternative version of the 'for' loop, for iterating over
+   There is an alternative version of the ‘for’ loop, for iterating over
 all the indices of an array:
 
      for (i in array)
          DO SOMETHING WITH array[i]
 
 *Note Scanning an Array:: for more information on this version of the
-'for' loop.
+‘for’ loop.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Switch Statement,  Next: Break Statement,  Prev: For 
Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.5 The 'switch' Statement
+7.4.5 The ‘switch’ Statement
 ----------------------------
 
-This minor node describes a 'gawk'-specific feature.  If 'gawk' is in
+This minor node describes a ‘gawk’-specific feature.  If ‘gawk’ is in
 compatibility mode (*note Options::), it is not available.
 
-   The 'switch' statement allows the evaluation of an expression and the
-execution of statements based on a 'case' match.  Case statements are
+   The ‘switch’ statement allows the evaluation of an expression and the
+execution of statements based on a ‘case’ match.  Case statements are
 checked for a match in the order they are defined.  If no suitable
-'case' is found, the 'default' section is executed, if supplied.
+‘case’ is found, the ‘default’ section is executed, if supplied.
 
-   Each 'case' contains a single constant, be it numeric, string, or
-regexp.  The 'switch' expression is evaluated, and then each 'case''s
+   Each ‘case’ contains a single constant, be it numeric, string, or
+regexp.  The ‘switch’ expression is evaluated, and then each ‘case’’s
 constant is compared against the result in turn.  The type of constant
 determines the comparison: numeric or string do the usual comparisons.
-A regexp constant (either regular, '/foo/', or strongly typed, '@/foo/')
+A regexp constant (either regular, ‘/foo/’, or strongly typed, 
‘@/foo/’)
 does a regular expression match against the string value of the original
-expression.  The general form of the 'switch' statement looks like this:
+expression.  The general form of the ‘switch’ statement looks like this:
 
      switch (EXPRESSION) {
      case VALUE OR REGULAR EXPRESSION:
@@ -10729,10 +10729,10 @@ expression.  The general form of the 'switch' 
statement looks like this:
          DEFAULT-BODY
      }
 
-   Control flow in the 'switch' statement works as it does in C. Once a
+   Control flow in the ‘switch’ statement works as it does in C. Once a
 match to a given case is made, the case statement bodies execute until a
-'break', 'continue', 'next', 'nextfile', or 'exit' is encountered, or
-the end of the 'switch' statement itself.  For example:
+‘break’, ‘continue’, ‘next’, ‘nextfile’, or ‘exit’ is 
encountered, or
+the end of the ‘switch’ statement itself.  For example:
 
      while ((c = getopt(ARGC, ARGV, "aksx")) != -1) {
          switch (c) {
@@ -10759,19 +10759,19 @@ the end of the 'switch' statement itself.  For 
example:
      }
 
    Note that if none of the statements specified here halt execution of
-a matched 'case' statement, execution falls through to the next 'case'
-until execution halts.  In this example, the 'case' for '"?"' falls
-through to the 'default' case, which is to call a function named
-'usage()'.  (The 'getopt()' function being called here is described in
+a matched ‘case’ statement, execution falls through to the next ‘case’
+until execution halts.  In this example, the ‘case’ for ‘"?"’ falls
+through to the ‘default’ case, which is to call a function named
+‘usage()’.  (The ‘getopt()’ function being called here is described in
 *note Getopt Function::.)
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Break Statement,  Next: Continue Statement,  Prev: 
Switch Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.6 The 'break' Statement
+7.4.6 The ‘break’ Statement
 ---------------------------
 
-The 'break' statement jumps out of the innermost 'for', 'while', or 'do'
+The ‘break’ statement jumps out of the innermost ‘for’, ‘while’, 
or ‘do’
 loop that encloses it.  The following example finds the smallest divisor
 of any integer, and also identifies prime numbers:
 
@@ -10788,15 +10788,15 @@ of any integer, and also identifies prime numbers:
              printf "%d is prime\n", num
      }
 
-   When the remainder is zero in the first 'if' statement, 'awk'
-immediately "breaks out" of the containing 'for' loop.  This means that
-'awk' proceeds immediately to the statement following the loop and
-continues processing.  (This is very different from the 'exit'
-statement, which stops the entire 'awk' program.  *Note Exit
+   When the remainder is zero in the first ‘if’ statement, ‘awk’
+immediately “breaks out” of the containing ‘for’ loop.  This means that
+‘awk’ proceeds immediately to the statement following the loop and
+continues processing.  (This is very different from the ‘exit’
+statement, which stops the entire ‘awk’ program.  *Note Exit
 Statement::.)
 
-   The following program illustrates how the CONDITION of a 'for' or
-'while' statement could be replaced with a 'break' inside an 'if':
+   The following program illustrates how the CONDITION of a ‘for’ or
+‘while’ statement could be replaced with a ‘break’ inside an ‘if’:
 
      # find smallest divisor of num
      {
@@ -10813,30 +10813,30 @@ Statement::.)
          }
      }
 
-   The 'break' statement is also used to break out of the 'switch'
+   The ‘break’ statement is also used to break out of the ‘switch’
 statement.  This is discussed in *note Switch Statement::.
 
-   The 'break' statement has no meaning when used outside the body of a
-loop or 'switch'.  However, although it was never documented, historical
-implementations of 'awk' treated the 'break' statement outside of a loop
-as if it were a 'next' statement (*note Next Statement::).  (d.c.)
-Recent versions of BWK 'awk' no longer allow this usage, nor does
-'gawk'.
+   The ‘break’ statement has no meaning when used outside the body of a
+loop or ‘switch’.  However, although it was never documented, historical
+implementations of ‘awk’ treated the ‘break’ statement outside of a 
loop
+as if it were a ‘next’ statement (*note Next Statement::).  (d.c.)
+Recent versions of BWK ‘awk’ no longer allow this usage, nor does
+‘gawk’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Continue Statement,  Next: Next Statement,  Prev: 
Break Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.7 The 'continue' Statement
+7.4.7 The ‘continue’ Statement
 ------------------------------
 
-Similar to 'break', the 'continue' statement is used only inside 'for',
-'while', and 'do' loops.  It skips over the rest of the loop body,
+Similar to ‘break’, the ‘continue’ statement is used only inside 
‘for’,
+‘while’, and ‘do’ loops.  It skips over the rest of the loop body,
 causing the next cycle around the loop to begin immediately.  Contrast
-this with 'break', which jumps out of the loop altogether.
+this with ‘break’, which jumps out of the loop altogether.
 
-   The 'continue' statement in a 'for' loop directs 'awk' to skip the
+   The ‘continue’ statement in a ‘for’ loop directs ‘awk’ to skip 
the
 rest of the body of the loop and resume execution with the
-increment-expression of the 'for' statement.  The following program
+increment-expression of the ‘for’ statement.  The following program
 illustrates this fact:
 
      BEGIN {
@@ -10848,10 +10848,10 @@ illustrates this fact:
           print ""
      }
 
-This program prints all the numbers from 0 to 20--except for 5, for
-which the 'printf' is skipped.  Because the increment 'x++' is not
-skipped, 'x' does not remain stuck at 5.  Contrast the 'for' loop from
-the previous example with the following 'while' loop:
+This program prints all the numbers from 0 to 20—except for 5, for which
+the ‘printf’ is skipped.  Because the increment ‘x++’ is not skipped,
+‘x’ does not remain stuck at 5.  Contrast the ‘for’ loop from the
+previous example with the following ‘while’ loop:
 
      BEGIN {
           x = 0
@@ -10864,43 +10864,43 @@ the previous example with the following 'while' loop:
           print ""
      }
 
-This program loops forever once 'x' reaches 5, because the increment
-('x++') is never reached.
+This program loops forever once ‘x’ reaches 5, because the increment
+(‘x++’) is never reached.
 
-   The 'continue' statement has no special meaning with respect to the
-'switch' statement, nor does it have any meaning when used outside the
-body of a loop.  Historical versions of 'awk' treated a 'continue'
-statement outside a loop the same way they treated a 'break' statement
-outside a loop: as if it were a 'next' statement (*note Next
-Statement::).  (d.c.)  Recent versions of BWK 'awk' no longer work this
-way, nor does 'gawk'.
+   The ‘continue’ statement has no special meaning with respect to the
+‘switch’ statement, nor does it have any meaning when used outside the
+body of a loop.  Historical versions of ‘awk’ treated a ‘continue’
+statement outside a loop the same way they treated a ‘break’ statement
+outside a loop: as if it were a ‘next’ statement (*note Next
+Statement::).  (d.c.)  Recent versions of BWK ‘awk’ no longer work this
+way, nor does ‘gawk’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Next Statement,  Next: Nextfile Statement,  Prev: 
Continue Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.8 The 'next' Statement
+7.4.8 The ‘next’ Statement
 --------------------------
 
-The 'next' statement forces 'awk' to immediately stop processing the
+The ‘next’ statement forces ‘awk’ to immediately stop processing the
 current record and go on to the next record.  This means that no further
 rules are executed for the current record, and the rest of the current
-rule's action isn't executed.
+rule’s action isn’t executed.
 
-   Contrast this with the effect of the 'getline' function (*note
-Getline::).  That also causes 'awk' to read the next record immediately,
+   Contrast this with the effect of the ‘getline’ function (*note
+Getline::).  That also causes ‘awk’ to read the next record immediately,
 but it does not alter the flow of control in any way (i.e., the rest of
 the current action executes with a new input record).
 
-   At the highest level, 'awk' program execution is a loop that reads an
-input record and then tests each rule's pattern against it.  If you
-think of this loop as a 'for' statement whose body contains the rules,
-then the 'next' statement is analogous to a 'continue' statement.  It
+   At the highest level, ‘awk’ program execution is a loop that reads an
+input record and then tests each rule’s pattern against it.  If you
+think of this loop as a ‘for’ statement whose body contains the rules,
+then the ‘next’ statement is analogous to a ‘continue’ statement.  It
 skips to the end of the body of this implicit loop and executes the
 increment (which reads another record).
 
-   For example, suppose an 'awk' program works only on records with four
-fields, and it shouldn't fail when given bad input.  To avoid
-complicating the rest of the program, write a "weed out" rule near the
+   For example, suppose an ‘awk’ program works only on records with four
+fields, and it shouldn’t fail when given bad input.  To avoid
+complicating the rest of the program, write a “weed out” rule near the
 beginning, in the following manner:
 
      NF != 4 {
@@ -10908,120 +10908,120 @@ beginning, in the following manner:
          next
      }
 
-Because of the 'next' statement, the program's subsequent rules won't
+Because of the ‘next’ statement, the program’s subsequent rules won’t
 see the bad record.  The error message is redirected to the standard
 error output stream, as error messages should be.  For more detail, see
 *note Special Files::.
 
-   If the 'next' statement causes the end of the input to be reached,
-then the code in any 'END' rules is executed.  *Note BEGIN/END::.
+   If the ‘next’ statement causes the end of the input to be reached,
+then the code in any ‘END’ rules is executed.  *Note BEGIN/END::.
 
-   The 'next' statement is not allowed inside 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE'
+   The ‘next’ statement is not allowed inside ‘BEGINFILE’ and 
‘ENDFILE’
 rules.  *Note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::.
 
    According to the POSIX standard, the behavior is undefined if the
-'next' statement is used in a 'BEGIN' or 'END' rule.  'gawk' treats it
+‘next’ statement is used in a ‘BEGIN’ or ‘END’ rule.  ‘gawk’ 
treats it
 as a syntax error.  Although POSIX does not disallow it, most other
-'awk' implementations don't allow the 'next' statement inside function
-bodies (*note User-defined::).  Just as with any other 'next' statement,
-a 'next' statement inside a function body reads the next record and
+‘awk’ implementations don’t allow the ‘next’ statement inside 
function
+bodies (*note User-defined::).  Just as with any other ‘next’ statement,
+a ‘next’ statement inside a function body reads the next record and
 starts processing it with the first rule in the program.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Nextfile Statement,  Next: Exit Statement,  Prev: Next 
Statement,  Up: Statements
 
-7.4.9 The 'nextfile' Statement
+7.4.9 The ‘nextfile’ Statement
 ------------------------------
 
-The 'nextfile' statement is similar to the 'next' statement.  However,
-instead of abandoning processing of the current record, the 'nextfile'
-statement instructs 'awk' to stop processing the current data file.
+The ‘nextfile’ statement is similar to the ‘next’ statement.  However,
+instead of abandoning processing of the current record, the ‘nextfile’
+statement instructs ‘awk’ to stop processing the current data file.
 
-   Upon execution of the 'nextfile' statement, 'FILENAME' is updated to
-the name of the next data file listed on the command line, 'FNR' is
+   Upon execution of the ‘nextfile’ statement, ‘FILENAME’ is updated to
+the name of the next data file listed on the command line, ‘FNR’ is
 reset to one, and processing starts over with the first rule in the
-program.  If the 'nextfile' statement causes the end of the input to be
-reached, then the code in any 'END' rules is executed.  An exception to
-this is when 'nextfile' is invoked during execution of any statement in
-an 'END' rule; in this case, it causes the program to stop immediately.
+program.  If the ‘nextfile’ statement causes the end of the input to be
+reached, then the code in any ‘END’ rules is executed.  An exception to
+this is when ‘nextfile’ is invoked during execution of any statement in
+an ‘END’ rule; in this case, it causes the program to stop immediately.
 *Note BEGIN/END::.
 
-   The 'nextfile' statement is useful when there are many data files to
-process but it isn't necessary to process every record in every file.
-Without 'nextfile', in order to move on to the next data file, a program
-would have to continue scanning the unwanted records.  The 'nextfile'
+   The ‘nextfile’ statement is useful when there are many data files to
+process but it isn’t necessary to process every record in every file.
+Without ‘nextfile’, in order to move on to the next data file, a program
+would have to continue scanning the unwanted records.  The ‘nextfile’
 statement accomplishes this much more efficiently.
 
-   In 'gawk', execution of 'nextfile' causes additional things to
-happen: any 'ENDFILE' rules are executed if 'gawk' is not currently in
-an 'END' rule, 'ARGIND' is incremented, and any 'BEGINFILE' rules are
-executed.  ('ARGIND' hasn't been introduced yet.  *Note Built-in
+   In ‘gawk’, execution of ‘nextfile’ causes additional things to
+happen: any ‘ENDFILE’ rules are executed if ‘gawk’ is not currently in
+an ‘END’ rule, ‘ARGIND’ is incremented, and any ‘BEGINFILE’ rules 
are
+executed.  (‘ARGIND’ hasn’t been introduced yet.  *Note Built-in
 Variables::.)
 
-   There is an additional, special, use case with 'gawk'.  'nextfile' is
-useful inside a 'BEGINFILE' rule to skip over a file that would
-otherwise cause 'gawk' to exit with a fatal error.  In this special
-case, 'ENDFILE' rules are not executed.  *Note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::.
+   There is an additional, special, use case with ‘gawk’.  ‘nextfile’ 
is
+useful inside a ‘BEGINFILE’ rule to skip over a file that would
+otherwise cause ‘gawk’ to exit with a fatal error.  In this special
+case, ‘ENDFILE’ rules are not executed.  *Note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::.
 
-   Although it might seem that 'close(FILENAME)' would accomplish the
-same as 'nextfile', this isn't true.  'close()' is reserved for closing
+   Although it might seem that ‘close(FILENAME)’ would accomplish the
+same as ‘nextfile’, this isn’t true.  ‘close()’ is reserved for 
closing
 files, pipes, and coprocesses that are opened with redirections.  It is
-not related to the main processing that 'awk' does with the files listed
-in 'ARGV'.
+not related to the main processing that ‘awk’ does with the files listed
+in ‘ARGV’.
 
-     NOTE: For many years, 'nextfile' was a common extension.  In
+     NOTE: For many years, ‘nextfile’ was a common extension.  In
      September 2012, it was accepted for inclusion into the POSIX
      standard.  See the Austin Group website
      (http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=607).
 
-   The current version of BWK 'awk' and 'mawk' also support 'nextfile'.
-However, they don't allow the 'nextfile' statement inside function
-bodies (*note User-defined::).  'gawk' does; a 'nextfile' inside a
+   The current version of BWK ‘awk’ and ‘mawk’ also support 
‘nextfile’.
+However, they don’t allow the ‘nextfile’ statement inside function
+bodies (*note User-defined::).  ‘gawk’ does; a ‘nextfile’ inside a
 function body reads the first record from the next file and starts
 processing it with the first rule in the program, just as any other
-'nextfile' statement.
+‘nextfile’ statement.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Exit Statement,  Prev: Nextfile Statement,  Up: 
Statements
 
-7.4.10 The 'exit' Statement
+7.4.10 The ‘exit’ Statement
 ---------------------------
 
-The 'exit' statement causes 'awk' to immediately stop executing the
+The ‘exit’ statement causes ‘awk’ to immediately stop executing the
 current rule and to stop processing input; any remaining input is
-ignored.  The 'exit' statement is written as follows:
+ignored.  The ‘exit’ statement is written as follows:
 
-     'exit' [RETURN CODE]
+     ‘exit’ [RETURN CODE]
 
-   When an 'exit' statement is executed from a 'BEGIN' rule, the program
+   When an ‘exit’ statement is executed from a ‘BEGIN’ rule, the 
program
 stops processing everything immediately.  No input records are read.
-However, if an 'END' rule is present, as part of executing the 'exit'
-statement, the 'END' rule is executed (*note BEGIN/END::).  If 'exit' is
-used in the body of an 'END' rule, it causes the program to stop
+However, if an ‘END’ rule is present, as part of executing the ‘exit’
+statement, the ‘END’ rule is executed (*note BEGIN/END::).  If ‘exit’ 
is
+used in the body of an ‘END’ rule, it causes the program to stop
 immediately.
 
-   An 'exit' statement that is not part of a 'BEGIN' or 'END' rule stops
+   An ‘exit’ statement that is not part of a ‘BEGIN’ or ‘END’ rule 
stops
 the execution of any further automatic rules for the current record,
-skips reading any remaining input records, and executes the 'END' rule
-if there is one.  'gawk' also skips any 'ENDFILE' rules; they do not
+skips reading any remaining input records, and executes the ‘END’ rule
+if there is one.  ‘gawk’ also skips any ‘ENDFILE’ rules; they do not
 execute.
 
-   In such a case, if you don't want the 'END' rule to do its job, set a
-variable to a nonzero value before the 'exit' statement and check that
-variable in the 'END' rule.  *Note Assert Function:: for an example that
+   In such a case, if you don’t want the ‘END’ rule to do its job, set a
+variable to a nonzero value before the ‘exit’ statement and check that
+variable in the ‘END’ rule.  *Note Assert Function:: for an example that
 does this.
 
-   If an argument is supplied to 'exit', its value is used as the exit
-status code for the 'awk' process.  If no argument is supplied, 'exit'
-causes 'awk' to return a "success" status.  In the case where an
-argument is supplied to a first 'exit' statement, and then 'exit' is
-called a second time from an 'END' rule with no argument, 'awk' uses the
+   If an argument is supplied to ‘exit’, its value is used as the exit
+status code for the ‘awk’ process.  If no argument is supplied, ‘exit’
+causes ‘awk’ to return a “success” status.  In the case where an
+argument is supplied to a first ‘exit’ statement, and then ‘exit’ is
+called a second time from an ‘END’ rule with no argument, ‘awk’ uses 
the
 previously supplied exit value.  (d.c.)  *Note Exit Status:: for more
 information.
 
    For example, suppose an error condition occurs that is difficult or
 impossible to handle.  Conventionally, programs report this by exiting
-with a nonzero status.  An 'awk' program can do this using an 'exit'
+with a nonzero status.  An ‘awk’ program can do this using an ‘exit’
 statement with a nonzero argument, as shown in the following example:
 
      BEGIN {
@@ -11043,162 +11043,162 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Built-in Variables,  Next: 
Pattern Action Summary,  Prev
 7.5 Predefined Variables
 ========================
 
-Most 'awk' variables are available to use for your own purposes; they
+Most ‘awk’ variables are available to use for your own purposes; they
 never change unless your program assigns values to them, and they never
 affect anything unless your program examines them.  However, a few
-variables in 'awk' have special built-in meanings.  'awk' examines some
-of these automatically, so that they enable you to tell 'awk' how to do
-certain things.  Others are set automatically by 'awk', so that they
-carry information from the internal workings of 'awk' to your program.
+variables in ‘awk’ have special built-in meanings.  ‘awk’ examines some
+of these automatically, so that they enable you to tell ‘awk’ how to do
+certain things.  Others are set automatically by ‘awk’, so that they
+carry information from the internal workings of ‘awk’ to your program.
 
-   This minor node documents all of 'gawk''s predefined variables, most
+   This minor node documents all of ‘gawk’’s predefined variables, most
 of which are also documented in the major nodes describing their areas
 of activity.
 
 * Menu:
 
 * User-modified::               Built-in variables that you change to control
-                                'awk'.
-* Auto-set::                    Built-in variables where 'awk' gives
+                                ‘awk’.
+* Auto-set::                    Built-in variables where ‘awk’ gives
                                 you information.
-* ARGC and ARGV::               Ways to use 'ARGC' and 'ARGV'.
+* ARGC and ARGV::               Ways to use ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: User-modified,  Next: Auto-set,  Up: Built-in Variables
 
-7.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control 'awk'
+7.5.1 Built-in Variables That Control ‘awk’
 -------------------------------------------
 
 The following is an alphabetical list of variables that you can change
-to control how 'awk' does certain things.
+to control how ‘awk’ does certain things.
 
-   The variables that are specific to 'gawk' are marked with a pound
-sign ('#').  These variables are 'gawk' extensions.  In other 'awk'
-implementations or if 'gawk' is in compatibility mode (*note Options::),
+   The variables that are specific to ‘gawk’ are marked with a pound
+sign (‘#’).  These variables are ‘gawk’ extensions.  In other ‘awk’
+implementations or if ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode (*note Options::),
 they are not special.  (Any exceptions are noted in the description of
 each variable.)
 
-'BINMODE #'
+‘BINMODE #’
      On non-POSIX systems, this variable specifies use of binary mode
      for all I/O. Numeric values of one, two, or three specify that
      input files, output files, or all files, respectively, should use
      binary I/O. A numeric value less than zero is treated as zero, and
      a numeric value greater than three is treated as three.
-     Alternatively, string values of '"r"' or '"w"' specify that input
+     Alternatively, string values of ‘"r"’ or ‘"w"’ specify that input
      files and output files, respectively, should use binary I/O. A
-     string value of '"rw"' or '"wr"' indicates that all files should
+     string value of ‘"rw"’ or ‘"wr"’ indicates that all files should
      use binary I/O. Any other string value is treated the same as
-     '"rw"', but causes 'gawk' to generate a warning message.  'BINMODE'
-     is described in more detail in *note PC Using::.  'mawk' (*note
+     ‘"rw"’, but causes ‘gawk’ to generate a warning message.  
‘BINMODE’
+     is described in more detail in *note PC Using::.  ‘mawk’ (*note
      Other Versions::) also supports this variable, but only using
      numeric values.
 
-'CONVFMT'
+‘CONVFMT’
      A string that controls the conversion of numbers to strings (*note
      Conversion::).  It works by being passed, in effect, as the first
-     argument to the 'sprintf()' function (*note String Functions::).
-     Its default value is '"%.6g"'.  'CONVFMT' was introduced by the
+     argument to the ‘sprintf()’ function (*note String Functions::).
+     Its default value is ‘"%.6g"’.  ‘CONVFMT’ was introduced by the
      POSIX standard.
 
-'FIELDWIDTHS #'
-     A space-separated list of columns that tells 'gawk' how to split
+‘FIELDWIDTHS #’
+     A space-separated list of columns that tells ‘gawk’ how to split
      input with fixed columnar boundaries.  Starting in version 4.2,
      each field width may optionally be preceded by a colon-separated
      value specifying the number of characters to skip before the field
-     starts.  Assigning a value to 'FIELDWIDTHS' overrides the use of
-     'FS' and 'FPAT' for field splitting.  *Note Constant Size:: for
+     starts.  Assigning a value to ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ overrides the use of
+     ‘FS’ and ‘FPAT’ for field splitting.  *Note Constant Size:: for
      more information.
 
-'FPAT #'
-     A regular expression (as a string) that tells 'gawk' to create the
+‘FPAT #’
+     A regular expression (as a string) that tells ‘gawk’ to create the
      fields based on text that matches the regular expression.
-     Assigning a value to 'FPAT' overrides the use of 'FS' and
-     'FIELDWIDTHS' for field splitting.  *Note Splitting By Content::
+     Assigning a value to ‘FPAT’ overrides the use of ‘FS’ and
+     ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ for field splitting.  *Note Splitting By Content::
      for more information.
 
-'FS'
+‘FS’
      The input field separator (*note Field Separators::).  The value is
      a single-character string or a multicharacter regular expression
      that matches the separations between fields in an input record.  If
-     the value is the null string ('""'), then each character in the
-     record becomes a separate field.  (This behavior is a 'gawk'
-     extension.  POSIX 'awk' does not specify the behavior when 'FS' is
-     the null string.  Nonetheless, some other versions of 'awk' also
-     treat '""' specially.)
+     the value is the null string (‘""’), then each character in the
+     record becomes a separate field.  (This behavior is a ‘gawk’
+     extension.  POSIX ‘awk’ does not specify the behavior when ‘FS’ is
+     the null string.  Nonetheless, some other versions of ‘awk’ also
+     treat ‘""’ specially.)
 
-     The default value is '" "', a string consisting of a single space.
+     The default value is ‘" "’, a string consisting of a single space.
      As a special exception, this value means that any sequence of
      spaces, TABs, and/or newlines is a single separator.  It also
      causes spaces, TABs, and newlines at the beginning and end of a
      record to be ignored.
 
-     You can set the value of 'FS' on the command line using the '-F'
+     You can set the value of ‘FS’ on the command line using the ‘-F’
      option:
 
           awk -F, 'PROGRAM' INPUT-FILES
 
-     If 'gawk' is using 'FIELDWIDTHS' or 'FPAT' for field splitting,
-     assigning a value to 'FS' causes 'gawk' to return to the normal,
-     'FS'-based field splitting.  An easy way to do this is to simply
-     say 'FS = FS', perhaps with an explanatory comment.
+     If ‘gawk’ is using ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ or ‘FPAT’ for field 
splitting,
+     assigning a value to ‘FS’ causes ‘gawk’ to return to the normal,
+     ‘FS’-based field splitting.  An easy way to do this is to simply
+     say ‘FS = FS’, perhaps with an explanatory comment.
 
-'IGNORECASE #'
-     If 'IGNORECASE' is nonzero or non-null, then all string comparisons
+‘IGNORECASE #’
+     If ‘IGNORECASE’ is nonzero or non-null, then all string comparisons
      and all regular expression matching are case-independent.  This
-     applies to regexp matching with '~' and '!~', the 'gensub()',
-     'gsub()', 'index()', 'match()', 'patsplit()', 'split()', and
-     'sub()' functions, record termination with 'RS', and field
-     splitting with 'FS' and 'FPAT'.  However, the value of 'IGNORECASE'
+     applies to regexp matching with ‘~’ and ‘!~’, the ‘gensub()’,
+     ‘gsub()’, ‘index()’, ‘match()’, ‘patsplit()’, 
‘split()’, and
+     ‘sub()’ functions, record termination with ‘RS’, and field
+     splitting with ‘FS’ and ‘FPAT’.  However, the value of 
‘IGNORECASE’
      does _not_ affect array subscripting and it does not affect field
      splitting when using a single-character field separator.  *Note
      Case-sensitivity::.
 
-'LINT #'
-     When this variable is true (nonzero or non-null), 'gawk' behaves as
-     if the '--lint' command-line option is in effect (*note Options::).
-     With a value of '"fatal"', lint warnings become fatal errors.  With
-     a value of '"invalid"', only warnings about things that are
+‘LINT #’
+     When this variable is true (nonzero or non-null), ‘gawk’ behaves as
+     if the ‘--lint’ command-line option is in effect (*note Options::).
+     With a value of ‘"fatal"’, lint warnings become fatal errors.  With
+     a value of ‘"invalid"’, only warnings about things that are
      actually invalid are issued.  (This is not fully implemented yet.)
      Any other true value prints nonfatal warnings.  Assigning a false
-     value to 'LINT' turns off the lint warnings.
+     value to ‘LINT’ turns off the lint warnings.
 
-     This variable is a 'gawk' extension.  It is not special in other
-     'awk' implementations.  Unlike with the other special variables,
-     changing 'LINT' does affect the production of lint warnings, even
-     if 'gawk' is in compatibility mode.  Much as the '--lint' and
-     '--traditional' options independently control different aspects of
-     'gawk''s behavior, the control of lint warnings during program
-     execution is independent of the flavor of 'awk' being executed.
+     This variable is a ‘gawk’ extension.  It is not special in other
+     ‘awk’ implementations.  Unlike with the other special variables,
+     changing ‘LINT’ does affect the production of lint warnings, even
+     if ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode.  Much as the ‘--lint’ and
+     ‘--traditional’ options independently control different aspects of
+     ‘gawk’’s behavior, the control of lint warnings during program
+     execution is independent of the flavor of ‘awk’ being executed.
 
-'OFMT'
+‘OFMT’
      A string that controls conversion of numbers to strings (*note
-     Conversion::) for printing with the 'print' statement.  It works by
-     being passed as the first argument to the 'sprintf()' function
-     (*note String Functions::).  Its default value is '"%.6g"'.
-     Earlier versions of 'awk' used 'OFMT' to specify the format for
+     Conversion::) for printing with the ‘print’ statement.  It works by
+     being passed as the first argument to the ‘sprintf()’ function
+     (*note String Functions::).  Its default value is ‘"%.6g"’.
+     Earlier versions of ‘awk’ used ‘OFMT’ to specify the format for
      converting numbers to strings in general expressions; this is now
-     done by 'CONVFMT'.
+     done by ‘CONVFMT’.
 
-'OFS'
+‘OFS’
      The output field separator (*note Output Separators::).  It is
-     output between the fields printed by a 'print' statement.  Its
-     default value is '" "', a string consisting of a single space.
+     output between the fields printed by a ‘print’ statement.  Its
+     default value is ‘" "’, a string consisting of a single space.
 
-'ORS'
+‘ORS’
      The output record separator.  It is output at the end of every
-     'print' statement.  Its default value is '"\n"', the newline
+     ‘print’ statement.  Its default value is ‘"\n"’, the newline
      character.  (*Note Output Separators::.)
 
-'PREC #'
+‘PREC #’
      The working precision of arbitrary-precision floating-point
      numbers, 53 bits by default (*note Setting precision::).
 
-'ROUNDMODE #'
+‘ROUNDMODE #’
      The rounding mode to use for arbitrary-precision arithmetic on
-     numbers, by default '"N"' ('roundTiesToEven' in the IEEE 754
+     numbers, by default ‘"N"’ (‘roundTiesToEven’ in the IEEE 754
      standard; *note Setting the rounding mode::).
 
-'RS'
+‘RS’
      The input record separator.  Its default value is a string
      containing a single newline character, which means that an input
      record consists of a single line of text.  It can also be the null
@@ -11206,24 +11206,24 @@ each variable.)
      If it is a regexp, records are separated by matches of the regexp
      in the input text.  (*Note Records::.)
 
-     The ability for 'RS' to be a regular expression is a 'gawk'
-     extension.  In most other 'awk' implementations, or if 'gawk' is in
+     The ability for ‘RS’ to be a regular expression is a ‘gawk’
+     extension.  In most other ‘awk’ implementations, or if ‘gawk’ is 
in
      compatibility mode (*note Options::), just the first character of
-     'RS''s value is used.
+     ‘RS’’s value is used.
 
-'SUBSEP'
-     The subscript separator.  It has the default value of '"\034"' and
+‘SUBSEP’
+     The subscript separator.  It has the default value of ‘"\034"’ and
      is used to separate the parts of the indices of a multidimensional
-     array.  Thus, the expression 'foo["A", "B"]' really accesses
-     'foo["A\034B"]' (*note Multidimensional::).
+     array.  Thus, the expression ‘foo["A", "B"]’ really accesses
+     ‘foo["A\034B"]’ (*note Multidimensional::).
 
-'TEXTDOMAIN #'
-     Used for internationalization of programs at the 'awk' level.  It
+‘TEXTDOMAIN #’
+     Used for internationalization of programs at the ‘awk’ level.  It
      sets the default text domain for specially marked string constants
-     in the source text, as well as for the 'dcgettext()',
-     'dcngettext()', and 'bindtextdomain()' functions (*note
-     Internationalization::).  The default value of 'TEXTDOMAIN' is
-     '"messages"'.
+     in the source text, as well as for the ‘dcgettext()’,
+     ‘dcngettext()’, and ‘bindtextdomain()’ functions (*note
+     Internationalization::).  The default value of ‘TEXTDOMAIN’ is
+     ‘"messages"’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Auto-set,  Next: ARGC and ARGV,  Prev: User-modified,  
Up: Built-in Variables
@@ -11231,160 +11231,160 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Auto-set,  Next: ARGC and 
ARGV,  Prev: User-modified,  U
 7.5.2 Built-in Variables That Convey Information
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-The following is an alphabetical list of variables that 'awk' sets
+The following is an alphabetical list of variables that ‘awk’ sets
 automatically on certain occasions in order to provide information to
 your program.
 
-   The variables that are specific to 'gawk' are marked with a pound
-sign ('#').  These variables are 'gawk' extensions.  In other 'awk'
-implementations or if 'gawk' is in compatibility mode (*note Options::),
+   The variables that are specific to ‘gawk’ are marked with a pound
+sign (‘#’).  These variables are ‘gawk’ extensions.  In other ‘awk’
+implementations or if ‘gawk’ is in compatibility mode (*note Options::),
 they are not special:
 
-'ARGC', 'ARGV'
-     The command-line arguments available to 'awk' programs are stored
-     in an array called 'ARGV'.  'ARGC' is the number of command-line
-     arguments present.  *Note Other Arguments::.  Unlike most 'awk'
-     arrays, 'ARGV' is indexed from 0 to 'ARGC' - 1.  In the following
+‘ARGC’, ‘ARGV’
+     The command-line arguments available to ‘awk’ programs are stored
+     in an array called ‘ARGV’.  ‘ARGC’ is the number of command-line
+     arguments present.  *Note Other Arguments::.  Unlike most ‘awk’
+     arrays, ‘ARGV’ is indexed from 0 to ‘ARGC’ − 1.  In the 
following
      example:
 
           $ awk 'BEGIN {
           >         for (i = 0; i < ARGC; i++)
           >             print ARGV[i]
           >      }' inventory-shipped mail-list
-          -| awk
-          -| inventory-shipped
-          -| mail-list
+          ⊣ awk
+          ⊣ inventory-shipped
+          ⊣ mail-list
 
-     'ARGV[0]' contains 'awk', 'ARGV[1]' contains 'inventory-shipped',
-     and 'ARGV[2]' contains 'mail-list'.  The value of 'ARGC' is three,
-     one more than the index of the last element in 'ARGV', because the
+     ‘ARGV[0]’ contains ‘awk’, ‘ARGV[1]’ contains 
‘inventory-shipped’,
+     and ‘ARGV[2]’ contains ‘mail-list’.  The value of ‘ARGC’ is 
three,
+     one more than the index of the last element in ‘ARGV’, because the
      elements are numbered from zero.
 
-     The names 'ARGC' and 'ARGV', as well as the convention of indexing
-     the array from 0 to 'ARGC' - 1, are derived from the C language's
+     The names ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’, as well as the convention of indexing
+     the array from 0 to ‘ARGC’ − 1, are derived from the C language’s
      method of accessing command-line arguments.
 
-     The value of 'ARGV[0]' can vary from system to system.  Also, you
-     should note that the program text is _not_ included in 'ARGV', nor
-     are any of 'awk''s command-line options.  *Note ARGC and ARGV:: for
-     information about how 'awk' uses these variables.  (d.c.)
+     The value of ‘ARGV[0]’ can vary from system to system.  Also, you
+     should note that the program text is _not_ included in ‘ARGV’, nor
+     are any of ‘awk’’s command-line options.  *Note ARGC and ARGV:: for
+     information about how ‘awk’ uses these variables.  (d.c.)
 
-'ARGIND #'
-     The index in 'ARGV' of the current file being processed.  Every
-     time 'gawk' opens a new data file for processing, it sets 'ARGIND'
-     to the index in 'ARGV' of the file name.  When 'gawk' is processing
-     the input files, 'FILENAME == ARGV[ARGIND]' is always true.
+‘ARGIND #’
+     The index in ‘ARGV’ of the current file being processed.  Every
+     time ‘gawk’ opens a new data file for processing, it sets ‘ARGIND’
+     to the index in ‘ARGV’ of the file name.  When ‘gawk’ is 
processing
+     the input files, ‘FILENAME == ARGV[ARGIND]’ is always true.
 
      This variable is useful in file processing; it allows you to tell
      how far along you are in the list of data files as well as to
      distinguish between successive instances of the same file name on
      the command line.
 
-     While you can change the value of 'ARGIND' within your 'awk'
-     program, 'gawk' automatically sets it to a new value when it opens
+     While you can change the value of ‘ARGIND’ within your ‘awk’
+     program, ‘gawk’ automatically sets it to a new value when it opens
      the next file.
 
-'ENVIRON'
+‘ENVIRON’
      An associative array containing the values of the environment.  The
      array indices are the environment variable names; the elements are
      the values of the particular environment variables.  For example,
-     'ENVIRON["HOME"]' might be '/home/arnold'.
+     ‘ENVIRON["HOME"]’ might be ‘/home/arnold’.
 
-     For POSIX 'awk', changing this array does not affect the
-     environment passed on to any programs that 'awk' may spawn via
-     redirection or the 'system()' function.
+     For POSIX ‘awk’, changing this array does not affect the
+     environment passed on to any programs that ‘awk’ may spawn via
+     redirection or the ‘system()’ function.
 
      However, beginning with version 4.2, if not in POSIX compatibility
-     mode, 'gawk' does update its own environment when 'ENVIRON' is
+     mode, ‘gawk’ does update its own environment when ‘ENVIRON’ is
      changed, thus changing the environment seen by programs that it
      creates.  You should therefore be especially careful if you modify
-     'ENVIRON["PATH"]', which is the search path for finding executable
+     ‘ENVIRON["PATH"]’, which is the search path for finding executable
      programs.
 
-     This can also affect the running 'gawk' program, since some of the
+     This can also affect the running ‘gawk’ program, since some of the
      built-in functions may pay attention to certain environment
-     variables.  The most notable instance of this is 'mktime()' (*note
-     Time Functions::), which pays attention the value of the 'TZ'
+     variables.  The most notable instance of this is ‘mktime()’ (*note
+     Time Functions::), which pays attention the value of the ‘TZ’
      environment variable on many systems.
 
      Some operating systems may not have environment variables.  On such
-     systems, the 'ENVIRON' array is empty (except for
-     'ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]' and 'ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]'; *note AWKPATH
+     systems, the ‘ENVIRON’ array is empty (except for
+     ‘ENVIRON["AWKPATH"]’ and ‘ENVIRON["AWKLIBPATH"]’; *note AWKPATH
      Variable:: and *note AWKLIBPATH Variable::).
 
-'ERRNO #'
-     If a system error occurs during a redirection for 'getline', during
-     a read for 'getline', or during a 'close()' operation, then 'ERRNO'
+‘ERRNO #’
+     If a system error occurs during a redirection for ‘getline’, during
+     a read for ‘getline’, or during a ‘close()’ operation, then 
‘ERRNO’
      contains a string describing the error.
 
-     In addition, 'gawk' clears 'ERRNO' before opening each command-line
+     In addition, ‘gawk’ clears ‘ERRNO’ before opening each 
command-line
      input file.  This enables checking if the file is readable inside a
-     'BEGINFILE' pattern (*note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::).
+     ‘BEGINFILE’ pattern (*note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::).
 
-     Otherwise, 'ERRNO' works similarly to the C variable 'errno'.
-     Except for the case just mentioned, 'gawk' _never_ clears it (sets
-     it to zero or '""').  Thus, you should only expect its value to be
+     Otherwise, ‘ERRNO’ works similarly to the C variable ‘errno’.
+     Except for the case just mentioned, ‘gawk’ _never_ clears it (sets
+     it to zero or ‘""’).  Thus, you should only expect its value to be
      meaningful when an I/O operation returns a failure value, such as
-     'getline' returning -1.  You are, of course, free to clear it
+     ‘getline’ returning −1.  You are, of course, free to clear it
      yourself before doing an I/O operation.
 
-     If the value of 'ERRNO' corresponds to a system error in the C
-     'errno' variable, then 'PROCINFO["errno"]' will be set to the value
-     of 'errno'.  For non-system errors, 'PROCINFO["errno"]' will be
+     If the value of ‘ERRNO’ corresponds to a system error in the C
+     ‘errno’ variable, then ‘PROCINFO["errno"]’ will be set to the 
value
+     of ‘errno’.  For non-system errors, ‘PROCINFO["errno"]’ will be
      zero.
 
-'FILENAME'
+‘FILENAME’
      The name of the current input file.  When no data files are listed
-     on the command line, 'awk' reads from the standard input and
-     'FILENAME' is set to '"-"'.  'FILENAME' changes each time a new
-     file is read (*note Reading Files::).  Inside a 'BEGIN' rule, the
-     value of 'FILENAME' is '""', because there are no input files being
-     processed yet.(1)  (d.c.)  Note, though, that using 'getline'
-     (*note Getline::) inside a 'BEGIN' rule can give 'FILENAME' a
+     on the command line, ‘awk’ reads from the standard input and
+     ‘FILENAME’ is set to ‘"-"’.  ‘FILENAME’ changes each time a 
new
+     file is read (*note Reading Files::).  Inside a ‘BEGIN’ rule, the
+     value of ‘FILENAME’ is ‘""’, because there are no input files 
being
+     processed yet.(1)  (d.c.)  Note, though, that using ‘getline’
+     (*note Getline::) inside a ‘BEGIN’ rule can give ‘FILENAME’ a
      value.
 
-'FNR'
-     The current record number in the current file.  'awk' increments
-     'FNR' each time it reads a new record (*note Records::).  'awk'
-     resets 'FNR' to zero each time it starts a new input file.
+‘FNR’
+     The current record number in the current file.  ‘awk’ increments
+     ‘FNR’ each time it reads a new record (*note Records::).  ‘awk’
+     resets ‘FNR’ to zero each time it starts a new input file.
 
-'NF'
-     The number of fields in the current input record.  'NF' is set each
+‘NF’
+     The number of fields in the current input record.  ‘NF’ is set each
      time a new record is read, when a new field is created, or when
-     '$0' changes (*note Fields::).
+     ‘$0’ changes (*note Fields::).
 
      Unlike most of the variables described in this node, assigning a
-     value to 'NF' has the potential to affect 'awk''s internal
-     workings.  In particular, assignments to 'NF' can be used to create
+     value to ‘NF’ has the potential to affect ‘awk’’s internal
+     workings.  In particular, assignments to ‘NF’ can be used to create
      fields in or remove fields from the current record.  *Note Changing
      Fields::.
 
-'FUNCTAB #'
+‘FUNCTAB #’
      An array whose indices and corresponding values are the names of
      all the built-in, user-defined, and extension functions in the
      program.
 
-          NOTE: Attempting to use the 'delete' statement with the
-          'FUNCTAB' array causes a fatal error.  Any attempt to assign
-          to an element of 'FUNCTAB' also causes a fatal error.
+          NOTE: Attempting to use the ‘delete’ statement with the
+          ‘FUNCTAB’ array causes a fatal error.  Any attempt to assign
+          to an element of ‘FUNCTAB’ also causes a fatal error.
 
-'NR'
-     The number of input records 'awk' has processed since the beginning
-     of the program's execution (*note Records::).  'awk' increments
-     'NR' each time it reads a new record.
+‘NR’
+     The number of input records ‘awk’ has processed since the beginning
+     of the program’s execution (*note Records::).  ‘awk’ increments
+     ‘NR’ each time it reads a new record.
 
-'PROCINFO #'
+‘PROCINFO #’
      The elements of this array provide access to information about the
-     running 'awk' program.  The following elements (listed
+     running ‘awk’ program.  The following elements (listed
      alphabetically) are guaranteed to be available:
 
-     'PROCINFO["argv"]'
-          The 'PROCINFO["argv"]' array contains all of the command-line
+     ‘PROCINFO["argv"]’
+          The ‘PROCINFO["argv"]’ array contains all of the command-line
           arguments (after glob expansion and redirection processing on
           platforms where that must be done manually by the program)
-          with subscripts ranging from 0 through 'argc' - 1.  For
-          example, 'PROCINFO["argv"][0]' will contain the name by which
-          'gawk' was invoked.  Here is an example of how this feature
+          with subscripts ranging from 0 through ‘argc’ − 1.  For
+          example, ‘PROCINFO["argv"][0]’ will contain the name by which
+          ‘gawk’ was invoked.  Here is an example of how this feature
           may be used:
 
                gawk '
@@ -11393,195 +11393,195 @@ they are not special:
                                print i, PROCINFO["argv"][i]
                }'
 
-          Please note that this differs from the standard 'ARGV' array
+          Please note that this differs from the standard ‘ARGV’ array
           which does not include command-line arguments that have
-          already been processed by 'gawk' (*note ARGC and ARGV::).
+          already been processed by ‘gawk’ (*note ARGC and ARGV::).
 
-     'PROCINFO["egid"]'
-          The value of the 'getegid()' system call.
+     ‘PROCINFO["egid"]’
+          The value of the ‘getegid()’ system call.
 
-     'PROCINFO["errno"]'
-          The value of the C 'errno' variable when 'ERRNO' is set to the
+     ‘PROCINFO["errno"]’
+          The value of the C ‘errno’ variable when ‘ERRNO’ is set to 
the
           associated error message.
 
-     'PROCINFO["euid"]'
-          The value of the 'geteuid()' system call.
+     ‘PROCINFO["euid"]’
+          The value of the ‘geteuid()’ system call.
 
-     'PROCINFO["FS"]'
-          This is '"FS"' if field splitting with 'FS' is in effect,
-          '"FIELDWIDTHS"' if field splitting with 'FIELDWIDTHS' is in
-          effect, '"FPAT"' if field matching with 'FPAT' is in effect,
-          or '"API"' if field splitting is controlled by an API input
+     ‘PROCINFO["FS"]’
+          This is ‘"FS"’ if field splitting with ‘FS’ is in effect,
+          ‘"FIELDWIDTHS"’ if field splitting with ‘FIELDWIDTHS’ is in
+          effect, ‘"FPAT"’ if field matching with ‘FPAT’ is in effect,
+          or ‘"API"’ if field splitting is controlled by an API input
           parser.
 
-     'PROCINFO["gid"]'
-          The value of the 'getgid()' system call.
+     ‘PROCINFO["gid"]’
+          The value of the ‘getgid()’ system call.
 
-     'PROCINFO["identifiers"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["identifiers"]’
           A subarray, indexed by the names of all identifiers used in
-          the text of the 'awk' program.  An "identifier" is simply the
+          the text of the ‘awk’ program.  An “identifier” is simply the
           name of a variable (be it scalar or array), built-in function,
           user-defined function, or extension function.  For each
           identifier, the value of the element is one of the following:
 
-          '"array"'
+          ‘"array"’
                The identifier is an array.
 
-          '"builtin"'
+          ‘"builtin"’
                The identifier is a built-in function.
 
-          '"extension"'
+          ‘"extension"’
                The identifier is an extension function loaded via
-               '@load' or '-l'.
+               ‘@load’ or ‘-l’.
 
-          '"scalar"'
+          ‘"scalar"’
                The identifier is a scalar.
 
-          '"untyped"'
+          ‘"untyped"’
                The identifier is untyped (could be used as a scalar or
-               an array; 'gawk' doesn't know yet).
+               an array; ‘gawk’ doesn’t know yet).
 
-          '"user"'
+          ‘"user"’
                The identifier is a user-defined function.
 
-          The values indicate what 'gawk' knows about the identifiers
+          The values indicate what ‘gawk’ knows about the identifiers
           after it has finished parsing the program; they are _not_
           updated while the program runs.
 
-     'PROCINFO["platform"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["platform"]’
           This element gives a string indicating the platform for which
-          'gawk' was compiled.  The value will be one of the following:
+          ‘gawk’ was compiled.  The value will be one of the following:
 
-          '"mingw"'
+          ‘"mingw"’
                Microsoft Windows, using MinGW.
 
-          '"os390"'
+          ‘"os390"’
                OS/390 (also known as z/OS).
 
-          '"posix"'
+          ‘"posix"’
                GNU/Linux, Cygwin, macOS, and legacy Unix systems.
 
-          '"vms"'
+          ‘"vms"’
                OpenVMS.
 
-     'PROCINFO["pgrpid"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["pgrpid"]’
           The process group ID of the current process.
 
-     'PROCINFO["pid"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["pid"]’
           The process ID of the current process.
 
-     'PROCINFO["pma"]'
-          The version of the PMA memory allocator compiled into 'gawk'.
+     ‘PROCINFO["pma"]’
+          The version of the PMA memory allocator compiled into ‘gawk’.
           This element will not be present if the PMA allocator is not
           available for use.  *Note Persistent Memory::.
 
-     'PROCINFO["ppid"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["ppid"]’
           The parent process ID of the current process.
 
-     'PROCINFO["strftime"]'
-          The default time format string for 'strftime()'.  Assigning a
+     ‘PROCINFO["strftime"]’
+          The default time format string for ‘strftime()’.  Assigning a
           new value to this element changes the default.  *Note Time
           Functions::.
 
-     'PROCINFO["uid"]'
-          The value of the 'getuid()' system call.
+     ‘PROCINFO["uid"]’
+          The value of the ‘getuid()’ system call.
 
-     'PROCINFO["version"]'
-          The version of 'gawk'.
+     ‘PROCINFO["version"]’
+          The version of ‘gawk’.
 
      The following additional elements in the array are available to
      provide information about the MPFR and GMP libraries if your
-     version of 'gawk' supports arbitrary-precision arithmetic (*note
+     version of ‘gawk’ supports arbitrary-precision arithmetic (*note
      Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic::):
 
-     'PROCINFO["gmp_version"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["gmp_version"]’
           The version of the GNU MP library.
 
-     'PROCINFO["mpfr_version"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["mpfr_version"]’
           The version of the GNU MPFR library.
 
-     'PROCINFO["prec_max"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["prec_max"]’
           The maximum precision supported by MPFR.
 
-     'PROCINFO["prec_min"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["prec_min"]’
           The minimum precision required by MPFR.
 
      The following additional elements in the array are available to
      provide information about the version of the extension API, if your
-     version of 'gawk' supports dynamic loading of extension functions
+     version of ‘gawk’ supports dynamic loading of extension functions
      (*note Dynamic Extensions::):
 
-     'PROCINFO["api_major"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["api_major"]’
           The major version of the extension API.
 
-     'PROCINFO["api_minor"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["api_minor"]’
           The minor version of the extension API.
 
-     On some systems, there may be elements in the array, '"group1"'
-     through '"groupN"' for some N.  N is the number of supplementary
-     groups that the process has.  Use the 'in' operator to test for
+     On some systems, there may be elements in the array, ‘"group1"’
+     through ‘"groupN"’ for some N.  N is the number of supplementary
+     groups that the process has.  Use the ‘in’ operator to test for
      these elements (*note Reference to Elements::).
 
-     The following elements allow you to change 'gawk''s behavior:
+     The following elements allow you to change ‘gawk’’s behavior:
 
-     'PROCINFO["NONFATAL"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["NONFATAL"]’
           If this element exists, then I/O errors for all redirections
           become nonfatal.  *Note Nonfatal::.
 
-     'PROCINFO["NAME", "NONFATAL"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["NAME", "NONFATAL"]’
           Make I/O errors for NAME be nonfatal.  *Note Nonfatal::.
 
-     'PROCINFO["COMMAND", "pty"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["COMMAND", "pty"]’
           For two-way communication to COMMAND, use a pseudo-tty instead
           of setting up a two-way pipe.  *Note Two-way I/O:: for more
           information.
 
-     'PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "READ_TIMEOUT"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "READ_TIMEOUT"]’
           Set a timeout for reading from input redirection INPUT_NAME.
           *Note Read Timeout:: for more information.
 
-     'PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "RETRY"]'
+     ‘PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "RETRY"]’
           If an I/O error that may be retried occurs when reading data
-          from INPUT_NAME, and this array entry exists, then 'getline'
-          returns -2 instead of following the default behavior of
-          returning -1 and configuring INPUT_NAME to return no further
-          data.  An I/O error that may be retried is one where 'errno'
-          has the value 'EAGAIN', 'EWOULDBLOCK', 'EINTR', or
-          'ETIMEDOUT'.  This may be useful in conjunction with
-          'PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "READ_TIMEOUT"]' or situations where a
+          from INPUT_NAME, and this array entry exists, then ‘getline’
+          returns −2 instead of following the default behavior of
+          returning −1 and configuring INPUT_NAME to return no further
+          data.  An I/O error that may be retried is one where ‘errno’
+          has the value ‘EAGAIN’, ‘EWOULDBLOCK’, ‘EINTR’, or
+          ‘ETIMEDOUT’.  This may be useful in conjunction with
+          ‘PROCINFO["INPUT_NAME", "READ_TIMEOUT"]’ or situations where a
           file descriptor has been configured to behave in a
           non-blocking fashion.  *Note Retrying Input:: for more
           information.
 
-     'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]'
-          If this element exists in 'PROCINFO', its value controls the
-          order in which array indices will be processed by 'for (INDX
-          in ARRAY)' loops.  This is an advanced feature, so we defer
+     ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’
+          If this element exists in ‘PROCINFO’, its value controls the
+          order in which array indices will be processed by ‘for (INDX
+          in ARRAY)’ loops.  This is an advanced feature, so we defer
           the full description until later; see *note Controlling
           Scanning::.
 
-'RLENGTH'
-     The length of the substring matched by the 'match()' function
-     (*note String Functions::).  'RLENGTH' is set by invoking the
-     'match()' function.  Its value is the length of the matched string,
-     or -1 if no match is found.
+‘RLENGTH’
+     The length of the substring matched by the ‘match()’ function
+     (*note String Functions::).  ‘RLENGTH’ is set by invoking the
+     ‘match()’ function.  Its value is the length of the matched string,
+     or −1 if no match is found.
 
-'RSTART'
+‘RSTART’
      The start index in characters of the substring that is matched by
-     the 'match()' function (*note String Functions::).  'RSTART' is set
-     by invoking the 'match()' function.  Its value is the position of
+     the ‘match()’ function (*note String Functions::).  ‘RSTART’ is 
set
+     by invoking the ‘match()’ function.  Its value is the position of
      the string where the matched substring starts, or zero if no match
      was found.
 
-'RT #'
-     The input text that matched the text denoted by 'RS', the record
+‘RT #’
+     The input text that matched the text denoted by ‘RS’, the record
      separator.  It is set every time a record is read.
 
-'SYMTAB #'
+‘SYMTAB #’
      An array whose indices are the names of all defined global
-     variables and arrays in the program.  'SYMTAB' makes 'gawk''s
-     symbol table visible to the 'awk' programmer.  It is built as
-     'gawk' parses the program and is complete before the program starts
+     variables and arrays in the program.  ‘SYMTAB’ makes ‘gawk’’s
+     symbol table visible to the ‘awk’ programmer.  It is built as
+     ‘gawk’ parses the program and is complete before the program starts
      to run.
 
      The array may be used for indirect access to read or write the
@@ -11591,11 +11591,11 @@ they are not special:
           SYMTAB["foo"] = 4
           print foo    # prints 4
 
-     The 'isarray()' function (*note Type Functions::) may be used to
-     test if an element in 'SYMTAB' is an array.  Also, you may not use
-     the 'delete' statement with the 'SYMTAB' array.
+     The ‘isarray()’ function (*note Type Functions::) may be used to
+     test if an element in ‘SYMTAB’ is an array.  Also, you may not use
+     the ‘delete’ statement with the ‘SYMTAB’ array.
 
-     Prior to version 5.0 of 'gawk', you could use an index for 'SYMTAB'
+     Prior to version 5.0 of ‘gawk’, you could use an index for 
‘SYMTAB’
      that was not a predefined identifier:
 
           SYMTAB["xxx"] = 5
@@ -11604,8 +11604,8 @@ they are not special:
      This no longer works, instead producing a fatal error, as it led to
      rampant confusion.
 
-     The 'SYMTAB' array is more interesting than it looks.  Andrew
-     Schorr points out that it effectively gives 'awk' data pointers.
+     The ‘SYMTAB’ array is more interesting than it looks.  Andrew
+     Schorr points out that it effectively gives ‘awk’ data pointers.
      Consider his example:
 
           # Indirect multiply of any variable by amount, return result
@@ -11626,15 +11626,15 @@ they are not special:
      When run, this produces:
 
           $ gawk -f answer.awk
-          -| The answer is 42
+          ⊣ The answer is 42
 
           NOTE: In order to avoid severe time-travel paradoxes,(2)
-          neither 'FUNCTAB' nor 'SYMTAB' is available as an element
-          within the 'SYMTAB' array.
+          neither ‘FUNCTAB’ nor ‘SYMTAB’ is available as an element
+          within the ‘SYMTAB’ array.
 
-                        Changing 'NR' and 'FNR'
+                        Changing ‘NR’ and ‘FNR’
 
-   'awk' increments 'NR' and 'FNR' each time it reads a record, instead
+   ‘awk’ increments ‘NR’ and ‘FNR’ each time it reads a record, 
instead
 of setting them to the absolute value of the number of records read.
 This means that a program can change these variables and their new
 values are incremented for each record.  (d.c.)  The following example
@@ -11645,19 +11645,19 @@ shows this:
      > 3
      > 4' | awk 'NR == 2 { NR = 17 }
      > { print NR }'
-     -| 1
-     -| 17
-     -| 18
-     -| 19
+     ⊣ 1
+     ⊣ 17
+     ⊣ 18
+     ⊣ 19
 
-Before 'FNR' was added to the 'awk' language (*note V7/SVR3.1::), many
-'awk' programs used this feature to track the number of records in a
-file by resetting 'NR' to zero when 'FILENAME' changed.
+Before ‘FNR’ was added to the ‘awk’ language (*note V7/SVR3.1::), many
+‘awk’ programs used this feature to track the number of records in a
+file by resetting ‘NR’ to zero when ‘FILENAME’ changed.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) Some early implementations of Unix 'awk' initialized 'FILENAME'
-to '"-"', even if there were data files to be processed.  This behavior
+   (1) Some early implementations of Unix ‘awk’ initialized ‘FILENAME’
+to ‘"-"’, even if there were data files to be processed.  This behavior
 was incorrect and should not be relied upon in your programs.
 
    (2) Not to mention difficult implementation issues.
@@ -11665,28 +11665,28 @@ was incorrect and should not be relied upon in your 
programs.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: ARGC and ARGV,  Prev: Auto-set,  Up: Built-in Variables
 
-7.5.3 Using 'ARGC' and 'ARGV'
+7.5.3 Using ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’
 -----------------------------
 
 *note Auto-set:: presented the following program describing the
-information contained in 'ARGC' and 'ARGV':
+information contained in ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’:
 
      $ awk 'BEGIN {
      >        for (i = 0; i < ARGC; i++)
      >            print ARGV[i]
      >      }' inventory-shipped mail-list
-     -| awk
-     -| inventory-shipped
-     -| mail-list
+     ⊣ awk
+     ⊣ inventory-shipped
+     ⊣ mail-list
 
-In this example, 'ARGV[0]' contains 'awk', 'ARGV[1]' contains
-'inventory-shipped', and 'ARGV[2]' contains 'mail-list'.  Notice that
-the 'awk' program is not entered in 'ARGV'.  The other command-line
+In this example, ‘ARGV[0]’ contains ‘awk’, ‘ARGV[1]’ contains
+‘inventory-shipped’, and ‘ARGV[2]’ contains ‘mail-list’.  Notice 
that
+the ‘awk’ program is not entered in ‘ARGV’.  The other command-line
 options, with their arguments, are also not entered.  This includes
-variable assignments done with the '-v' option (*note Options::).
+variable assignments done with the ‘-v’ option (*note Options::).
 Normal variable assignments on the command line _are_ treated as
-arguments and do show up in the 'ARGV' array.  Given the following
-program in a file named 'showargs.awk':
+arguments and do show up in the ‘ARGV’ array.  Given the following
+program in a file named ‘showargs.awk’:
 
      BEGIN {
          printf "A=%d, B=%d\n", A, B
@@ -11698,41 +11698,41 @@ program in a file named 'showargs.awk':
 Running it produces the following:
 
      $ awk -v A=1 -f showargs.awk B=2 /dev/null
-     -| A=1, B=0
-     -|        ARGV[0] = awk
-     -|        ARGV[1] = B=2
-     -|        ARGV[2] = /dev/null
-     -| A=1, B=2
-
-   A program can alter 'ARGC' and the elements of 'ARGV'.  Each time
-'awk' reaches the end of an input file, it uses the next element of
-'ARGV' as the name of the next input file.  By storing a different
-string there, a program can change which files are read.  Use '"-"' to
+     ⊣ A=1, B=0
+     ⊣        ARGV[0] = awk
+     ⊣        ARGV[1] = B=2
+     ⊣        ARGV[2] = /dev/null
+     ⊣ A=1, B=2
+
+   A program can alter ‘ARGC’ and the elements of ‘ARGV’.  Each time
+‘awk’ reaches the end of an input file, it uses the next element of
+‘ARGV’ as the name of the next input file.  By storing a different
+string there, a program can change which files are read.  Use ‘"-"’ to
 represent the standard input.  Storing additional elements and
-incrementing 'ARGC' causes additional files to be read.
+incrementing ‘ARGC’ causes additional files to be read.
 
-   If the value of 'ARGC' is decreased, that eliminates input files from
-the end of the list.  By recording the old value of 'ARGC' elsewhere, a
+   If the value of ‘ARGC’ is decreased, that eliminates input files from
+the end of the list.  By recording the old value of ‘ARGC’ elsewhere, a
 program can treat the eliminated arguments as something other than file
 names.
 
    To eliminate a file from the middle of the list, store the null
-string ('""') into 'ARGV' in place of the file's name.  As a special
-feature, 'awk' ignores file names that have been replaced with the null
-string.  Another option is to use the 'delete' statement to remove
-elements from 'ARGV' (*note Delete::).
+string (‘""’) into ‘ARGV’ in place of the file’s name.  As a special
+feature, ‘awk’ ignores file names that have been replaced with the null
+string.  Another option is to use the ‘delete’ statement to remove
+elements from ‘ARGV’ (*note Delete::).
 
-   All of these actions are typically done in the 'BEGIN' rule, before
+   All of these actions are typically done in the ‘BEGIN’ rule, before
 actual processing of the input begins.  *Note Split Program:: and *note
-Tee Program:: for examples of each way of removing elements from 'ARGV'.
+Tee Program:: for examples of each way of removing elements from ‘ARGV’.
 
-   To actually get options into an 'awk' program, end the 'awk' options
-with '--' and then supply the 'awk' program's options, in the following
+   To actually get options into an ‘awk’ program, end the ‘awk’ options
+with ‘--’ and then supply the ‘awk’ program’s options, in the 
following
 manner:
 
      awk -f myprog.awk -- -v -q file1 file2 ...
 
-   The following fragment processes 'ARGV' in order to examine, and then
+   The following fragment processes ‘ARGV’ in order to examine, and then
 remove, the previously mentioned command-line options:
 
      BEGIN {
@@ -11751,23 +11751,23 @@ remove, the previously mentioned command-line options:
          }
      }
 
-   Ending the 'awk' options with '--' isn't necessary in 'gawk'.  Unless
-'--posix' has been specified, 'gawk' silently puts any unrecognized
-options into 'ARGV' for the 'awk' program to deal with.  As soon as it
-sees an unknown option, 'gawk' stops looking for other options that it
-might otherwise recognize.  The previous command line with 'gawk' would
+   Ending the ‘awk’ options with ‘--’ isn’t necessary in ‘gawk’. 
 Unless
+‘--posix’ has been specified, ‘gawk’ silently puts any unrecognized
+options into ‘ARGV’ for the ‘awk’ program to deal with.  As soon as it
+sees an unknown option, ‘gawk’ stops looking for other options that it
+might otherwise recognize.  The previous command line with ‘gawk’ would
 be:
 
      gawk -f myprog.awk -q -v file1 file2 ...
 
-Because '-q' is not a valid 'gawk' option, it and the following '-v' are
-passed on to the 'awk' program.  (*Note Getopt Function:: for an 'awk'
+Because ‘-q’ is not a valid ‘gawk’ option, it and the following 
‘-v’ are
+passed on to the ‘awk’ program.  (*Note Getopt Function:: for an ‘awk’
 library function that parses command-line options.)
 
-   When designing your program, you should choose options that don't
-conflict with 'gawk''s, because it will process any options that it
+   When designing your program, you should choose options that don’t
+conflict with ‘gawk’’s, because it will process any options that it
 accepts before passing the rest of the command line on to your program.
-Using '#!' with the '-E' option may help (*note Executable Scripts:: and
+Using ‘#!’ with the ‘-E’ option may help (*note Executable Scripts:: 
and
 *note Options::).
 
 
@@ -11776,80 +11776,80 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Pattern Action Summary,  
Prev: Built-in Variables,  Up:
 7.6 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * Pattern-action pairs make up the basic elements of an 'awk'
+   • Pattern–action pairs make up the basic elements of an ‘awk’
      program.  Patterns are either normal expressions, range
      expressions, or regexp constants; one of the special keywords
-     'BEGIN', 'END', 'BEGINFILE', or 'ENDFILE'; or empty.  The action
+     ‘BEGIN’, ‘END’, ‘BEGINFILE’, or ‘ENDFILE’; or empty.  The 
action
      executes if the current record matches the pattern.  Empty
      (missing) patterns match all records.
 
-   * I/O from 'BEGIN' and 'END' rules has certain constraints.  This is
-     also true, only more so, for 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE' rules.  The
-     latter two give you "hooks" into 'gawk''s file processing, allowing
+   • I/O from ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules has certain constraints.  This 
is
+     also true, only more so, for ‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’ rules.  The
+     latter two give you “hooks” into ‘gawk’’s file processing, 
allowing
      you to recover from a file that otherwise would cause a fatal error
      (such as a file that cannot be opened).
 
-   * Shell variables can be used in 'awk' programs by careful use of
-     shell quoting.  It is easier to pass a shell variable into 'awk' by
-     using the '-v' option and an 'awk' variable.
+   • Shell variables can be used in ‘awk’ programs by careful use of
+     shell quoting.  It is easier to pass a shell variable into ‘awk’ by
+     using the ‘-v’ option and an ‘awk’ variable.
 
-   * Actions consist of statements enclosed in curly braces.  Statements
+   • Actions consist of statements enclosed in curly braces.  Statements
      are built up from expressions, control statements, compound
      statements, input and output statements, and deletion statements.
 
-   * The control statements in 'awk' are 'if'-'else', 'while', 'for',
-     and 'do'-'while'.  'gawk' adds the 'switch' statement.  There are
-     two flavors of 'for' statement: one for performing general looping,
+   • The control statements in ‘awk’ are ‘if’-‘else’, 
‘while’, ‘for’,
+     and ‘do’-‘while’.  ‘gawk’ adds the ‘switch’ statement.  
There are
+     two flavors of ‘for’ statement: one for performing general looping,
      and the other for iterating through an array.
 
-   * 'break' and 'continue' let you exit early or start the next
-     iteration of a loop (or get out of a 'switch').
+   • ‘break’ and ‘continue’ let you exit early or start the next
+     iteration of a loop (or get out of a ‘switch’).
 
-   * 'next' and 'nextfile' let you read the next record and start over
+   • ‘next’ and ‘nextfile’ let you read the next record and start 
over
      at the top of your program or skip to the next input file and start
      over, respectively.
 
-   * The 'exit' statement terminates your program.  When executed from
-     an action (or function body), it transfers control to the 'END'
-     statements.  From an 'END' statement body, it exits immediately.
-     You may pass an optional numeric value to be used as 'awk''s exit
+   • The ‘exit’ statement terminates your program.  When executed from
+     an action (or function body), it transfers control to the ‘END’
+     statements.  From an ‘END’ statement body, it exits immediately.
+     You may pass an optional numeric value to be used as ‘awk’’s exit
      status.
 
-   * Some predefined variables provide control over 'awk', mainly for
-     I/O. Other variables convey information from 'awk' to your program.
+   • Some predefined variables provide control over ‘awk’, mainly for
+     I/O. Other variables convey information from ‘awk’ to your program.
 
-   * 'ARGC' and 'ARGV' make the command-line arguments available to your
-     program.  Manipulating them from a 'BEGIN' rule lets you control
-     how 'awk' will process the provided data files.
+   • ‘ARGC’ and ‘ARGV’ make the command-line arguments available to 
your
+     program.  Manipulating them from a ‘BEGIN’ rule lets you control
+     how ‘awk’ will process the provided data files.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Arrays,  Next: Functions,  Prev: Patterns and Actions, 
 Up: Top
 
-8 Arrays in 'awk'
+8 Arrays in ‘awk’
 *****************
 
-An "array" is a table of values called "elements".  The elements of an
-array are distinguished by their "indices".  Indices may be either
+An “array” is a table of values called “elements”.  The elements of an
+array are distinguished by their “indices”.  Indices may be either
 numbers or strings.
 
-   This major node describes how arrays work in 'awk', how to use array
+   This major node describes how arrays work in ‘awk’, how to use array
 elements, how to scan through every element in an array, and how to
-remove array elements.  It also describes how 'awk' simulates
+remove array elements.  It also describes how ‘awk’ simulates
 multidimensional arrays, as well as some of the less obvious points
-about array usage.  The major node moves on to discuss 'gawk''s facility
-for sorting arrays, and ends with a brief description of 'gawk''s
+about array usage.  The major node moves on to discuss ‘gawk’’s facility
+for sorting arrays, and ends with a brief description of ‘gawk’’s
 ability to support true arrays of arrays.
 
 * Menu:
 
 * Array Basics::                The basics of arrays.
 * Numeric Array Subscripts::    How to use numbers as subscripts in
-                                'awk'.
+                                ‘awk’.
 * Uninitialized Subscripts::    Using Uninitialized variables as subscripts.
-* Delete::                      The 'delete' statement removes an element
+* Delete::                      The ‘delete’ statement removes an element
                                 from an array.
 * Multidimensional::            Emulating multidimensional arrays in
-                                'awk'.
+                                ‘awk’.
 * Arrays of Arrays::            True multidimensional arrays.
 * Arrays Summary::              Summary of arrays.
 
@@ -11868,8 +11868,8 @@ at a time, and traversing all of the elements in an 
array.
 * Reference to Elements::       How to examine one element of an array.
 * Assigning Elements::          How to change an element of an array.
 * Array Example::               Basic Example of an Array
-* Scanning an Array::           A variation of the 'for' statement. It
-                                loops through the indices of an array's
+* Scanning an Array::           A variation of the ‘for’ statement. It
+                                loops through the indices of an array’s
                                 existing elements.
 * Controlling Scanning::        Controlling the order in which arrays are
                                 scanned.
@@ -11882,21 +11882,21 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Array Intro,  Next: Reference 
to Elements,  Up: Array Ba
 
      Doing linear scans over an associative array is like trying to club
      someone to death with a loaded Uzi.
-                            -- _Larry Wall_
+                            — _Larry Wall_
 
-   The 'awk' language provides one-dimensional arrays for storing groups
-of related strings or numbers.  Every 'awk' array must have a name.
+   The ‘awk’ language provides one-dimensional arrays for storing groups
+of related strings or numbers.  Every ‘awk’ array must have a name.
 Array names have the same syntax as variable names; any valid variable
 name would also be a valid array name.  But one name cannot be used in
-both ways (as an array and as a variable) in the same 'awk' program.
+both ways (as an array and as a variable) in the same ‘awk’ program.
 
-   Arrays in 'awk' superficially resemble arrays in other programming
-languages, but there are fundamental differences.  In 'awk', it isn't
+   Arrays in ‘awk’ superficially resemble arrays in other programming
+languages, but there are fundamental differences.  In ‘awk’, it isn’t
 necessary to specify the size of an array before starting to use it.
 Additionally, any number or string, not just consecutive integers, may
 be used as an array index.
 
-   In most other languages, arrays must be "declared" before use,
+   In most other languages, arrays must be “declared” before use,
 including a specification of how many elements or components they
 contain.  In such languages, the declaration causes a contiguous block
 of memory to be allocated for that many elements.  Usually, an index in
@@ -11906,13 +11906,13 @@ the beginning of the block of memory.  Index one 
specifies the second
 element, which is stored in memory right after the first element, and so
 on.  It is impossible to add more elements to the array, because it has
 room only for as many elements as given in the declaration.  (Some
-languages allow arbitrary starting and ending indices--e.g., '15 ..
-27'--but the size of the array is still fixed when the array is
+languages allow arbitrary starting and ending indices—e.g., ‘15 ..
+27’—but the size of the array is still fixed when the array is
 declared.)
 
    A contiguous array of four elements might look like *note Figure 8.1:
 figure-array-elements, conceptually, if the element values are eight,
-'"foo"', '""', and 30.
+‘"foo"’, ‘""’, and 30.
 
 
 [image src="array-elements.png" alt="A Contiguous Array" 
text="+---------+---------+--------+---------+
@@ -11926,69 +11926,69 @@ Only the values are stored; the indices are implicit 
from the order of
 the values.  Here, eight is the value at index zero, because eight
 appears in the position with zero elements before it.
 
-   Arrays in 'awk' are different--they are "associative".  This means
-that each array is a collection of pairs--an index and its corresponding
+   Arrays in ‘awk’ are different—they are “associative”.  This means
+that each array is a collection of pairs—an index and its corresponding
 array element value:
 
         Index   Value
 ------------------------
-        '3'     '30'
-        '1'     '"foo"'
-        '0'     '8'
-        '2'     '""'
+        ‘3’     ‘30’
+        ‘1’     ‘"foo"’
+        ‘0’     ‘8’
+        ‘2’     ‘""’
 
 The pairs are shown in jumbled order because their order is
 irrelevant.(1)
 
    One advantage of associative arrays is that new pairs can be added at
 any time.  For example, suppose a tenth element is added to the array
-whose value is '"number ten"'.  The result is:
+whose value is ‘"number ten"’.  The result is:
 
         Index   Value
 -------------------------------
-        '10'    '"number
-                ten"'
-        '3'     '30'
-        '1'     '"foo"'
-        '0'     '8'
-        '2'     '""'
-
-Now the array is "sparse", which just means some indices are missing.
-It has elements 0-3 and 10, but doesn't have elements 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or
+        ‘10’    ‘"number
+                ten"’
+        ‘3’     ‘30’
+        ‘1’     ‘"foo"’
+        ‘0’     ‘8’
+        ‘2’     ‘""’
+
+Now the array is “sparse”, which just means some indices are missing.
+It has elements 0–3 and 10, but doesn’t have elements 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or
 9.
 
-   Another consequence of associative arrays is that the indices don't
+   Another consequence of associative arrays is that the indices don’t
 have to be nonnegative integers.  Any number, or even a string, can be
 an index.  For example, the following is an array that translates words
 from English to French:
 
         Index   Value
 ------------------------
-        '"dog"' '"chien"'
-        '"cat"' '"chat"'
-        '"one"' '"un"'
-        '1'     '"un"'
+        ‘"dog"’ ‘"chien"’
+        ‘"cat"’ ‘"chat"’
+        ‘"one"’ ‘"un"’
+        ‘1’     ‘"un"’
 
 Here we decided to translate the number one in both spelled-out and
-numeric form--thus illustrating that a single array can have both
-numbers and strings as indices.  (In fact, array subscripts are always
-strings.  There are some subtleties to how numbers work when used as
-array subscripts; this is discussed in more detail in *note Numeric
-Array Subscripts::.)  Here, the number '1' isn't double-quoted, because
-'awk' automatically converts it to a string.
-
-   The value of 'IGNORECASE' has no effect upon array subscripting.  The
+numeric form—thus illustrating that a single array can have both numbers
+and strings as indices.  (In fact, array subscripts are always strings.
+There are some subtleties to how numbers work when used as array
+subscripts; this is discussed in more detail in *note Numeric Array
+Subscripts::.)  Here, the number ‘1’ isn’t double-quoted, because 
‘awk’
+automatically converts it to a string.
+
+   The value of ‘IGNORECASE’ has no effect upon array subscripting.  The
 identical string value used to store an array element must be used to
-retrieve it.  When 'awk' creates an array (e.g., with the 'split()'
-built-in function), that array's indices are consecutive integers
+retrieve it.  When ‘awk’ creates an array (e.g., with the ‘split()’
+built-in function), that array’s indices are consecutive integers
 starting at one.  (*Note String Functions::.)
 
-   'awk''s arrays are efficient--the time to access an element is
+   ‘awk’’s arrays are efficient—the time to access an element is
 independent of the number of elements in the array.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The ordering will vary among 'awk' implementations, which
+   (1) The ordering will vary among ‘awk’ implementations, which
 typically use hash tables to store array elements and values.
 
 
@@ -11998,7 +11998,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Reference to Elements,  Next: 
Assigning Elements,  Prev:
 -----------------------------------
 
 The principal way to use an array is to refer to one of its elements.
-An "array reference" is an expression as follows:
+An “array reference” is an expression as follows:
 
      ARRAY[INDEX-EXPRESSION]
 
@@ -12006,27 +12006,27 @@ Here, ARRAY is the name of an array.  The expression 
INDEX-EXPRESSION is
 the index of the desired element of the array.
 
    The value of the array reference is the current value of that array
-element.  For example, 'foo[4.3]' is an expression referencing the
-element of array 'foo' at index '4.3'.
+element.  For example, ‘foo[4.3]’ is an expression referencing the
+element of array ‘foo’ at index ‘4.3’.
 
    A reference to an array element that has no recorded value yields a
-value of '""', the null string.  This includes elements that have not
+value of ‘""’, the null string.  This includes elements that have not
 been assigned any value as well as elements that have been deleted
 (*note Delete::).
 
      NOTE: A reference to an element that does not exist _automatically_
      creates that array element, with the null string as its value.  (In
      some cases, this is unfortunate, because it might waste memory
-     inside 'awk'.)
+     inside ‘awk’.)
 
-     Novice 'awk' programmers often make the mistake of checking if an
+     Novice ‘awk’ programmers often make the mistake of checking if an
      element exists by checking if the value is empty:
 
           # Check if "foo" exists in a:         Incorrect!
           if (a["foo"] != "") ...
 
-     This is incorrect for two reasons.  First, it _creates_ 'a["foo"]'
-     if it didn't exist before!  Second, it is valid (if a bit unusual)
+     This is incorrect for two reasons.  First, it _creates_ ‘a["foo"]’
+     if it didn’t exist before!  Second, it is valid (if a bit unusual)
      to set an array element equal to the empty string.
 
    To determine whether an element exists in an array at a certain
@@ -12036,18 +12036,18 @@ index, use the following expression:
 
 This expression tests whether the particular index INDX exists, without
 the side effect of creating that element if it is not present.  The
-expression has the value one (true) if 'ARRAY[INDX]' exists and zero
-(false) if it does not exist.  (We use INDX here, because 'index' is the
+expression has the value one (true) if ‘ARRAY[INDX]’ exists and zero
+(false) if it does not exist.  (We use INDX here, because ‘index’ is the
 name of a built-in function.)  For example, this statement tests whether
-the array 'frequencies' contains the index '2':
+the array ‘frequencies’ contains the index ‘2’:
 
      if (2 in frequencies)
          print "Subscript 2 is present."
 
-   Note that this is _not_ a test of whether the array 'frequencies'
+   Note that this is _not_ a test of whether the array ‘frequencies’
 contains an element whose _value_ is two.  There is no way to do that
 except to scan all the elements.  Also, this _does not_ create
-'frequencies[2]', while the following (incorrect) alternative does:
+‘frequencies[2]’, while the following (incorrect) alternative does:
 
      if (frequencies[2] != "")
          print "Subscript 2 is present."
@@ -12058,7 +12058,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Assigning Elements,  Next: 
Array Example,  Prev: Referen
 8.1.3 Assigning Array Elements
 ------------------------------
 
-Array elements can be assigned values just like 'awk' variables:
+Array elements can be assigned values just like ‘awk’ variables:
 
      ARRAY[INDEX-EXPRESSION] = VALUE
 
@@ -12074,11 +12074,11 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Array Example,  Next: 
Scanning an Array,  Prev: Assignin
 
 The following program takes a list of lines, each beginning with a line
 number, and prints them out in order of line number.  The line numbers
-are not in order when they are first read--instead, they are scrambled.
+are not in order when they are first read—instead, they are scrambled.
 This program sorts the lines by making an array using the line numbers
 as subscripts.  The program then prints out the lines in sorted order of
 their numbers.  It is a very simple program and gets confused upon
-encountering repeated numbers, gaps, or lines that don't begin with a
+encountering repeated numbers, gaps, or lines that don’t begin with a
 number:
 
      {
@@ -12093,8 +12093,8 @@ number:
      }
 
    The first rule keeps track of the largest line number seen so far; it
-also stores each line into the array 'arr', at an index that is the
-line's number.  The second rule runs after all the input has been read,
+also stores each line into the array ‘arr’, at an index that is the
+line’s number.  The second rule runs after all the input has been read,
 to print out all the lines.  When this program is run with the following
 input:
 
@@ -12114,7 +12114,7 @@ Its output is:
 
    If a line number is repeated, the last line with a given number
 overrides the others.  Gaps in the line numbers can be handled with an
-easy improvement to the program's 'END' rule, as follows:
+easy improvement to the program’s ‘END’ rule, as follows:
 
      END {
          for (x = 1; x <= max; x++)
@@ -12136,9 +12136,9 @@ In programs that use arrays, it is often necessary to 
use a loop that
 executes once for each element of an array.  In other languages, where
 arrays are contiguous and indices are limited to nonnegative integers,
 this is easy: all the valid indices can be found by counting from the
-lowest index up to the highest.  This technique won't do the job in
-'awk', because any number or string can be an array index.  So 'awk' has
-a special kind of 'for' statement for scanning an array:
+lowest index up to the highest.  This technique won’t do the job in
+‘awk’, because any number or string can be an array index.  So ‘awk’ 
has
+a special kind of ‘for’ statement for scanning an array:
 
      for (VAR in ARRAY)
          BODY
@@ -12146,14 +12146,14 @@ a special kind of 'for' statement for scanning an 
array:
 This loop executes BODY once for each index in ARRAY that the program
 has previously used, with the variable VAR set to that index.
 
-   The following program uses this form of the 'for' statement.  The
+   The following program uses this form of the ‘for’ statement.  The
 first rule scans the input records and notes which words appear (at
-least once) in the input, by storing a one into the array 'used' with
-the word as the index.  The second rule scans the elements of 'used' to
+least once) in the input, by storing a one into the array ‘used’ with
+the word as the index.  The second rule scans the elements of ‘used’ to
 find all the distinct words that appear in the input.  It prints each
 word that is more than 10 characters long and also prints the number of
 such words.  *Note String Functions:: for more information on the
-built-in function 'length()'.
+built-in function ‘length()’.
 
      # Record a 1 for each word that is used at least once
      {
@@ -12176,15 +12176,15 @@ built-in function 'length()'.
 
    The order in which elements of the array are accessed by this
 statement is determined by the internal arrangement of the array
-elements within 'awk' and in standard 'awk' cannot be controlled or
+elements within ‘awk’ and in standard ‘awk’ cannot be controlled or
 changed.  This can lead to problems if new elements are added to ARRAY
-by statements in the loop body; it is not predictable whether the 'for'
+by statements in the loop body; it is not predictable whether the ‘for’
 loop will reach them.  Similarly, changing VAR inside the loop may
 produce strange results.  It is best to avoid such things.
 
-   As a point of information, 'gawk' sets up the list of elements to be
+   As a point of information, ‘gawk’ sets up the list of elements to be
 iterated over before the loop starts, and does not change it.  But not
-all 'awk' versions do so.  Consider this program, named 'loopcheck.awk':
+all ‘awk’ versions do so.  Consider this program, named 
‘loopcheck.awk’:
 
      BEGIN {
          a["here"] = "here"
@@ -12198,127 +12198,127 @@ all 'awk' versions do so.  Consider this program, 
named 'loopcheck.awk':
          }
      }
 
-   Here is what happens when run with 'gawk' (and 'mawk'):
+   Here is what happens when run with ‘gawk’ (and ‘mawk’):
 
      $ gawk -f loopcheck.awk
-     -| here
-     -| loop
-     -| a
-     -| is
+     ⊣ here
+     ⊣ loop
+     ⊣ a
+     ⊣ is
 
-   Contrast this to BWK 'awk':
+   Contrast this to BWK ‘awk’:
 
      $ nawk -f loopcheck.awk
-     -| loop
-     -| here
-     -| is
-     -| a
-     -| 1
+     ⊣ loop
+     ⊣ here
+     ⊣ is
+     ⊣ a
+     ⊣ 1
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Controlling Scanning,  Prev: Scanning an Array,  Up: 
Array Basics
 
-8.1.6 Using Predefined Array Scanning Orders with 'gawk'
+8.1.6 Using Predefined Array Scanning Orders with ‘gawk’
 --------------------------------------------------------
 
-This node describes a feature that is specific to 'gawk'.
+This node describes a feature that is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
-   By default, when a 'for' loop traverses an array, the order is
-undefined, meaning that the 'awk' implementation determines the order in
+   By default, when a ‘for’ loop traverses an array, the order is
+undefined, meaning that the ‘awk’ implementation determines the order in
 which the array is traversed.  This order is usually based on the
 internal implementation of arrays and will vary from one version of
-'awk' to the next.
+‘awk’ to the next.
 
-   Often, though, you may wish to do something simple, such as "traverse
-the array by comparing the indices in ascending order," or "traverse the
-array by comparing the values in descending order."  'gawk' provides two
+   Often, though, you may wish to do something simple, such as “traverse
+the array by comparing the indices in ascending order,” or “traverse the
+array by comparing the values in descending order.” ‘gawk’ provides two
 mechanisms that give you this control:
 
-   * Set 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' to one of a set of predefined values.
+   • Set ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ to one of a set of predefined values.
      We describe this now.
 
-   * Set 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' to the name of a user-defined function
+   • Set ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ to the name of a user-defined function
      to use for comparison of array elements.  This advanced feature is
      described later in *note Array Sorting::.
 
-   The following special values for 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' are
+   The following special values for ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ are
 available:
 
-'"@unsorted"'
+‘"@unsorted"’
      Array elements are processed in arbitrary order, which is the
-     default 'awk' behavior.
+     default ‘awk’ behavior.
 
-'"@ind_str_asc"'
+‘"@ind_str_asc"’
      Order by indices in ascending order compared as strings; this is
      the most basic sort.  (Internally, array indices are always
-     strings, so with 'a[2*5] = 1' the index is '"10"' rather than
+     strings, so with ‘a[2*5] = 1’ the index is ‘"10"’ rather than
      numeric 10.)
 
-'"@ind_num_asc"'
+‘"@ind_num_asc"’
      Order by indices in ascending order but force them to be treated as
      numbers in the process.  Any index with a non-numeric value will
      end up positioned as if it were zero.
 
-'"@val_type_asc"'
+‘"@val_type_asc"’
      Order by element values in ascending order (rather than by
      indices).  Ordering is by the type assigned to the element (*note
      Typing and Comparison::).  All numeric values come before all
      string values, which in turn come before all subarrays.  (Subarrays
      have not been described yet; *note Arrays of Arrays::.)
 
-     If you choose to use this feature in traversing 'FUNCTAB' (*note
+     If you choose to use this feature in traversing ‘FUNCTAB’ (*note
      Auto-set::), then the order is built-in functions first (*note
      Built-in::), then user-defined functions (*note User-defined::)
      next, and finally functions loaded from an extension (*note Dynamic
      Extensions::).
 
-'"@val_str_asc"'
+‘"@val_str_asc"’
      Order by element values in ascending order (rather than by
      indices).  Scalar values are compared as strings.  If the string
      values are identical, the index string values are compared instead.
-     When comparing non-scalar values, '"@val_type_asc"' sort ordering
+     When comparing non-scalar values, ‘"@val_type_asc"’ sort ordering
      is used, so subarrays, if present, come out last.
 
-'"@val_num_asc"'
+‘"@val_num_asc"’
      Order by element values in ascending order (rather than by
      indices).  Scalar values are compared as numbers.  Non-scalar
-     values are compared using '"@val_type_asc"' sort ordering, so
+     values are compared using ‘"@val_type_asc"’ sort ordering, so
      subarrays, if present, come out last.  When numeric values are
      equal, the string values are used to provide an ordering: this
      guarantees consistent results across different versions of the C
-     'qsort()' function,(1) which 'gawk' uses internally to perform the
+     ‘qsort()’ function,(1) which ‘gawk’ uses internally to perform the
      sorting.  If the string values are also identical, the index string
      values are compared instead.
 
-'"@ind_str_desc"'
-     Like '"@ind_str_asc"', but the string indices are ordered from high
+‘"@ind_str_desc"’
+     Like ‘"@ind_str_asc"’, but the string indices are ordered from high
      to low.
 
-'"@ind_num_desc"'
-     Like '"@ind_num_asc"', but the numeric indices are ordered from
+‘"@ind_num_desc"’
+     Like ‘"@ind_num_asc"’, but the numeric indices are ordered from
      high to low.
 
-'"@val_type_desc"'
-     Like '"@val_type_asc"', but the element values, based on type, are
+‘"@val_type_desc"’
+     Like ‘"@val_type_asc"’, but the element values, based on type, are
      ordered from high to low.  Subarrays, if present, come out first.
 
-'"@val_str_desc"'
-     Like '"@val_str_asc"', but the element values, treated as strings,
+‘"@val_str_desc"’
+     Like ‘"@val_str_asc"’, but the element values, treated as strings,
      are ordered from high to low.  If the string values are identical,
      the index string values are compared instead.  When comparing
-     non-scalar values, '"@val_type_desc"' sort ordering is used, so
+     non-scalar values, ‘"@val_type_desc"’ sort ordering is used, so
      subarrays, if present, come out first.
 
-'"@val_num_desc"'
-     Like '"@val_num_asc"', but the element values, treated as numbers,
+‘"@val_num_desc"’
+     Like ‘"@val_num_asc"’, but the element values, treated as numbers,
      are ordered from high to low.  If the numeric values are equal, the
      string values are compared instead.  If they are also identical,
      the index string values are compared instead.  Non-scalar values
-     are compared using '"@val_type_desc"' sort ordering, so subarrays,
+     are compared using ‘"@val_type_desc"’ sort ordering, so subarrays,
      if present, come out first.
 
-   The array traversal order is determined before the 'for' loop starts
-to run.  Changing 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' in the loop body does not
+   The array traversal order is determined before the ‘for’ loop starts
+to run.  Changing ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ in the loop body does not
 affect the loop.  For example:
 
      $ gawk '
@@ -12328,8 +12328,8 @@ affect the loop.  For example:
      >    for (i in a)
      >        print i, a[i]
      > }'
-     -| 4 4
-     -| 3 3
+     ⊣ 4 4
+     ⊣ 3 3
      $ gawk '
      > BEGIN {
      >    PROCINFO["sorted_in"] = "@ind_str_asc"
@@ -12338,8 +12338,8 @@ affect the loop.  For example:
      >    for (i in a)
      >        print i, a[i]
      > }'
-     -| 3 3
-     -| 4 4
+     ⊣ 3 3
+     ⊣ 4 4
 
    When sorting an array by element values, if a value happens to be a
 subarray then it is considered to be greater than any string or numeric
@@ -12350,9 +12350,9 @@ relative to each other is determined by their index 
strings.
    Here are some additional things to bear in mind about sorted array
 traversal:
 
-   * The value of 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' is global.  That is, it
-     affects all array traversal 'for' loops.  If you need to change it
-     within your own code, you should see if it's defined and save and
+   • The value of ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ is global.  That is, it
+     affects all array traversal ‘for’ loops.  If you need to change it
+     within your own code, you should see if it’s defined and save and
      restore the value:
 
           ...
@@ -12364,22 +12364,22 @@ traversal:
           if (save_sorted)
               PROCINFO["sorted_in"] = save_sorted
 
-   * As already mentioned, the default array traversal order is
-     represented by '"@unsorted"'.  You can also get the default
-     behavior by assigning the null string to 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]' or
-     by just deleting the '"sorted_in"' element from the 'PROCINFO'
-     array with the 'delete' statement.  (The 'delete' statement hasn't
+   • As already mentioned, the default array traversal order is
+     represented by ‘"@unsorted"’.  You can also get the default
+     behavior by assigning the null string to ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’ or
+     by just deleting the ‘"sorted_in"’ element from the ‘PROCINFO’
+     array with the ‘delete’ statement.  (The ‘delete’ statement 
hasn’t
      been described yet; *note Delete::.)
 
-   In addition, 'gawk' provides built-in functions for sorting arrays;
+   In addition, ‘gawk’ provides built-in functions for sorting arrays;
 see *note Array Sorting Functions::.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) When two elements compare as equal, the C 'qsort()' function does
+   (1) When two elements compare as equal, the C ‘qsort()’ function does
 not guarantee that they will maintain their original relative order
 after sorting.  Using the string value to provide a unique ordering when
-the numeric values are equal ensures that 'gawk' behaves consistently
+the numeric values are equal ensures that ‘gawk’ behaves consistently
 across different environments.
 
 
@@ -12392,7 +12392,7 @@ An important aspect to remember about arrays is that 
_array subscripts
 are always strings_.  When a numeric value is used as a subscript, it is
 converted to a string value before being used for subscripting (*note
 Conversion::).  This means that the value of the predefined variable
-'CONVFMT' can affect how your program accesses elements of an array.
+‘CONVFMT’ can affect how your program accesses elements of an array.
 For example:
 
      xyz = 12.153
@@ -12403,32 +12403,32 @@ For example:
      else
          printf "%s is not in data\n", xyz
 
-This prints '12.15 is not in data'.  The first statement gives 'xyz' a
-numeric value.  Assigning to 'data[xyz]' subscripts 'data' with the
-string value '"12.153"' (using the default conversion value of
-'CONVFMT', '"%.6g"').  Thus, the array element 'data["12.153"]' is
+This prints ‘12.15 is not in data’.  The first statement gives ‘xyz’ a
+numeric value.  Assigning to ‘data[xyz]’ subscripts ‘data’ with the
+string value ‘"12.153"’ (using the default conversion value of
+‘CONVFMT’, ‘"%.6g"’).  Thus, the array element ‘data["12.153"]’ is
 assigned the value one.  The program then changes the value of
-'CONVFMT'.  The test '(xyz in data)' generates a new string value from
-'xyz'--this time '"12.15"'--because the value of 'CONVFMT' only allows
-two significant digits.  This test fails, because '"12.15"' is different
-from '"12.153"'.
+‘CONVFMT’.  The test ‘(xyz in data)’ generates a new string value from
+‘xyz’—this time ‘"12.15"’—because the value of ‘CONVFMT’ only 
allows two
+significant digits.  This test fails, because ‘"12.15"’ is different
+from ‘"12.153"’.
 
    According to the rules for conversions (*note Conversion::), integer
 values always convert to strings as integers, no matter what the value
-of 'CONVFMT' may happen to be.  So the usual case of the following
+of ‘CONVFMT’ may happen to be.  So the usual case of the following
 works:
 
      for (i = 1; i <= maxsub; i++)
          do something with array[i]
 
-   The "integer values always convert to strings as integers" rule has
+   The “integer values always convert to strings as integers” rule has
 an additional consequence for array indexing.  Octal and hexadecimal
 constants (*note Nondecimal-numbers::) are converted internally into
 numbers, and their original form is forgotten.  This means, for example,
-that 'array[17]', 'array[021]', and 'array[0x11]' all refer to the same
+that ‘array[17]’, ‘array[021]’, and ‘array[0x11]’ all refer to the 
same
 element!
 
-   As with many things in 'awk', the majority of the time things work as
+   As with many things in ‘awk’, the majority of the time things work as
 you would expect them to.  But it is useful to have a precise knowledge
 of the actual rules, as they can sometimes have a subtle effect on your
 programs.
@@ -12439,7 +12439,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Uninitialized Subscripts,  
Next: Delete,  Prev: Numeric
 8.3 Using Uninitialized Variables as Subscripts
 ===============================================
 
-Suppose it's necessary to write a program to print the input data in
+Suppose it’s necessary to write a program to print the input data in
 reverse order.  A reasonable attempt to do so (with some test data)
 might look like this:
 
@@ -12450,20 +12450,20 @@ might look like this:
      >     for (i = lines - 1; i >= 0; i--)
      >        print l[i]
      > }'
-     -| line 3
-     -| line 2
+     ⊣ line 3
+     ⊣ line 2
 
    Unfortunately, the very first line of input data did not appear in
 the output!
 
    Upon first glance, we would think that this program should have
-worked.  The variable 'lines' is uninitialized, and uninitialized
-variables have the numeric value zero.  So, 'awk' should have printed
-the value of 'l[0]'.
+worked.  The variable ‘lines’ is uninitialized, and uninitialized
+variables have the numeric value zero.  So, ‘awk’ should have printed
+the value of ‘l[0]’.
 
-   The issue here is that subscripts for 'awk' arrays are _always_
+   The issue here is that subscripts for ‘awk’ arrays are _always_
 strings.  Uninitialized variables, when used as strings, have the value
-'""', not zero.  Thus, 'line 1' ends up stored in 'l[""]'.  The
+‘""’, not zero.  Thus, ‘line 1’ ends up stored in ‘l[""]’.  The
 following version of the program works correctly:
 
      { l[lines++] = $0 }
@@ -12472,22 +12472,22 @@ following version of the program works correctly:
             print l[i]
      }
 
-   Here, the '++' forces 'lines' to be numeric, thus making the "old
-value" numeric zero.  This is then converted to '"0"' as the array
+   Here, the ‘++’ forces ‘lines’ to be numeric, thus making the “old
+value” numeric zero.  This is then converted to ‘"0"’ as the array
 subscript.
 
-   Even though it is somewhat unusual, the null string ('""') is a valid
-array subscript.  (d.c.)  'gawk' warns about the use of the null string
-as a subscript if '--lint' is provided on the command line (*note
+   Even though it is somewhat unusual, the null string (‘""’) is a valid
+array subscript.  (d.c.)  ‘gawk’ warns about the use of the null string
+as a subscript if ‘--lint’ is provided on the command line (*note
 Options::).
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Delete,  Next: Multidimensional,  Prev: Uninitialized 
Subscripts,  Up: Arrays
 
-8.4 The 'delete' Statement
+8.4 The ‘delete’ Statement
 ==========================
 
-To remove an individual element of an array, use the 'delete' statement:
+To remove an individual element of an array, use the ‘delete’ statement:
 
      delete ARRAY[INDEX-EXPRESSION]
 
@@ -12499,9 +12499,9 @@ deleting elements in an array:
      for (i in frequencies)
          delete frequencies[i]
 
-This example removes all the elements from the array 'frequencies'.
-Once an element is deleted, a subsequent 'for' statement to scan the
-array does not report that element and using the 'in' operator to check
+This example removes all the elements from the array ‘frequencies’.
+Once an element is deleted, a subsequent ‘for’ statement to scan the
+array does not report that element and using the ‘in’ operator to check
 for the presence of that element returns zero (i.e., false):
 
      delete foo[4]
@@ -12509,30 +12509,30 @@ for the presence of that element returns zero (i.e., 
false):
          print "This will never be printed"
 
    It is important to note that deleting an element is _not_ the same as
-assigning it a null value (the empty string, '""').  For example:
+assigning it a null value (the empty string, ‘""’).  For example:
 
      foo[4] = ""
      if (4 in foo)
        print "This is printed, even though foo[4] is empty"
 
    It is not an error to delete an element that does not exist.
-However, if '--lint' is provided on the command line (*note Options::),
-'gawk' issues a warning message when an element that is not in the array
+However, if ‘--lint’ is provided on the command line (*note Options::),
+‘gawk’ issues a warning message when an element that is not in the array
 is deleted.
 
    All the elements of an array may be deleted with a single statement
-by leaving off the subscript in the 'delete' statement, as follows:
+by leaving off the subscript in the ‘delete’ statement, as follows:
 
      delete ARRAY
 
-   Using this version of the 'delete' statement is about three times
+   Using this version of the ‘delete’ statement is about three times
 more efficient than the equivalent loop that deletes each element one at
 a time.
 
-   This form of the 'delete' statement is also supported by BWK 'awk'
-and 'mawk', as well as by a number of other implementations.
+   This form of the ‘delete’ statement is also supported by BWK ‘awk’
+and ‘mawk’, as well as by a number of other implementations.
 
-     NOTE: For many years, using 'delete' without a subscript was a
+     NOTE: For many years, using ‘delete’ without a subscript was a
      common extension.  In September 2012, it was accepted for inclusion
      into the POSIX standard.  See the Austin Group website
      (http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=544).
@@ -12542,13 +12542,13 @@ clear out an array:(1)
 
      split("", array)
 
-   The 'split()' function (*note String Functions::) clears out the
+   The ‘split()’ function (*note String Functions::) clears out the
 target array first.  This call asks it to split apart the null string.
 Because there is no data to split out, the function simply clears the
 array and then returns.
 
      CAUTION: Deleting all the elements from an array does not change
-     its type; you cannot clear an array and then use the array's name
+     its type; you cannot clear an array and then use the array’s name
      as a scalar (i.e., a regular variable).  For example, the following
      does not work:
 
@@ -12570,39 +12570,39 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Multidimensional,  Next: 
Arrays of Arrays,  Prev: Delete
 
 * Multiscanning::               Scanning multidimensional arrays.
 
-A "multidimensional array" is an array in which an element is identified
+A “multidimensional array” is an array in which an element is identified
 by a sequence of indices instead of a single index.  For example, a
 two-dimensional array requires two indices.  The usual way (in many
-languages, including 'awk') to refer to an element of a two-dimensional
-array named 'grid' is with 'grid[X,Y]'.
+languages, including ‘awk’) to refer to an element of a two-dimensional
+array named ‘grid’ is with ‘grid[X,Y]’.
 
-   Multidimensional arrays are supported in 'awk' through concatenation
-of indices into one string.  'awk' converts the indices into strings
+   Multidimensional arrays are supported in ‘awk’ through concatenation
+of indices into one string.  ‘awk’ converts the indices into strings
 (*note Conversion::) and concatenates them together, with a separator
 between them.  This creates a single string that describes the values of
 the separate indices.  The combined string is used as a single index
 into an ordinary, one-dimensional array.  The separator used is the
-value of the built-in variable 'SUBSEP'.
+value of the built-in variable ‘SUBSEP’.
 
-   For example, suppose we evaluate the expression 'foo[5,12] = "value"'
-when the value of 'SUBSEP' is '"@"'.  The numbers 5 and 12 are converted
-to strings and concatenated with an '@' between them, yielding '"5@12"';
-thus, the array element 'foo["5@12"]' is set to '"value"'.
+   For example, suppose we evaluate the expression ‘foo[5,12] = "value"’
+when the value of ‘SUBSEP’ is ‘"@"’.  The numbers 5 and 12 are 
converted
+to strings and concatenated with an ‘@’ between them, yielding 
‘"5@12"’;
+thus, the array element ‘foo["5@12"]’ is set to ‘"value"’.
 
-   Once the element's value is stored, 'awk' has no record of whether it
+   Once the element’s value is stored, ‘awk’ has no record of whether it
 was stored with a single index or a sequence of indices.  The two
-expressions 'foo[5,12]' and 'foo[5 SUBSEP 12]' are always equivalent.
+expressions ‘foo[5,12]’ and ‘foo[5 SUBSEP 12]’ are always equivalent.
 
-   The default value of 'SUBSEP' is the string '"\034"', which contains
-a nonprinting character that is unlikely to appear in an 'awk' program
+   The default value of ‘SUBSEP’ is the string ‘"\034"’, which contains
+a nonprinting character that is unlikely to appear in an ‘awk’ program
 or in most input data.  The usefulness of choosing an unlikely character
 comes from the fact that index values that contain a string matching
-'SUBSEP' can lead to combined strings that are ambiguous.  Suppose that
-'SUBSEP' is '"@"'; then 'foo["a@b", "c"]' and 'foo["a", "b@c"]' are
-indistinguishable because both are actually stored as 'foo["a@b@c"]'.
+‘SUBSEP’ can lead to combined strings that are ambiguous.  Suppose that
+‘SUBSEP’ is ‘"@"’; then ‘foo["a@b", "c"]’ and ‘foo["a", 
"b@c"]’ are
+indistinguishable because both are actually stored as ‘foo["a@b@c"]’.
 
    To test whether a particular index sequence exists in a
-multidimensional array, use the same operator ('in') that is used for
+multidimensional array, use the same operator (‘in’) that is used for
 single-dimensional arrays.  Write the whole sequence of indices in
 parentheses, separated by commas, as the left operand:
 
@@ -12651,15 +12651,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Multiscanning,  Up: 
Multidimensional
 8.5.1 Scanning Multidimensional Arrays
 --------------------------------------
 
-There is no special 'for' statement for scanning a "multidimensional"
-array.  There cannot be one, because, in truth, 'awk' does not have
-multidimensional arrays or elements--there is only a multidimensional
+There is no special ‘for’ statement for scanning a “multidimensional”
+array.  There cannot be one, because, in truth, ‘awk’ does not have
+multidimensional arrays or elements—there is only a multidimensional
 _way of accessing_ an array.
 
    However, if your program has an array that is always accessed as
 multidimensional, you can get the effect of scanning it by combining the
-scanning 'for' statement (*note Scanning an Array::) with the built-in
-'split()' function (*note String Functions::).  It works in the
+scanning ‘for’ statement (*note Scanning an Array::) with the built-in
+‘split()’ function (*note String Functions::).  It works in the
 following manner:
 
      for (combined in array) {
@@ -12667,22 +12667,22 @@ following manner:
          ...
      }
 
-This sets the variable 'combined' to each concatenated combined index in
+This sets the variable ‘combined’ to each concatenated combined index in
 the array, and splits it into the individual indices by breaking it
-apart where the value of 'SUBSEP' appears.  The individual indices then
-become the elements of the array 'separate'.
-
-   Thus, if a value is previously stored in 'array[1, "foo"]', then an
-element with index '"1\034foo"' exists in 'array'.  (Recall that the
-default value of 'SUBSEP' is the character with code 034.)  Sooner or
-later, the 'for' statement finds that index and does an iteration with
-the variable 'combined' set to '"1\034foo"'.  Then the 'split()'
+apart where the value of ‘SUBSEP’ appears.  The individual indices then
+become the elements of the array ‘separate’.
+
+   Thus, if a value is previously stored in ‘array[1, "foo"]’, then an
+element with index ‘"1\034foo"’ exists in ‘array’.  (Recall that the
+default value of ‘SUBSEP’ is the character with code 034.)  Sooner or
+later, the ‘for’ statement finds that index and does an iteration with
+the variable ‘combined’ set to ‘"1\034foo"’.  Then the ‘split()’
 function is called as follows:
 
      split("1\034foo", separate, "\034")
 
-The result is to set 'separate[1]' to '"1"' and 'separate[2]' to
-'"foo"'.  Presto!  The original sequence of separate indices is
+The result is to set ‘separate[1]’ to ‘"1"’ and ‘separate[2]’ to
+‘"foo"’.  Presto!  The original sequence of separate indices is
 recovered.
 
 
@@ -12691,11 +12691,11 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Arrays of Arrays,  Next: 
Arrays Summary,  Prev: Multidim
 8.6 Arrays of Arrays
 ====================
 
-'gawk' goes beyond standard 'awk''s multidimensional array access and
+‘gawk’ goes beyond standard ‘awk’’s multidimensional array access and
 provides true arrays of arrays.  Elements of a subarray are referred to
 by their own indices enclosed in square brackets, just like the elements
 of the main array.  For example, the following creates a two-element
-subarray at index '1' of the main array 'a':
+subarray at index ‘1’ of the main array ‘a’:
 
      a[1][1] = 1
      a[1][2] = 2
@@ -12703,9 +12703,9 @@ subarray at index '1' of the main array 'a':
    This simulates a true two-dimensional array.  Each subarray element
 can contain another subarray as a value, which in turn can hold other
 arrays as well.  In this way, you can create arrays of three or more
-dimensions.  The indices can be any 'awk' expressions, including scalars
-separated by commas (i.e., a regular 'awk' simulated multidimensional
-subscript).  So the following is valid in 'gawk':
+dimensions.  The indices can be any ‘awk’ expressions, including scalars
+separated by commas (i.e., a regular ‘awk’ simulated multidimensional
+subscript).  So the following is valid in ‘gawk’:
 
      a[1][3][1, "name"] = "barney"
 
@@ -12713,49 +12713,49 @@ subscript).  So the following is valid in 'gawk':
 fact, the elements of an array or its subarray do not all have to have
 the same type.  This means that the main array and any of its subarrays
 can be nonrectangular, or jagged in structure.  You can assign a scalar
-value to the index '4' of the main array 'a', even though 'a[1]' is
+value to the index ‘4’ of the main array ‘a’, even though ‘a[1]’ is
 itself an array and not a scalar:
 
      a[4] = "An element in a jagged array"
 
-   The terms "dimension", "row", and "column" are meaningless when
-applied to such an array, but we will use "dimension" henceforth to
+   The terms “dimension”, “row”, and “column” are meaningless when
+applied to such an array, but we will use “dimension” henceforth to
 imply the maximum number of indices needed to refer to an existing
 element.  The type of any element that has already been assigned cannot
 be changed by assigning a value of a different type.  You have to first
-delete the current element, which effectively makes 'gawk' forget about
+delete the current element, which effectively makes ‘gawk’ forget about
 the element at that index:
 
      delete a[4]
      a[4][5][6][7] = "An element in a four-dimensional array"
 
-This removes the scalar value from index '4' and then inserts a
+This removes the scalar value from index ‘4’ and then inserts a
 three-level nested subarray containing a scalar.  You can also delete an
 entire subarray or subarray of subarrays:
 
      delete a[4][5]
      a[4][5] = "An element in subarray a[4]"
 
-   But recall that you can not delete the main array 'a' and then use it
+   But recall that you can not delete the main array ‘a’ and then use it
 as a scalar.
 
    The built-in functions that take array arguments can also be used
 with subarrays.  For example, the following code fragment uses
-'length()' (*note String Functions::) to determine the number of
-elements in the main array 'a' and its subarrays:
+‘length()’ (*note String Functions::) to determine the number of
+elements in the main array ‘a’ and its subarrays:
 
      print length(a), length(a[1]), length(a[1][3])
 
-This results in the following output for our main array 'a':
+This results in the following output for our main array ‘a’:
 
      2, 3, 1
 
-The 'SUBSCRIPT in ARRAY' expression (*note Reference to Elements::)
-works similarly for both regular 'awk'-style arrays and arrays of
-arrays.  For example, the tests '1 in a', '3 in a[1]', and '(1, "name")
-in a[1][3]' all evaluate to one (true) for our array 'a'.
+The ‘SUBSCRIPT in ARRAY’ expression (*note Reference to Elements::)
+works similarly for both regular ‘awk’-style arrays and arrays of
+arrays.  For example, the tests ‘1 in a’, ‘3 in a[1]’, and ‘(1, 
"name")
+in a[1][3]’ all evaluate to one (true) for our array ‘a’.
 
-   The 'for (item in array)' statement (*note Scanning an Array::) can
+   The ‘for (item in array)’ statement (*note Scanning an Array::) can
 be nested to scan all the elements of an array of arrays if it is
 rectangular in structure.  In order to print the contents (scalar
 values) of a two-dimensional array of arrays (i.e., in which each
@@ -12766,7 +12766,7 @@ length), you could use the following code:
          for (j in array[i])
              print array[i][j]
 
-   The 'isarray()' function (*note Type Functions::) lets you test if an
+   The ‘isarray()’ function (*note Type Functions::) lets you test if an
 array element is itself an array:
 
      for (i in array) {
@@ -12781,7 +12781,7 @@ array element is itself an array:
 
    If the structure of a jagged array of arrays is known in advance, you
 can often devise workarounds using control statements.  For example, the
-following code prints the elements of our main array 'a':
+following code prints the elements of our main array ‘a’:
 
      for (i in a) {
          for (j in a[i]) {
@@ -12793,22 +12793,22 @@ following code prints the elements of our main array 
'a':
          }
      }
 
-*Note Walking Arrays:: for a user-defined function that "walks" an
+*Note Walking Arrays:: for a user-defined function that “walks” an
 arbitrarily dimensioned array of arrays.
 
    Recall that a reference to an uninitialized array element yields a
-value of '""', the null string.  This has one important implication when
+value of ‘""’, the null string.  This has one important implication when
 you intend to use a subarray as an argument to a function, as
 illustrated by the following example:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { split("a b c d", b[1]); print b[1][1] }'
-     error-> gawk: cmd. line:1: fatal: split: second argument is not an array
+     error→ gawk: cmd. line:1: fatal: split: second argument is not an array
 
-   The way to work around this is to first force 'b[1]' to be an array
+   The way to work around this is to first force ‘b[1]’ to be an array
 by creating an arbitrary index:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { b[1][1] = ""; split("a b c d", b[1]); print b[1][1] }'
-     -| a
+     ⊣ a
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Arrays Summary,  Prev: Arrays of Arrays,  Up: Arrays
@@ -12816,45 +12816,45 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Arrays Summary,  Prev: Arrays 
of Arrays,  Up: Arrays
 8.7 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * Standard 'awk' provides one-dimensional associative arrays (arrays
+   • Standard ‘awk’ provides one-dimensional associative arrays (arrays
      indexed by string values).  All arrays are associative; numeric
      indices are converted automatically to strings.
 
-   * Array elements are referenced as 'ARRAY[INDX]'.  Referencing an
+   • Array elements are referenced as ‘ARRAY[INDX]’.  Referencing an
      element creates it if it did not exist previously.
 
-   * The proper way to see if an array has an element with a given index
-     is to use the 'in' operator: 'INDX in ARRAY'.
+   • The proper way to see if an array has an element with a given index
+     is to use the ‘in’ operator: ‘INDX in ARRAY’.
 
-   * Use 'for (INDX in ARRAY) ...' to scan through all the individual
+   • Use ‘for (INDX in ARRAY) ...’ to scan through all the individual
      elements of an array.  In the body of the loop, INDX takes on the
-     value of each element's index in turn.
+     value of each element’s index in turn.
 
-   * The order in which a 'for (INDX in ARRAY)' loop traverses an array
-     is undefined in POSIX 'awk' and varies among implementations.
-     'gawk' lets you control the order by assigning special predefined
-     values to 'PROCINFO["sorted_in"]'.
+   • The order in which a ‘for (INDX in ARRAY)’ loop traverses an array
+     is undefined in POSIX ‘awk’ and varies among implementations.
+     ‘gawk’ lets you control the order by assigning special predefined
+     values to ‘PROCINFO["sorted_in"]’.
 
-   * Use 'delete ARRAY[INDX]' to delete an individual element.  To
-     delete all of the elements in an array, use 'delete ARRAY'.  This
+   • Use ‘delete ARRAY[INDX]’ to delete an individual element.  To
+     delete all of the elements in an array, use ‘delete ARRAY’.  This
      latter feature has been a common extension for many years and is
      now standard, but may not be supported by all commercial versions
-     of 'awk'.
+     of ‘awk’.
 
-   * Standard 'awk' simulates multidimensional arrays by separating
+   • Standard ‘awk’ simulates multidimensional arrays by separating
      subscript values with commas.  The values are concatenated into a
-     single string, separated by the value of 'SUBSEP'.  The fact that
+     single string, separated by the value of ‘SUBSEP’.  The fact that
      such a subscript was created in this way is not retained; thus,
-     changing 'SUBSEP' may have unexpected consequences.  You can use
-     '(SUB1, SUB2, ...) in ARRAY' to see if such a multidimensional
+     changing ‘SUBSEP’ may have unexpected consequences.  You can use
+     ‘(SUB1, SUB2, ...) in ARRAY’ to see if such a multidimensional
      subscript exists in ARRAY.
 
-   * 'gawk' provides true arrays of arrays.  You use a separate set of
+   • ‘gawk’ provides true arrays of arrays.  You use a separate set of
      square brackets for each dimension in such an array:
-     'data[row][col]', for example.  Array elements may thus be either
+     ‘data[row][col]’, for example.  Array elements may thus be either
      scalar values (number or string) or other arrays.
 
-   * Use the 'isarray()' built-in function to determine if an array
+   • Use the ‘isarray()’ built-in function to determine if an array
      element is itself a subarray.
 
 
@@ -12863,16 +12863,16 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Functions,  Next: Library 
Functions,  Prev: Arrays,  Up:
 9 Functions
 ***********
 
-This major node describes 'awk''s built-in functions, which fall into
-three categories: numeric, string, and I/O. 'gawk' provides additional
+This major node describes ‘awk’’s built-in functions, which fall into
+three categories: numeric, string, and I/O. ‘gawk’ provides additional
 groups of functions to work with values that represent time, do bit
 manipulation, sort arrays, provide type information, and
 internationalize and localize programs.
 
-   Besides the built-in functions, 'awk' has provisions for writing new
+   Besides the built-in functions, ‘awk’ has provisions for writing new
 functions that the rest of a program can use.  The second half of this
-major node describes these "user-defined" functions.  Finally, we
-explore indirect function calls, a 'gawk'-specific extension that lets
+major node describes these “user-defined” functions.  Finally, we
+explore indirect function calls, a ‘gawk’-specific extension that lets
 you determine at runtime what function is to be called.
 
 * Menu:
@@ -12888,8 +12888,8 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Built-in,  Next: User-defined,  
Up: Functions
 9.1 Built-in Functions
 ======================
 
-"Built-in" functions are always available for your 'awk' program to
-call.  This minor node defines all the built-in functions in 'awk'; some
+“Built-in” functions are always available for your ‘awk’ program to
+call.  This minor node defines all the built-in functions in ‘awk’; some
 of these are mentioned in other minor nodes but are summarized here for
 your convenience.
 
@@ -12898,10 +12898,10 @@ your convenience.
 * Calling Built-in::            How to call built-in functions.
 * Boolean Functions::           A function that returns Boolean values.
 * Numeric Functions::           Functions that work with numbers, including
-                                'int()', 'sin()' and 'rand()'.
+                                ‘int()’, ‘sin()’ and ‘rand()’.
 * String Functions::            Functions for string manipulation, such as
-                                'split()', 'match()' and
-                                'sprintf()'.
+                                ‘split()’, ‘match()’ and
+                                ‘sprintf()’.
 * I/O Functions::               Functions for files and shell commands.
 * Time Functions::              Functions for dealing with timestamps.
 * Bitwise Functions::           Functions for bitwise operations.
@@ -12914,43 +12914,43 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Calling Built-in,  Next: 
Boolean Functions,  Up: Built-i
 9.1.1 Calling Built-in Functions
 --------------------------------
 
-To call one of 'awk''s built-in functions, write the name of the
-function followed by arguments in parentheses.  For example, 'atan2(y +
-z, 1)' is a call to the function 'atan2()' and has two arguments.
+To call one of ‘awk’’s built-in functions, write the name of the
+function followed by arguments in parentheses.  For example, ‘atan2(y +
+z, 1)’ is a call to the function ‘atan2()’ and has two arguments.
 
    Whitespace is ignored between the built-in function name and the
 opening parenthesis, but nonetheless it is good practice to avoid using
 whitespace there.  User-defined functions do not permit whitespace in
 this way, and it is easier to avoid mistakes by following a simple
-convention that always works--no whitespace after a function name.
+convention that always works—no whitespace after a function name.
 
    Each built-in function accepts a certain number of arguments.  In
 some cases, arguments can be omitted.  The defaults for omitted
 arguments vary from function to function and are described under the
-individual functions.  In some 'awk' implementations, extra arguments
-given to built-in functions are ignored.  However, in 'gawk', it is a
+individual functions.  In some ‘awk’ implementations, extra arguments
+given to built-in functions are ignored.  However, in ‘gawk’, it is a
 fatal error to give extra arguments to a built-in function.
 
-   When a function is called, expressions that create the function's
+   When a function is called, expressions that create the function’s
 actual parameters are evaluated completely before the call is performed.
 For example, in the following code fragment:
 
      i = 4
      j = sqrt(i++)
 
-the variable 'i' is incremented to the value five before 'sqrt()' is
+the variable ‘i’ is incremented to the value five before ‘sqrt()’ is
 called with a value of four for its actual parameter.  The order of
-evaluation of the expressions used for the function's parameters is
+evaluation of the expressions used for the function’s parameters is
 undefined.  Thus, avoid writing programs that assume that parameters are
 evaluated from left to right or from right to left.  For example:
 
      i = 5
      j = atan2(++i, i *= 2)
 
-   If the order of evaluation is left to right, then 'i' first becomes
-six, and then 12, and 'atan2()' is called with the two arguments six and
-12.  But if the order of evaluation is right to left, 'i' first becomes
-10, then 11, and 'atan2()' is called with the two arguments 11 and 10.
+   If the order of evaluation is left to right, then ‘i’ first becomes
+six, and then 12, and ‘atan2()’ is called with the two arguments six and
+12.  But if the order of evaluation is right to left, ‘i’ first becomes
+10, then 11, and ‘atan2()’ is called with the two arguments 11 and 10.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Boolean Functions,  Next: Numeric Functions,  Prev: 
Calling Built-in,  Up: Built-in
@@ -12958,13 +12958,13 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Boolean Functions,  Next: 
Numeric Functions,  Prev: Call
 9.1.2 Generating Boolean Values
 -------------------------------
 
-This function is specific to 'gawk'.  It is not available in
+This function is specific to ‘gawk’.  It is not available in
 compatibility mode (*note Options::):
 
-'mkbool(EXPRESSION)'
+‘mkbool(EXPRESSION)’
      Return a Boolean-typed value based on the regular Boolean value of
-     EXPRESSION.  Boolean "true" values have numeric value one.  Boolean
-     "false" values have numeric zero.  This is discussed in more detail
+     EXPRESSION.  Boolean “true” values have numeric value one.  Boolean
+     “false” values have numeric zero.  This is discussed in more detail
      in *note Boolean Typed Values::.
 
 
@@ -12977,30 +12977,30 @@ The following list describes all of the built-in 
functions that work
 with numbers.  Optional parameters are enclosed in square
 brackets ([ ]):
 
-'atan2(Y, X)'
-     Return the arctangent of 'Y / X' in radians.  You can use 'pi =
-     atan2(0, -1)' to retrieve the value of pi.
+‘atan2(Y, X)’
+     Return the arctangent of ‘Y / X’ in radians.  You can use ‘pi =
+     atan2(0, -1)’ to retrieve the value of pi.
 
-'cos(X)'
+‘cos(X)’
      Return the cosine of X, with X in radians.
 
-'exp(X)'
-     Return the exponential of X ('e ^ X') or report an error if X is
+‘exp(X)’
+     Return the exponential of X (‘e ^ X’) or report an error if X is
      out of range.  The range of values X can have depends on your
-     machine's floating-point representation.
+     machine’s floating-point representation.
 
-'int(X)'
+‘int(X)’
      Return the nearest integer to X, located between X and zero and
-     truncated toward zero.  For example, 'int(3)' is 3, 'int(3.9)' is
-     3, 'int(-3.9)' is -3, and 'int(-3)' is -3 as well.
+     truncated toward zero.  For example, ‘int(3)’ is 3, ‘int(3.9)’ is
+     3, ‘int(-3.9)’ is −3, and ‘int(-3)’ is −3 as well.
 
-'log(X)'
+‘log(X)’
      Return the natural logarithm of X, if X is positive; otherwise,
-     return NaN ("not a number") on IEEE 754 systems.  Additionally,
-     'gawk' prints a warning message when 'x' is negative.
+     return NaN (“not a number”) on IEEE 754 systems.  Additionally,
+     ‘gawk’ prints a warning message when ‘x’ is negative.
 
-'rand()'
-     Return a random number.  The values of 'rand()' are uniformly
+‘rand()’
+     Return a random number.  The values of ‘rand()’ are uniformly
      distributed between zero and one.  The value could be zero but is
      never one.(1)
 
@@ -13014,8 +13014,8 @@ brackets ([ ]):
           }
 
      The multiplication produces a random number greater than or equal
-     to zero and less than 'n'.  Using 'int()', this result is made into
-     an integer between zero and 'n' - 1, inclusive.
+     to zero and less than ‘n’.  Using ‘int()’, this result is made 
into
+     an integer between zero and ‘n’ − 1, inclusive.
 
      The following example uses a similar function to produce random
      integers between one and N.  This program prints a new random
@@ -13030,24 +13030,24 @@ brackets ([ ]):
               printf("%d points\n", roll(6) + roll(6) + roll(6))
           }
 
-          CAUTION: In most 'awk' implementations, including 'gawk',
-          'rand()' starts generating numbers from the same starting
-          number, or "seed", each time you run 'awk'.(2)  Thus, a
+          CAUTION: In most ‘awk’ implementations, including ‘gawk’,
+          ‘rand()’ starts generating numbers from the same starting
+          number, or “seed”, each time you run ‘awk’.(2)  Thus, a
           program generates the same results each time you run it.  The
-          numbers are random within one 'awk' run but predictable from
+          numbers are random within one ‘awk’ run but predictable from
           run to run.  This is convenient for debugging, but if you want
           a program to do different things each time it is used, you
           must change the seed to a value that is different in each run.
-          To do this, use 'srand()'.
+          To do this, use ‘srand()’.
 
-'sin(X)'
+‘sin(X)’
      Return the sine of X, with X in radians.
 
-'sqrt(X)'
-     Return the positive square root of X.  'gawk' prints a warning
-     message if X is negative.  Thus, 'sqrt(4)' is 2.
+‘sqrt(X)’
+     Return the positive square root of X.  ‘gawk’ prints a warning
+     message if X is negative.  Thus, ‘sqrt(4)’ is 2.
 
-'srand('[X]')'
+‘srand(’[X]‘)’
      Set the starting point, or seed, for generating random numbers to
      the value X.
 
@@ -13055,39 +13055,39 @@ brackets ([ ]):
      numbers.(3)  Thus, if the seed is set to the same value a second
      time, the same sequence of random numbers is produced again.
 
-          CAUTION: Different 'awk' implementations use different
-          random-number generators internally.  Don't expect the same
-          'awk' program to produce the same series of random numbers
-          when executed by different versions of 'awk'.
+          CAUTION: Different ‘awk’ implementations use different
+          random-number generators internally.  Don’t expect the same
+          ‘awk’ program to produce the same series of random numbers
+          when executed by different versions of ‘awk’.
 
-     If the argument X is omitted, as in 'srand()', then the current
+     If the argument X is omitted, as in ‘srand()’, then the current
      date and time of day are used for a seed.  This is the way to get
      random numbers that are truly unpredictable.
 
-     The return value of 'srand()' is the previous seed.  This makes it
+     The return value of ‘srand()’ is the previous seed.  This makes it
      easy to keep track of the seeds in case you need to consistently
      reproduce sequences of random numbers.
 
-     POSIX does not specify the initial seed; it differs among 'awk'
+     POSIX does not specify the initial seed; it differs among ‘awk’
      implementations.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) The C version of 'rand()' on many Unix systems is known to
+   (1) The C version of ‘rand()’ on many Unix systems is known to
 produce fairly poor sequences of random numbers.  However, nothing
-requires that an 'awk' implementation use the C 'rand()' to implement
-the 'awk' version of 'rand()'.  In fact, for many years, 'gawk' used the
-BSD 'random()' function, which is considerably better than 'rand()', to
+requires that an ‘awk’ implementation use the C ‘rand()’ to implement
+the ‘awk’ version of ‘rand()’.  In fact, for many years, ‘gawk’ 
used the
+BSD ‘random()’ function, which is considerably better than ‘rand()’, to
 produce random numbers.  From version 4.1.4, courtesy of Nelson H.F.
-Beebe, 'gawk' uses the Bayes-Durham shuffle buffer algorithm which
+Beebe, ‘gawk’ uses the Bayes-Durham shuffle buffer algorithm which
 considerably extends the period of the random number generator, and
 eliminates short-range and long-range correlations that might exist in
 the original generator.
 
-   (2) 'mawk' uses a different seed each time.
+   (2) ‘mawk’ uses a different seed each time.
 
    (3) Computer-generated random numbers really are not truly random.
-They are technically known as "pseudorandom".  This means that although
+They are technically known as “pseudorandom”.  This means that although
 the numbers in a sequence appear to be random, you can in fact generate
 the same sequence of random numbers over and over again.
 
@@ -13100,12 +13100,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: String Functions,  Next: I/O 
Functions,  Prev: Numeric F
 The functions in this minor node look at or change the text of one or
 more strings.
 
-   'gawk' understands locales (*note Locales::) and does all string
+   ‘gawk’ understands locales (*note Locales::) and does all string
 processing in terms of _characters_, not _bytes_.  This distinction is
 particularly important to understand for locales where one character may
-be represented by multiple bytes.  Thus, for example, 'length()' returns
+be represented by multiple bytes.  Thus, for example, ‘length()’ returns
 the number of characters in a string, and not the number of bytes used
-to represent those characters.  Similarly, 'index()' works with
+to represent those characters.  Similarly, ‘index()’ works with
 character indices, and not byte indices.
 
      CAUTION: A number of functions deal with indices into strings.  For
@@ -13117,21 +13117,21 @@ character indices, and not byte indices.
 
    In the following list, optional parameters are enclosed in square
 brackets ([ ]).  Several functions perform string substitution; the full
-discussion is provided in the description of the 'sub()' function, which
+discussion is provided in the description of the ‘sub()’ function, which
 comes toward the end, because the list is presented alphabetically.
 
-   Those functions that are specific to 'gawk' are marked with a pound
-sign ('#').  They are not available in compatibility mode (*note
+   Those functions that are specific to ‘gawk’ are marked with a pound
+sign (‘#’).  They are not available in compatibility mode (*note
 Options::):
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Gory Details::                More than you want to know about '\' and
-                                '&' with 'sub()', 'gsub()', and
-                                'gensub()'.
+* Gory Details::                More than you want to know about ‘\’ and
+                                ‘&’ with ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and
+                                ‘gensub()’.
 
-'asort('SOURCE [',' DEST [',' HOW ] ]') #'
-'asorti('SOURCE [',' DEST [',' HOW ] ]') #'
+‘asort(’SOURCE [‘,’ DEST [‘,’ HOW ] ]‘) #’
+‘asorti(’SOURCE [‘,’ DEST [‘,’ HOW ] ]‘) #’
      These two functions are similar in behavior, so they are described
      together.
 
@@ -13142,73 +13142,73 @@ Options::):
           *note Array Sorting Functions:: for the full story.)
 
      Both functions return the number of elements in the array SOURCE.
-     For 'asort()', 'gawk' sorts the values of SOURCE and replaces the
+     For ‘asort()’, ‘gawk’ sorts the values of SOURCE and replaces the
      indices of the sorted values of SOURCE with sequential integers
      starting with one.  If the optional array DEST is specified, then
      SOURCE is duplicated into DEST.  DEST is then sorted, leaving the
      indices of SOURCE unchanged.
 
-     When comparing strings, 'IGNORECASE' affects the sorting (*note
+     When comparing strings, ‘IGNORECASE’ affects the sorting (*note
      Array Sorting Functions::).  If the SOURCE array contains subarrays
      as values (*note Arrays of Arrays::), they will come last, after
      all scalar values.  Subarrays are _not_ recursively sorted.
 
-     For example, if the contents of 'a' are as follows:
+     For example, if the contents of ‘a’ are as follows:
 
           a["last"] = "de"
           a["first"] = "sac"
           a["middle"] = "cul"
 
-     A call to 'asort()':
+     A call to ‘asort()’:
 
           asort(a)
 
-     results in the following contents of 'a':
+     results in the following contents of ‘a’:
 
           a[1] = "cul"
           a[2] = "de"
           a[3] = "sac"
 
-     The 'asorti()' function works similarly to 'asort()'; however, the
+     The ‘asorti()’ function works similarly to ‘asort()’; however, the
      _indices_ are sorted, instead of the values.  Thus, in the previous
      example, starting with the same initial set of indices and values
-     in 'a', calling 'asorti(a)' would yield:
+     in ‘a’, calling ‘asorti(a)’ would yield:
 
           a[1] = "first"
           a[2] = "last"
           a[3] = "middle"
 
-          NOTE: You may not use either 'SYMTAB' or 'FUNCTAB' as the
+          NOTE: You may not use either ‘SYMTAB’ or ‘FUNCTAB’ as the
           second argument to these functions.  Attempting to do so
           produces a fatal error.  You may use them as the first
           argument, but only if providing a second array to use for the
           actual sorting.
 
      You are allowed to use the same array for both the SOURCE and DEST
-     arguments, but doing so only makes sense if you're also supplying
+     arguments, but doing so only makes sense if you’re also supplying
      the third argument.
 
-'gensub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT, HOW' [', TARGET']') #'
+‘gensub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT, HOW’ [‘, TARGET’]‘) #’
      Search the target string TARGET for matches of the regular
-     expression REGEXP.  If HOW is a string beginning with 'g' or 'G'
-     (short for "global"), then replace all matches of REGEXP with
+     expression REGEXP.  If HOW is a string beginning with ‘g’ or ‘G’
+     (short for “global”), then replace all matches of REGEXP with
      REPLACEMENT.  Otherwise, treat HOW as a number indicating which
      match of REGEXP to replace.  Treat numeric values less than one as
-     if they were one.  If no TARGET is supplied, use '$0'.  Return the
+     if they were one.  If no TARGET is supplied, use ‘$0’.  Return the
      modified string as the result of the function.  The original target
      string is _not_ changed.
 
      The returned value is _always_ a string, even if the original
      TARGET was a number or a regexp value.
 
-     'gensub()' is a general substitution function.  Its purpose is to
-     provide more features than the standard 'sub()' and 'gsub()'
+     ‘gensub()’ is a general substitution function.  Its purpose is to
+     provide more features than the standard ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’
      functions.
 
-     'gensub()' provides an additional feature that is not available in
-     'sub()' or 'gsub()': the ability to specify components of a regexp
+     ‘gensub()’ provides an additional feature that is not available in
+     ‘sub()’ or ‘gsub()’: the ability to specify components of a regexp
      in the replacement text.  This is done by using parentheses in the
-     regexp to mark the components and then specifying '\N' in the
+     regexp to mark the components and then specifying ‘\N’ in the
      replacement text, where N is a digit from 1 to 9.  For example:
 
           $ gawk '
@@ -13217,125 +13217,125 @@ Options::):
           >      b = gensub(/(.+) (.+)/, "\\2 \\1", "g", a)
           >      print b
           > }'
-          -| def abc
+          ⊣ def abc
 
-     As with 'sub()', you must type two backslashes in order to get one
-     into the string.  In the replacement text, the sequence '\0'
-     represents the entire matched text, as does the character '&'.
+     As with ‘sub()’, you must type two backslashes in order to get one
+     into the string.  In the replacement text, the sequence ‘\0’
+     represents the entire matched text, as does the character ‘&’.
 
      The following example shows how you can use the third argument to
      control which match of the regexp should be changed:
 
           $ echo a b c a b c |
           > gawk '{ print gensub(/a/, "AA", 2) }'
-          -| a b c AA b c
+          ⊣ a b c AA b c
 
-     In this case, '$0' is the default target string.  'gensub()'
+     In this case, ‘$0’ is the default target string.  ‘gensub()’
      returns the new string as its result, which is passed directly to
-     'print' for printing.
+     ‘print’ for printing.
 
-     If the HOW argument is a string that does not begin with 'g' or
-     'G', or if it is a number that is less than or equal to zero, only
-     one substitution is performed.  If HOW is zero, 'gawk' issues a
+     If the HOW argument is a string that does not begin with ‘g’ or
+     ‘G’, or if it is a number that is less than or equal to zero, only
+     one substitution is performed.  If HOW is zero, ‘gawk’ issues a
      warning message.
 
-     If REGEXP does not match TARGET, 'gensub()''s return value is the
+     If REGEXP does not match TARGET, ‘gensub()’’s return value is the
      original unchanged value of TARGET.  Note that, as mentioned above,
      the returned value is a string, even if TARGET was not.
 
-'gsub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT' [', TARGET']')'
+‘gsub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT’ [‘, TARGET’]‘)’
      Search TARGET for _all_ of the longest, leftmost, _nonoverlapping_
      matching substrings it can find and replace them with REPLACEMENT.
-     The 'g' in 'gsub()' stands for "global," which means replace
+     The ‘g’ in ‘gsub()’ stands for “global,” which means replace
      everywhere.  For example:
 
           { gsub(/Britain/, "United Kingdom"); print }
 
-     replaces all occurrences of the string 'Britain' with 'United
-     Kingdom' for all input records.
+     replaces all occurrences of the string ‘Britain’ with ‘United
+     Kingdom’ for all input records.
 
-     The 'gsub()' function returns the number of substitutions made.  If
+     The ‘gsub()’ function returns the number of substitutions made.  If
      the variable to search and alter (TARGET) is omitted, then the
-     entire input record ('$0') is used.  As in 'sub()', the characters
-     '&' and '\' are special, and the third argument must be assignable.
+     entire input record (‘$0’) is used.  As in ‘sub()’, the characters
+     ‘&’ and ‘\’ are special, and the third argument must be 
assignable.
 
-'index(IN, FIND)'
+‘index(IN, FIND)’
      Search the string IN for the first occurrence of the string FIND,
      and return the position in characters where that occurrence begins
      in the string IN.  Consider the following example:
 
           $ awk 'BEGIN { print index("peanut", "an") }'
-          -| 3
+          ⊣ 3
 
-     If FIND is not found, 'index()' returns zero.
+     If FIND is not found, ‘index()’ returns zero.
 
-     With BWK 'awk' and 'gawk', it is a fatal error to use a regexp
+     With BWK ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’, it is a fatal error to use a regexp
      constant for FIND.  Other implementations allow it, simply treating
-     the regexp constant as an expression meaning '$0 ~ /regexp/'.
+     the regexp constant as an expression meaning ‘$0 ~ /regexp/’.
      (d.c.)
 
-'length('[STRING]')'
+‘length(’[STRING]‘)’
      Return the number of characters in STRING.  If STRING is a number,
      the length of the digit string representing that number is
-     returned.  For example, 'length("abcde")' is five.  By contrast,
-     'length(15 * 35)' works out to three.  In this example, 15 * 35 =
-     525, and 525 is then converted to the string '"525"', which has
+     returned.  For example, ‘length("abcde")’ is five.  By contrast,
+     ‘length(15 * 35)’ works out to three.  In this example, 15 * 35 =
+     525, and 525 is then converted to the string ‘"525"’, which has
      three characters.
 
-     If no argument is supplied, 'length()' returns the length of '$0'.
+     If no argument is supplied, ‘length()’ returns the length of ‘$0’.
 
-          NOTE: In older versions of 'awk', the 'length()' function
+          NOTE: In older versions of ‘awk’, the ‘length()’ function
           could be called without any parentheses.  Doing so is
           considered poor practice, although the 2008 POSIX standard
           explicitly allows it, to support historical practice.  For
           programs to be maximally portable, always supply the
           parentheses.
 
-     If 'length()' is called with a variable that has not been used,
-     'gawk' forces the variable to be a scalar.  Other implementations
-     of 'awk' leave the variable without a type.  (d.c.)  Consider:
+     If ‘length()’ is called with a variable that has not been used,
+     ‘gawk’ forces the variable to be a scalar.  Other implementations
+     of ‘awk’ leave the variable without a type.  (d.c.)  Consider:
 
           $ gawk 'BEGIN { print length(x) ; x[1] = 1 }'
-          -| 0
-          error-> gawk: fatal: attempt to use scalar `x' as array
+          ⊣ 0
+          error→ gawk: fatal: attempt to use scalar `x' as array
 
           $ nawk 'BEGIN { print length(x) ; x[1] = 1 }'
-          -| 0
+          ⊣ 0
 
-     If '--lint' has been specified on the command line, 'gawk' issues a
+     If ‘--lint’ has been specified on the command line, ‘gawk’ issues 
a
      warning about this.
 
-     With 'gawk' and several other 'awk' implementations, when given an
-     array argument, the 'length()' function returns the number of
+     With ‘gawk’ and several other ‘awk’ implementations, when given an
+     array argument, the ‘length()’ function returns the number of
      elements in the array.  (c.e.)  This is less useful than it might
      seem at first, as the array is not guaranteed to be indexed from
-     one to the number of elements in it.  If '--lint' is provided on
-     the command line (*note Options::), 'gawk' warns that passing an
-     array argument is not portable.  If '--posix' is supplied, using an
+     one to the number of elements in it.  If ‘--lint’ is provided on
+     the command line (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ warns that passing an
+     array argument is not portable.  If ‘--posix’ is supplied, using an
      array argument is a fatal error (*note Arrays::).
 
-'match(STRING, REGEXP' [', ARRAY']')'
+‘match(STRING, REGEXP’ [‘, ARRAY’]‘)’
      Search STRING for the longest, leftmost substring matched by the
      regular expression REGEXP and return the character position (index)
      at which that substring begins (one, if it starts at the beginning
      of STRING).  If no match is found, return zero.
 
-     The REGEXP argument may be either a regexp constant ('/'...'/') or
-     a string constant ('"'...'"').  In the latter case, the string is
+     The REGEXP argument may be either a regexp constant (‘/’...‘/’) or
+     a string constant (‘"’...‘"’).  In the latter case, the string is
      treated as a regexp to be matched.  *Note Computed Regexps:: for a
      discussion of the difference between the two forms, and the
      implications for writing your program correctly.
 
      The order of the first two arguments is the opposite of most other
      string functions that work with regular expressions, such as
-     'sub()' and 'gsub()'.  It might help to remember that for
-     'match()', the order is the same as for the '~' operator: 'STRING ~
-     REGEXP'.
+     ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’.  It might help to remember that for
+     ‘match()’, the order is the same as for the ‘~’ operator: 
‘STRING ~
+     REGEXP’.
 
-     The 'match()' function sets the predefined variable 'RSTART' to the
-     index.  It also sets the predefined variable 'RLENGTH' to the
+     The ‘match()’ function sets the predefined variable ‘RSTART’ to 
the
+     index.  It also sets the predefined variable ‘RLENGTH’ to the
      length in characters of the matched substring.  If no match is
-     found, 'RSTART' is set to zero, and 'RLENGTH' to -1.
+     found, ‘RSTART’ is set to zero, and ‘RLENGTH’ to −1.
 
      For example:
 
@@ -13350,8 +13350,8 @@ Options::):
           }
 
      This program looks for lines that match the regular expression
-     stored in the variable 'regex'.  This regular expression can be
-     changed.  If the first word on a line is 'FIND', 'regex' is changed
+     stored in the variable ‘regex’.  This regular expression can be
+     changed.  If the first word on a line is ‘FIND’, ‘regex’ is 
changed
      to be the second word on that line.  Therefore, if given:
 
           FIND ru+n
@@ -13362,7 +13362,7 @@ Options::):
           This line is property of Reality Engineering Co.
           Melvin was here.
 
-     'awk' prints:
+     ‘awk’ prints:
 
           Match of ru+n found at 12 in My program runs
           Match of Melvin found at 1 in Melvin was here.
@@ -13376,7 +13376,7 @@ Options::):
           $ echo foooobazbarrrrr |
           > gawk '{ match($0, /(fo+).+(bar*)/, arr)
           >         print arr[1], arr[2] }'
-          -| foooo barrrrr
+          ⊣ foooo barrrrr
 
      In addition, multidimensional subscripts are available providing
      the start index and length of each matched subexpression:
@@ -13387,75 +13387,75 @@ Options::):
           >           print arr[1, "start"], arr[1, "length"]
           >           print arr[2, "start"], arr[2, "length"]
           > }'
-          -| foooo barrrrr
-          -| 1 5
-          -| 9 7
+          ⊣ foooo barrrrr
+          ⊣ 1 5
+          ⊣ 9 7
 
      There may not be subscripts for the start and index for every
      parenthesized subexpression, because they may not all have matched
-     text; thus, they should be tested for with the 'in' operator (*note
+     text; thus, they should be tested for with the ‘in’ operator (*note
      Reference to Elements::).
 
-     The ARRAY argument to 'match()' is a 'gawk' extension.  In
+     The ARRAY argument to ‘match()’ is a ‘gawk’ extension.  In
      compatibility mode (*note Options::), using a third argument is a
      fatal error.
 
-'patsplit(STRING, ARRAY' [', FIELDPAT' [', SEPS' ] ]') #'
-     Divide STRING into pieces (or "fields") defined by FIELDPAT and
+‘patsplit(STRING, ARRAY’ [‘, FIELDPAT’ [‘, SEPS’ ] ]‘) #’
+     Divide STRING into pieces (or “fields”) defined by FIELDPAT and
      store the pieces in ARRAY and the separator strings in the SEPS
-     array.  The first piece is stored in 'ARRAY[1]', the second piece
-     in 'ARRAY[2]', and so forth.  The third argument, FIELDPAT, is a
-     regexp describing the fields in STRING (just as 'FPAT' is a regexp
+     array.  The first piece is stored in ‘ARRAY[1]’, the second piece
+     in ‘ARRAY[2]’, and so forth.  The third argument, FIELDPAT, is a
+     regexp describing the fields in STRING (just as ‘FPAT’ is a regexp
      describing the fields in input records).  It may be either a regexp
-     constant or a string.  If FIELDPAT is omitted, the value of 'FPAT'
-     is used.  'patsplit()' returns the number of elements created.
-     'SEPS[I]' is the possibly null separator string after 'ARRAY[I]'.
-     The possibly null leading separator will be in 'SEPS[0]'.  So a
+     constant or a string.  If FIELDPAT is omitted, the value of ‘FPAT’
+     is used.  ‘patsplit()’ returns the number of elements created.
+     ‘SEPS[I]’ is the possibly null separator string after ‘ARRAY[I]’.
+     The possibly null leading separator will be in ‘SEPS[0]’.  So a
      non-null STRING with N fields will have N+1 separators.  A null
      STRING has no fields or separators.
 
-     The 'patsplit()' function splits strings into pieces in a manner
-     similar to the way input lines are split into fields using 'FPAT'
+     The ‘patsplit()’ function splits strings into pieces in a manner
+     similar to the way input lines are split into fields using ‘FPAT’
      (*note Splitting By Content::).
 
-     Before splitting the string, 'patsplit()' deletes any previously
+     Before splitting the string, ‘patsplit()’ deletes any previously
      existing elements in the arrays ARRAY and SEPS.
 
-'split(STRING, ARRAY' [', FIELDSEP' [', SEPS' ] ]')'
+‘split(STRING, ARRAY’ [‘, FIELDSEP’ [‘, SEPS’ ] ]‘)’
      Divide STRING into pieces separated by FIELDSEP and store the
      pieces in ARRAY and the separator strings in the SEPS array.  The
-     first piece is stored in 'ARRAY[1]', the second piece in
-     'ARRAY[2]', and so forth.  The string value of the third argument,
+     first piece is stored in ‘ARRAY[1]’, the second piece in
+     ‘ARRAY[2]’, and so forth.  The string value of the third argument,
      FIELDSEP, is a regexp describing where to split STRING (much as
-     'FS' can be a regexp describing where to split input records).  If
-     FIELDSEP is omitted, the value of 'FS' is used.  'split()' returns
-     the number of elements created.  SEPS is a 'gawk' extension, with
-     'SEPS[I]' being the separator string between 'ARRAY[I]' and
-     'ARRAY[I+1]'.  If FIELDSEP is a single space, then any leading
-     whitespace goes into 'SEPS[0]' and any trailing whitespace goes
-     into 'SEPS[N]', where N is the return value of 'split()' (i.e., the
+     ‘FS’ can be a regexp describing where to split input records).  If
+     FIELDSEP is omitted, the value of ‘FS’ is used.  ‘split()’ returns
+     the number of elements created.  SEPS is a ‘gawk’ extension, with
+     ‘SEPS[I]’ being the separator string between ‘ARRAY[I]’ and
+     ‘ARRAY[I+1]’.  If FIELDSEP is a single space, then any leading
+     whitespace goes into ‘SEPS[0]’ and any trailing whitespace goes
+     into ‘SEPS[N]’, where N is the return value of ‘split()’ (i.e., 
the
      number of elements in ARRAY).
 
-     The 'split()' function splits strings into pieces in the same way
+     The ‘split()’ function splits strings into pieces in the same way
      that input lines are split into fields.  For example:
 
           split("cul-de-sac", a, "-", seps)
 
-     splits the string '"cul-de-sac"' into three fields using '-' as the
-     separator.  It sets the contents of the array 'a' as follows:
+     splits the string ‘"cul-de-sac"’ into three fields using ‘-’ as 
the
+     separator.  It sets the contents of the array ‘a’ as follows:
 
           a[1] = "cul"
           a[2] = "de"
           a[3] = "sac"
 
-     and sets the contents of the array 'seps' as follows:
+     and sets the contents of the array ‘seps’ as follows:
 
           seps[1] = "-"
           seps[2] = "-"
 
-     The value returned by this call to 'split()' is three.
+     The value returned by this call to ‘split()’ is three.
 
-     As with input field-splitting, when the value of FIELDSEP is '" "',
+     As with input field-splitting, when the value of FIELDSEP is ‘" "’,
      leading and trailing whitespace is ignored in values assigned to
      the elements of ARRAY but not in SEPS, and the elements are
      separated by runs of whitespace.  Also, as with input field
@@ -13465,19 +13465,19 @@ Options::):
      that string acts as the separator, even if its value is a regular
      expression metacharacter.
 
-     Note, however, that 'RS' has no effect on the way 'split()' works.
-     Even though 'RS = ""' causes the newline character to also be an
-     input field separator, this does not affect how 'split()' splits
+     Note, however, that ‘RS’ has no effect on the way ‘split()’ works.
+     Even though ‘RS = ""’ causes the newline character to also be an
+     input field separator, this does not affect how ‘split()’ splits
      strings.
 
-     Modern implementations of 'awk', including 'gawk', allow the third
-     argument to be a regexp constant ('/'...'/') as well as a string.
+     Modern implementations of ‘awk’, including ‘gawk’, allow the third
+     argument to be a regexp constant (‘/’...‘/’) as well as a string.
      (d.c.)  The POSIX standard allows this as well.  *Note Computed
      Regexps:: for a discussion of the difference between using a string
      constant or a regexp constant, and the implications for writing
      your program correctly.
 
-     Before splitting the string, 'split()' deletes any previously
+     Before splitting the string, ‘split()’ deletes any previously
      existing elements in the arrays ARRAY and SEPS.
 
      If STRING is null, the array has no elements.  (So this is a
@@ -13491,97 +13491,97 @@ Options::):
      In POSIX mode (*note Options::), the fourth argument is not
      allowed.
 
-'sprintf(FORMAT, EXPRESSION1, ...)'
-     Return (without printing) the string that 'printf' would have
+‘sprintf(FORMAT, EXPRESSION1, ...)’
+     Return (without printing) the string that ‘printf’ would have
      printed out with the same arguments (*note Printf::).  For example:
 
           pival = sprintf("pi = %.2f (approx.)", 22/7)
 
-     assigns the string 'pi = 3.14 (approx.)' to the variable 'pival'.
+     assigns the string ‘pi = 3.14 (approx.)’ to the variable ‘pival’.
 
-'strtonum(STR) #'
+‘strtonum(STR) #’
      Examine STR and return its numeric value.  If STR begins with a
-     leading '0', 'strtonum()' assumes that STR is an octal number.  If
-     STR begins with a leading '0x' or '0X', 'strtonum()' assumes that
+     leading ‘0’, ‘strtonum()’ assumes that STR is an octal number.  If
+     STR begins with a leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’, ‘strtonum()’ assumes 
that
      STR is a hexadecimal number.  For example:
 
           $ echo 0x11 |
           > gawk '{ printf "%d\n", strtonum($1) }'
-          -| 17
+          ⊣ 17
 
-     Using the 'strtonum()' function is _not_ the same as adding zero to
+     Using the ‘strtonum()’ function is _not_ the same as adding zero to
      a string value; the automatic coercion of strings to numbers works
      only for decimal data, not for octal or hexadecimal.(1)
 
-     Note also that 'strtonum()' uses the current locale's decimal point
+     Note also that ‘strtonum()’ uses the current locale’s decimal point
      for recognizing numbers (*note Locales::).
 
-'sub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT' [', TARGET']')'
+‘sub(REGEXP, REPLACEMENT’ [‘, TARGET’]‘)’
      Search TARGET, which is treated as a string, for the leftmost,
      longest substring matched by the regular expression REGEXP.  Modify
      the entire string by replacing the matched text with REPLACEMENT.
      The modified string becomes the new value of TARGET.  Return the
      number of substitutions made (zero or one).
 
-     The REGEXP argument may be either a regexp constant ('/'...'/') or
-     a string constant ('"'...'"').  In the latter case, the string is
+     The REGEXP argument may be either a regexp constant (‘/’...‘/’) or
+     a string constant (‘"’...‘"’).  In the latter case, the string is
      treated as a regexp to be matched.  *Note Computed Regexps:: for a
      discussion of the difference between the two forms, and the
      implications for writing your program correctly.
 
      This function is peculiar because TARGET is not simply used to
-     compute a value, and not just any expression will do--it must be a
-     variable, field, or array element so that 'sub()' can store a
+     compute a value, and not just any expression will do—it must be a
+     variable, field, or array element so that ‘sub()’ can store a
      modified value there.  If this argument is omitted, then the
-     default is to use and alter '$0'.(2)  For example:
+     default is to use and alter ‘$0’.(2)  For example:
 
           str = "water, water, everywhere"
           sub(/at/, "ith", str)
 
-     sets 'str' to 'wither, water, everywhere', by replacing the
-     leftmost longest occurrence of 'at' with 'ith'.
+     sets ‘str’ to ‘wither, water, everywhere’, by replacing the
+     leftmost longest occurrence of ‘at’ with ‘ith’.
 
-     If the special character '&' appears in REPLACEMENT, it stands for
+     If the special character ‘&’ appears in REPLACEMENT, it stands for
      the precise substring that was matched by REGEXP.  (If the regexp
      can match more than one string, then this precise substring may
      vary.)  For example:
 
           { sub(/candidate/, "& and his wife"); print }
 
-     changes the first occurrence of 'candidate' to 'candidate and his
-     wife' on each input line.  Here is another example:
+     changes the first occurrence of ‘candidate’ to ‘candidate and his
+     wife’ on each input line.  Here is another example:
 
           $ awk 'BEGIN {
           >         str = "daabaaa"
           >         sub(/a+/, "C&C", str)
           >         print str
           > }'
-          -| dCaaCbaaa
+          ⊣ dCaaCbaaa
 
-     This shows how '&' can represent a nonconstant string and also
-     illustrates the "leftmost, longest" rule in regexp matching (*note
+     This shows how ‘&’ can represent a nonconstant string and also
+     illustrates the “leftmost, longest” rule in regexp matching (*note
      Leftmost Longest::).
 
-     The effect of this special character ('&') can be turned off by
+     The effect of this special character (‘&’) can be turned off by
      putting a backslash before it in the string.  As usual, to insert
      one backslash in the string, you must write two backslashes.
-     Therefore, write '\\&' in a string constant to include a literal
-     '&' in the replacement.  For example, the following shows how to
-     replace the first '|' on each line with an '&':
+     Therefore, write ‘\\&’ in a string constant to include a literal
+     ‘&’ in the replacement.  For example, the following shows how to
+     replace the first ‘|’ on each line with an ‘&’:
 
           { sub(/\|/, "\\&"); print }
 
-     As mentioned, the third argument to 'sub()' must be a variable,
-     field, or array element.  Some versions of 'awk' allow the third
+     As mentioned, the third argument to ‘sub()’ must be a variable,
+     field, or array element.  Some versions of ‘awk’ allow the third
      argument to be an expression that is not an lvalue.  In such a
-     case, 'sub()' still searches for the pattern and returns zero or
+     case, ‘sub()’ still searches for the pattern and returns zero or
      one, but the result of the substitution (if any) is thrown away
-     because there is no place to put it.  Such versions of 'awk' accept
+     because there is no place to put it.  Such versions of ‘awk’ accept
      expressions like the following:
 
           sub(/USA/, "United States", "the USA and Canada")
 
-     For historical compatibility, 'gawk' accepts such erroneous code.
+     For historical compatibility, ‘gawk’ accepts such erroneous code.
      However, using any other nonchangeable object as the third
      parameter causes a fatal error and your program will not run.
 
@@ -13589,26 +13589,26 @@ Options::):
      into a string, and then the value of that string is treated as the
      regexp to match.
 
-'substr(STRING, START' [', LENGTH' ]')'
+‘substr(STRING, START’ [‘, LENGTH’ ]‘)’
      Return a LENGTH-character-long substring of STRING, starting at
      character number START.  The first character of a string is
-     character number one.(3)  For example, 'substr("washington", 5, 3)'
-     returns '"ing"'.
+     character number one.(3)  For example, ‘substr("washington", 5, 3)’
+     returns ‘"ing"’.
 
-     If LENGTH is not present, 'substr()' returns the whole suffix of
+     If LENGTH is not present, ‘substr()’ returns the whole suffix of
      STRING that begins at character number START.  For example,
-     'substr("washington", 5)' returns '"ington"'.  The whole suffix is
+     ‘substr("washington", 5)’ returns ‘"ington"’.  The whole suffix is
      also returned if LENGTH is greater than the number of characters
      remaining in the string, counting from character START.
 
-     If START is less than one, 'substr()' treats it as if it was one.
-     (POSIX doesn't specify what to do in this case: BWK 'awk' acts this
-     way, and therefore 'gawk' does too.)  If START is greater than the
-     number of characters in the string, 'substr()' returns the null
+     If START is less than one, ‘substr()’ treats it as if it was one.
+     (POSIX doesn’t specify what to do in this case: BWK ‘awk’ acts this
+     way, and therefore ‘gawk’ does too.)  If START is greater than the
+     number of characters in the string, ‘substr()’ returns the null
      string.  Similarly, if LENGTH is present but less than or equal to
      zero, the null string is returned.
 
-     The string returned by 'substr()' _cannot_ be assigned.  Thus, it
+     The string returned by ‘substr()’ _cannot_ be assigned.  Thus, it
      is a mistake to attempt to change a portion of a string, as shown
      in the following example:
 
@@ -13616,62 +13616,62 @@ Options::):
           # try to get "abCDEf", won't work
           substr(string, 3, 3) = "CDE"
 
-     It is also a mistake to use 'substr()' as the third argument of
-     'sub()' or 'gsub()':
+     It is also a mistake to use ‘substr()’ as the third argument of
+     ‘sub()’ or ‘gsub()’:
 
           gsub(/xyz/, "pdq", substr($0, 5, 20))  # WRONG
 
-     (Some commercial versions of 'awk' treat 'substr()' as assignable,
+     (Some commercial versions of ‘awk’ treat ‘substr()’ as assignable,
      but doing so is not portable.)
 
      If you need to replace bits and pieces of a string, combine
-     'substr()' with string concatenation, in the following manner:
+     ‘substr()’ with string concatenation, in the following manner:
 
           string = "abcdef"
           ...
           string = substr(string, 1, 2) "CDE" substr(string, 6)
 
-'tolower(STRING)'
+‘tolower(STRING)’
      Return a copy of STRING, with each uppercase character in the
      string replaced with its corresponding lowercase character.
      Nonalphabetic characters are left unchanged.  For example,
-     'tolower("MiXeD cAsE 123")' returns '"mixed case 123"'.
+     ‘tolower("MiXeD cAsE 123")’ returns ‘"mixed case 123"’.
 
-'toupper(STRING)'
+‘toupper(STRING)’
      Return a copy of STRING, with each lowercase character in the
      string replaced with its corresponding uppercase character.
      Nonalphabetic characters are left unchanged.  For example,
-     'toupper("MiXeD cAsE 123")' returns '"MIXED CASE 123"'.
+     ‘toupper("MiXeD cAsE 123")’ returns ‘"MIXED CASE 123"’.
 
-   At first glance, the 'split()' and 'patsplit()' functions appear to
+   At first glance, the ‘split()’ and ‘patsplit()’ functions appear to
 be mirror images of each other.  But there are differences:
 
-   * 'split()' treats its third argument like 'FS', with all the special
-     rules involved for 'FS'.
+   • ‘split()’ treats its third argument like ‘FS’, with all the 
special
+     rules involved for ‘FS’.
 
-   * Matching of null strings differs.  This is discussed in *note FS
+   • Matching of null strings differs.  This is discussed in *note FS
      versus FPAT::.
 
                        Matching the Null String
 
-   In 'awk', the '*' operator can match the null string.  This is
-particularly important for the 'sub()', 'gsub()', and 'gensub()'
+   In ‘awk’, the ‘*’ operator can match the null string.  This is
+particularly important for the ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and ‘gensub()’
 functions.  For example:
 
      $ echo abc | awk '{ gsub(/m*/, "X"); print }'
-     -| XaXbXcX
+     ⊣ XaXbXcX
 
 Although this makes a certain amount of sense, it can be surprising.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) Unless you use the '--non-decimal-data' option, which isn't
+   (1) Unless you use the ‘--non-decimal-data’ option, which isn’t
 recommended.  *Note Nondecimal Data:: for more information.
 
    (2) Note that this means that the record will first be regenerated
-using the value of 'OFS' if any fields have been changed, and that the
+using the value of ‘OFS’ if any fields have been changed, and that the
 fields will be updated after the substitution, even if the operation is
-a "no-op" such as 'sub(/^/, "")'.
+a “no-op” such as ‘sub(/^/, "")’.
 
    (3) This is different from C and C++, in which the first character is
 number zero.
@@ -13679,146 +13679,146 @@ number zero.
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Gory Details,  Up: String Functions
 
-9.1.4.1 More about '\' and '&' with 'sub()', 'gsub()', and 'gensub()'
+9.1.4.1 More about ‘\’ and ‘&’ with ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, and 
‘gensub()’
 .....................................................................
 
      CAUTION: This subsubsection has been reported to cause headaches.
      You might want to skip it upon first reading.
 
-   When using 'sub()', 'gsub()', or 'gensub()', and trying to get
+   When using ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, or ‘gensub()’, and trying to get
 literal backslashes and ampersands into the replacement text, you need
-to remember that there are several levels of "escape processing" going
+to remember that there are several levels of “escape processing” going
 on.
 
-   First, there is the "lexical" level, which is when 'awk' reads your
+   First, there is the “lexical” level, which is when ‘awk’ reads your
 program and builds an internal copy of it to execute.  Then there is the
-runtime level, which is when 'awk' actually scans the replacement string
+runtime level, which is when ‘awk’ actually scans the replacement string
 to determine what to generate.
 
-   At both levels, 'awk' looks for a defined set of characters that can
+   At both levels, ‘awk’ looks for a defined set of characters that can
 come after a backslash.  At the lexical level, it looks for the escape
-sequences listed in *note Escape Sequences::.  Thus, for every '\' that
-'awk' processes at the runtime level, you must type two backslashes at
+sequences listed in *note Escape Sequences::.  Thus, for every ‘\’ that
+‘awk’ processes at the runtime level, you must type two backslashes at
 the lexical level.  When a character that is not valid for an escape
-sequence follows the '\', BWK 'awk' and 'gawk' both simply remove the
-initial '\' and put the next character into the string.  Thus, for
-example, '"a\qb"' is treated as '"aqb"'.
-
-   At the runtime level, the various functions handle sequences of '\'
-and '&' differently.  The situation is (sadly) somewhat complex.
-Historically, the 'sub()' and 'gsub()' functions treated the
-two-character sequence '\&' specially; this sequence was replaced in the
-generated text with a single '&'.  Any other '\' within the REPLACEMENT
-string that did not precede an '&' was passed through unchanged.  This
+sequence follows the ‘\’, BWK ‘awk’ and ‘gawk’ both simply remove 
the
+initial ‘\’ and put the next character into the string.  Thus, for
+example, ‘"a\qb"’ is treated as ‘"aqb"’.
+
+   At the runtime level, the various functions handle sequences of ‘\’
+and ‘&’ differently.  The situation is (sadly) somewhat complex.
+Historically, the ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’ functions treated the
+two-character sequence ‘\&’ specially; this sequence was replaced in the
+generated text with a single ‘&’.  Any other ‘\’ within the REPLACEMENT
+string that did not precede an ‘&’ was passed through unchanged.  This
 is illustrated in *note Table 9.1: table-sub-escapes.
 
 
-      You type         'sub()' sees          'sub()' generates
-      -----         -------          ----------
-          '\&'              '&'            The matched text
-         '\\&'             '\&'            A literal '&'
-        '\\\&'             '\&'            A literal '&'
-       '\\\\&'            '\\&'            A literal '\&'
-      '\\\\\&'            '\\&'            A literal '\&'
-     '\\\\\\&'           '\\\&'            A literal '\\&'
-         '\\q'             '\q'            A literal '\q'
+      You type         ‘sub()’ sees          ‘sub()’ generates
+      ——–         ———-          —————
+          ‘\&’              ‘&’            The matched text
+         ‘\\&’             ‘\&’            A literal ‘&’
+        ‘\\\&’             ‘\&’            A literal ‘&’
+       ‘\\\\&’            ‘\\&’            A literal ‘\&’
+      ‘\\\\\&’            ‘\\&’            A literal ‘\&’
+     ‘\\\\\\&’           ‘\\\&’            A literal ‘\\&’
+         ‘\\q’             ‘\q’            A literal ‘\q’
 
-Table 9.1: Historical escape sequence processing for 'sub()' and
-'gsub()'
+Table 9.1: Historical escape sequence processing for ‘sub()’ and
+‘gsub()’
 
 This table shows the lexical-level processing, where an odd number of
 backslashes becomes an even number at the runtime level, as well as the
-runtime processing done by 'sub()'.  (For the sake of simplicity, the
+runtime processing done by ‘sub()’.  (For the sake of simplicity, the
 rest of the following tables only show the case of even numbers of
 backslashes entered at the lexical level.)
 
    The problem with the historical approach is that there is no way to
-get a literal '\' followed by the matched text.
+get a literal ‘\’ followed by the matched text.
 
    Several editions of the POSIX standard attempted to fix this problem
-but weren't successful.  The details are irrelevant at this point in
+but weren’t successful.  The details are irrelevant at this point in
 time.
 
-   At one point, the 'gawk' maintainer submitted proposed text for a
+   At one point, the ‘gawk’ maintainer submitted proposed text for a
 revised standard that reverts to rules that correspond more closely to
 the original existing practice.  The proposed rules have special cases
-that make it possible to produce a '\' preceding the matched text.  This
+that make it possible to produce a ‘\’ preceding the matched text.  This
 is shown in *note Table 9.2: table-sub-proposed.
 
 
-      You type         'sub()' sees         'sub()' generates
-      -----         -------         ----------
-     '\\\\\\&'           '\\\&'            A literal '\&'
-       '\\\\&'            '\\&'            A literal '\', followed by the 
matched text
-         '\\&'             '\&'            A literal '&'
-         '\\q'             '\q'            A literal '\q'
-        '\\\\'             '\\'            '\\'
+      You type         ‘sub()’ sees         ‘sub()’ generates
+      ——–         ———-         —————
+     ‘\\\\\\&’           ‘\\\&’            A literal ‘\&’
+       ‘\\\\&’            ‘\\&’            A literal ‘\’, followed 
by the matched text
+         ‘\\&’             ‘\&’            A literal ‘&’
+         ‘\\q’             ‘\q’            A literal ‘\q’
+        ‘\\\\’             ‘\\’            ‘\\’
 
-Table 9.2: 'gawk' rules for 'sub()' and backslash
+Table 9.2: ‘gawk’ rules for ‘sub()’ and backslash
 
    In a nutshell, at the runtime level, there are now three special
-sequences of characters ('\\\&', '\\&', and '\&') whereas historically
-there was only one.  However, as in the historical case, any '\' that is
+sequences of characters (‘\\\&’, ‘\\&’, and ‘\&’) whereas 
historically
+there was only one.  However, as in the historical case, any ‘\’ that is
 not part of one of these three sequences is not special and appears in
 the output literally.
 
-   'gawk' 3.0 and 3.1 follow these rules for 'sub()' and 'gsub()'.  The
+   ‘gawk’ 3.0 and 3.1 follow these rules for ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’. 
 The
 POSIX standard took much longer to be revised than was expected.  In
-addition, the 'gawk' maintainer's proposal was lost during the
+addition, the ‘gawk’ maintainer’s proposal was lost during the
 standardization process.  The final rules are somewhat simpler.  The
 results are similar except for one case.
 
-   The POSIX rules state that '\&' in the replacement string produces a
-literal '&', '\\' produces a literal '\', and '\' followed by anything
-else is not special; the '\' is placed straight into the output.  These
+   The POSIX rules state that ‘\&’ in the replacement string produces a
+literal ‘&’, ‘\\’ produces a literal ‘\’, and ‘\’ followed by 
anything
+else is not special; the ‘\’ is placed straight into the output.  These
 rules are presented in *note Table 9.3: table-posix-sub.
 
 
-      You type         'sub()' sees         'sub()' generates
-      -----         -------         ----------
-     '\\\\\\&'           '\\\&'            A literal '\&'
-       '\\\\&'            '\\&'            A literal '\', followed by the 
matched text
-         '\\&'             '\&'            A literal '&'
-         '\\q'             '\q'            A literal '\q'
-        '\\\\'             '\\'            '\'
+      You type         ‘sub()’ sees         ‘sub()’ generates
+      ——–         ———-         —————
+     ‘\\\\\\&’           ‘\\\&’            A literal ‘\&’
+       ‘\\\\&’            ‘\\&’            A literal ‘\’, followed 
by the matched text
+         ‘\\&’             ‘\&’            A literal ‘&’
+         ‘\\q’             ‘\q’            A literal ‘\q’
+        ‘\\\\’             ‘\\’            ‘\’
 
-Table 9.3: POSIX rules for 'sub()' and 'gsub()'
+Table 9.3: POSIX rules for ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’
 
    The only case where the difference is noticeable is the last one:
-'\\\\' is seen as '\\' and produces '\' instead of '\\'.
+‘\\\\’ is seen as ‘\\’ and produces ‘\’ instead of ‘\\’.
 
-   Starting with version 3.1.4, 'gawk' followed the POSIX rules when
-'--posix' was specified (*note Options::).  Otherwise, it continued to
+   Starting with version 3.1.4, ‘gawk’ followed the POSIX rules when
+‘--posix’ was specified (*note Options::).  Otherwise, it continued to
 follow the proposed rules, as that had been its behavior for many years.
 
-   When version 4.0.0 was released, the 'gawk' maintainer made the POSIX
-rules the default, breaking well over a decade's worth of backward
+   When version 4.0.0 was released, the ‘gawk’ maintainer made the POSIX
+rules the default, breaking well over a decade’s worth of backward
 compatibility.(1)  Needless to say, this was a bad idea, and as of
-version 4.0.1, 'gawk' resumed its historical behavior, and only follows
-the POSIX rules when '--posix' is given.
+version 4.0.1, ‘gawk’ resumed its historical behavior, and only follows
+the POSIX rules when ‘--posix’ is given.
 
-   The rules for 'gensub()' are considerably simpler.  At the runtime
-level, whenever 'gawk' sees a '\', if the following character is a
+   The rules for ‘gensub()’ are considerably simpler.  At the runtime
+level, whenever ‘gawk’ sees a ‘\’, if the following character is a
 digit, then the text that matched the corresponding parenthesized
 subexpression is placed in the generated output.  Otherwise, no matter
-what character follows the '\', it appears in the generated text and the
-'\' does not, as shown in *note Table 9.4: table-gensub-escapes.
+what character follows the ‘\’, it appears in the generated text and the
+‘\’ does not, as shown in *note Table 9.4: table-gensub-escapes.
 
 
-       You type          'gensub()' sees         'gensub()' generates
-       -----          ---------         ------------
-           '&'                    '&'            The matched text
-         '\\&'                   '\&'            A literal '&'
-        '\\\\'                   '\\'            A literal '\'
-       '\\\\&'                  '\\&'            A literal '\', then the 
matched text
-     '\\\\\\&'                 '\\\&'            A literal '\&'
-         '\\q'                   '\q'            A literal 'q'
+       You type          ‘gensub()’ sees         ‘gensub()’ generates
+       ——–          ————-         ——————
+           ‘&’                    ‘&’            The matched text
+         ‘\\&’                   ‘\&’            A literal ‘&’
+        ‘\\\\’                   ‘\\’            A literal ‘\’
+       ‘\\\\&’                  ‘\\&’            A literal ‘\’, 
then the matched text
+     ‘\\\\\\&’                 ‘\\\&’            A literal ‘\&’
+         ‘\\q’                   ‘\q’            A literal ‘q’
 
-Table 9.4: Escape sequence processing for 'gensub()'
+Table 9.4: Escape sequence processing for ‘gensub()’
 
    Because of the complexity of the lexical- and runtime-level
-processing and the special cases for 'sub()' and 'gsub()', we recommend
-the use of 'gawk' and 'gensub()' when you have to do substitutions.
+processing and the special cases for ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’, we recommend
+the use of ‘gawk’ and ‘gensub()’ when you have to do substitutions.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
@@ -13835,7 +13835,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: I/O Functions,  Next: Time 
Functions,  Prev: String Func
 The following functions relate to input/output (I/O). Optional
 parameters are enclosed in square brackets ([ ]):
 
-'close('FILENAME [',' HOW]')'
+‘close(’FILENAME [‘,’ HOW]‘)’
      Close the file FILENAME for input or output.  Alternatively, the
      argument may be a shell command that was used for creating a
      coprocess, or for redirecting to or from a pipe; then the coprocess
@@ -13844,77 +13844,77 @@ parameters are enclosed in square brackets ([ ]):
 
      When closing a coprocess, it is occasionally useful to first close
      one end of the two-way pipe and then to close the other.  This is
-     done by providing a second argument to 'close()'.  This second
-     argument (HOW) should be one of the two string values '"to"' or
-     '"from"', indicating which end of the pipe to close.  Case in the
+     done by providing a second argument to ‘close()’.  This second
+     argument (HOW) should be one of the two string values ‘"to"’ or
+     ‘"from"’, indicating which end of the pipe to close.  Case in the
      string does not matter.  *Note Two-way I/O::, which discusses this
      feature in more detail and gives an example.
 
-     Note that the second argument to 'close()' is a 'gawk' extension;
+     Note that the second argument to ‘close()’ is a ‘gawk’ extension;
      it is not available in compatibility mode (*note Options::).
 
-'fflush('[FILENAME]')'
+‘fflush(’[FILENAME]‘)’
      Flush any buffered output associated with FILENAME, which is either
      a file opened for writing or a shell command for redirecting output
      to a pipe or coprocess.
 
-     Many utility programs "buffer" their output (i.e., they save
+     Many utility programs “buffer” their output (i.e., they save
      information to write to a disk file or the screen in memory until
      there is enough for it to be worthwhile to send the data to the
      output device).  This is often more efficient than writing every
      little bit of information as soon as it is ready.  However,
-     sometimes it is necessary to force a program to "flush" its buffers
+     sometimes it is necessary to force a program to “flush” its buffers
      (i.e., write the information to its destination, even if a buffer
-     is not full).  This is the purpose of the 'fflush()'
-     function--'gawk' also buffers its output, and the 'fflush()'
-     function forces 'gawk' to flush its buffers.
+     is not full).  This is the purpose of the ‘fflush()’
+     function—‘gawk’ also buffers its output, and the ‘fflush()’
+     function forces ‘gawk’ to flush its buffers.
 
-     Brian Kernighan added 'fflush()' to his 'awk' in April 1992.  For
+     Brian Kernighan added ‘fflush()’ to his ‘awk’ in April 1992.  For
      two decades, it was a common extension.  In December 2012, it was
      accepted for inclusion into the POSIX standard.  See the Austin
      Group website (http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=634).
 
-     POSIX standardizes 'fflush()' as follows: if there is no argument,
-     or if the argument is the null string ('""'), then 'awk' flushes
+     POSIX standardizes ‘fflush()’ as follows: if there is no argument,
+     or if the argument is the null string (‘""’), then ‘awk’ flushes
      the buffers for _all_ open output files and pipes.
 
-          NOTE: Prior to version 4.0.2, 'gawk' would flush only the
+          NOTE: Prior to version 4.0.2, ‘gawk’ would flush only the
           standard output if there was no argument, and flush all output
           files and pipes if the argument was the null string.  This was
-          changed in order to be compatible with BWK 'awk', in the hope
+          changed in order to be compatible with BWK ‘awk’, in the hope
           that standardizing this feature in POSIX would then be easier
           (which indeed proved to be the case).
 
-          With 'gawk', you can use 'fflush("/dev/stdout")' if you wish
+          With ‘gawk’, you can use ‘fflush("/dev/stdout")’ if you wish
           to flush only the standard output.
 
-     'fflush()' returns zero if the buffer is successfully flushed;
-     otherwise, it returns a nonzero value.  ('gawk' returns -1.)  In
+     ‘fflush()’ returns zero if the buffer is successfully flushed;
+     otherwise, it returns a nonzero value.  (‘gawk’ returns −1.)  In
      the case where all buffers are flushed, the return value is zero
      only if all buffers were flushed successfully.  Otherwise, it is
-     -1, and 'gawk' warns about the problem FILENAME.
+     −1, and ‘gawk’ warns about the problem FILENAME.
 
-     'gawk' also issues a warning message if you attempt to flush a file
-     or pipe that was opened for reading (such as with 'getline'), or if
+     ‘gawk’ also issues a warning message if you attempt to flush a file
+     or pipe that was opened for reading (such as with ‘getline’), or if
      FILENAME is not an open file, pipe, or coprocess.  In such a case,
-     'fflush()' returns -1, as well.
+     ‘fflush()’ returns −1, as well.
 
               Interactive Versus Noninteractive Buffering
 
    As a side point, buffering issues can be even more confusing if your
-program is "interactive" (i.e., communicating with a user sitting at a
+program is “interactive” (i.e., communicating with a user sitting at a
 keyboard).(1)
 
-   Interactive programs generally "line buffer" their output (i.e., they
+   Interactive programs generally “line buffer” their output (i.e., they
 write out every line).  Noninteractive programs wait until they have a
 full buffer, which may be many lines of output.  Here is an example of
 the difference:
 
      $ awk '{ print $1 + $2 }'
      1 1
-     -| 2
+     ⊣ 2
      2 3
-     -| 5
+     ⊣ 5
      Ctrl-d
 
 Each line of output is printed immediately.  Compare that behavior with
@@ -13924,27 +13924,27 @@ this example:
      1 1
      2 3
      Ctrl-d
-     -| 2
-     -| 5
+     ⊣ 2
+     ⊣ 5
 
-Here, no output is printed until after the 'Ctrl-d' is typed, because it
-is all buffered and sent down the pipe to 'cat' in one shot.
+Here, no output is printed until after the ‘Ctrl-d’ is typed, because it
+is all buffered and sent down the pipe to ‘cat’ in one shot.
 
-'system(COMMAND)'
+‘system(COMMAND)’
      Execute the operating system command COMMAND and then return to the
-     'awk' program.  Return COMMAND's exit status (see further on).
+     ‘awk’ program.  Return COMMAND’s exit status (see further on).
 
-     For example, if the following fragment of code is put in your 'awk'
+     For example, if the following fragment of code is put in your ‘awk’
      program:
 
           END {
                system("date | mail -s 'awk run done' root")
           }
 
-     the system administrator is sent mail when the 'awk' program
+     the system administrator is sent mail when the ‘awk’ program
      finishes processing input and begins its end-of-input processing.
 
-     Note that redirecting 'print' or 'printf' into a pipe is often
+     Note that redirecting ‘print’ or ‘printf’ into a pipe is often
      enough to accomplish your task.  If you need to run many commands,
      it is more efficient to simply print them down a pipeline to the
      shell:
@@ -13953,66 +13953,66 @@ is all buffered and sent down the pipe to 'cat' in 
one shot.
               print COMMAND | "/bin/sh"
           close("/bin/sh")
 
-     However, if your 'awk' program is interactive, 'system()' is useful
+     However, if your ‘awk’ program is interactive, ‘system()’ is 
useful
      for running large self-contained programs, such as a shell or an
-     editor.  Some operating systems cannot implement the 'system()'
-     function.  'system()' causes a fatal error if it is not supported.
+     editor.  Some operating systems cannot implement the ‘system()’
+     function.  ‘system()’ causes a fatal error if it is not supported.
 
-          NOTE: When '--sandbox' is specified, the 'system()' function
+          NOTE: When ‘--sandbox’ is specified, the ‘system()’ function
           is disabled (*note Options::).
 
-     On POSIX systems, a command's exit status is a 16-bit number.  The
-     exit value passed to the C 'exit()' function is held in the
+     On POSIX systems, a command’s exit status is a 16-bit number.  The
+     exit value passed to the C ‘exit()’ function is held in the
      high-order eight bits.  The low-order bits indicate if the process
      was killed by a signal (bit 7) and if so, the guilty signal number
-     (bits 0-6).
+     (bits 0–6).
 
-     Traditionally, 'awk''s 'system()' function has simply returned the
+     Traditionally, ‘awk’’s ‘system()’ function has simply returned 
the
      exit status value divided by 256.  In the normal case this gives
      the exit status but in the case of death-by-signal it yields a
-     fractional floating-point value.(2)  POSIX states that 'awk''s
-     'system()' should return the full 16-bit value.
+     fractional floating-point value.(2)  POSIX states that ‘awk’’s
+     ‘system()’ should return the full 16-bit value.
 
-     'gawk' steers a middle ground.  The return values are summarized in
+     ‘gawk’ steers a middle ground.  The return values are summarized in
      *note Table 9.5: table-system-return-values.
 
 
-     Situation                     Return value from 'system()'
+     Situation                     Return value from ‘system()’
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-     '--traditional'               C 'system()''s value divided by 256
-     '--posix'                     C 'system()''s value
-     Normal exit of command        Command's exit status
+     ‘--traditional’               C ‘system()’’s value divided by 
256
+     ‘--posix’                     C ‘system()’’s value
+     Normal exit of command        Command’s exit status
      Death by signal of command    256 + number of murderous signal
      Death by signal of command    512 + number of murderous signal
      with core dump
-     Some kind of error            -1
+     Some kind of error            −1
 
-     Table 9.5: Return values from 'system()'
+     Table 9.5: Return values from ‘system()’
 
-   As of August, 2018, BWK 'awk' now follows 'gawk''s behavior for the
-return value of 'system()'.
+   As of August, 2018, BWK ‘awk’ now follows ‘gawk’’s behavior for 
the
+return value of ‘system()’.
 
-             Controlling Output Buffering with 'system()'
+             Controlling Output Buffering with ‘system()’
 
-   The 'fflush()' function provides explicit control over output
+   The ‘fflush()’ function provides explicit control over output
 buffering for individual files and pipes.  However, its use is not
-portable to many older 'awk' implementations.  An alternative method to
-flush output buffers is to call 'system()' with a null string as its
+portable to many older ‘awk’ implementations.  An alternative method to
+flush output buffers is to call ‘system()’ with a null string as its
 argument:
 
      system("")   # flush output
 
-'gawk' treats this use of the 'system()' function as a special case and
+‘gawk’ treats this use of the ‘system()’ function as a special case and
 is smart enough not to run a shell (or other command interpreter) with
-the empty command.  Therefore, with 'gawk', this idiom is not only
+the empty command.  Therefore, with ‘gawk’, this idiom is not only
 useful, it is also efficient.  Although this method should work with
-other 'awk' implementations, it does not necessarily avoid starting an
+other ‘awk’ implementations, it does not necessarily avoid starting an
 unnecessary shell.  (Other implementations may only flush the buffer
 associated with the standard output and not necessarily all buffered
 output.)
 
    If you think about what a programmer expects, it makes sense that
-'system()' should flush any pending output.  The following program:
+‘system()’ should flush any pending output.  The following program:
 
      BEGIN {
           print "first print"
@@ -14032,7 +14032,7 @@ and not:
      first print
      second print
 
-   If 'awk' did not flush its buffers before calling 'system()', you
+   If ‘awk’ did not flush its buffers before calling ‘system()’, you
 would see the latter (undesirable) output.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
@@ -14050,10 +14050,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Time Functions,  Next: 
Bitwise Functions,  Prev: I/O Fun
 9.1.6 Time Functions
 --------------------
 
-'awk' programs are commonly used to process log files containing
+‘awk’ programs are commonly used to process log files containing
 timestamp information, indicating when a particular log record was
 written.  Many programs log their timestamps in the form returned by the
-'time()' system call, which is the number of seconds since a particular
+‘time()’ system call, which is the number of seconds since a particular
 epoch.  On POSIX-compliant systems, it is the number of seconds since
 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC, not counting leap seconds.(1)  All known
 POSIX-compliant systems support timestamps from 0 through 2^31 - 1,
@@ -14062,254 +14062,254 @@ Many systems support a wider range of timestamps, 
including negative
 timestamps that represent times before the epoch.
 
    In order to make it easier to process such log files and to produce
-useful reports, 'gawk' provides the following functions for working with
-timestamps.  They are 'gawk' extensions; they are not specified in the
-POSIX standard.(2)  However, recent versions of 'mawk' (*note Other
+useful reports, ‘gawk’ provides the following functions for working with
+timestamps.  They are ‘gawk’ extensions; they are not specified in the
+POSIX standard.(2)  However, recent versions of ‘mawk’ (*note Other
 Versions::) also support these functions.  Optional parameters are
 enclosed in square brackets ([ ]):
 
-'mktime(DATESPEC' [', UTC-FLAG' ]')'
+‘mktime(DATESPEC’ [‘, UTC-FLAG’ ]‘)’
      Turn DATESPEC into a timestamp in the same form as is returned by
-     'systime()'.  It is similar to the function of the same name in ISO
+     ‘systime()’.  It is similar to the function of the same name in ISO
      C. The argument, DATESPEC, is a string of the form
-     '"YYYY MM DD HH MM SS [DST]"'.  The string consists of six or seven
+     ‘"YYYY MM DD HH MM SS [DST]"’.  The string consists of six or seven
      numbers representing, respectively, the full year including
      century, the month from 1 to 12, the day of the month from 1 to 31,
      the hour of the day from 0 to 23, the minute from 0 to 59, the
      second from 0 to 60,(3) and an optional daylight-savings flag.
 
      The values of these numbers need not be within the ranges
-     specified; for example, an hour of -1 means 1 hour before midnight.
+     specified; for example, an hour of −1 means 1 hour before midnight.
      The origin-zero Gregorian calendar is assumed, with year 0
-     preceding year 1 and year -1 preceding year 0.  If UTC-FLAG is
+     preceding year 1 and year −1 preceding year 0.  If UTC-FLAG is
      present and is either nonzero or non-null, the time is assumed to
      be in the UTC time zone; otherwise, the time is assumed to be in
      the local time zone.  If the DST daylight-savings flag is positive,
      the time is assumed to be daylight savings time; if zero, the time
      is assumed to be standard time; and if negative (the default),
-     'mktime()' attempts to determine whether daylight savings time is
+     ‘mktime()’ attempts to determine whether daylight savings time is
      in effect for the specified time.
 
      If DATESPEC does not contain enough elements or if the resulting
-     time is out of range, 'mktime()' returns -1.
+     time is out of range, ‘mktime()’ returns −1.
 
-'strftime('[FORMAT [',' TIMESTAMP [',' UTC-FLAG] ] ]')'
+‘strftime(’[FORMAT [‘,’ TIMESTAMP [‘,’ UTC-FLAG] ] ]‘)’
      Format the time specified by TIMESTAMP based on the contents of the
      FORMAT string and return the result.  It is similar to the function
      of the same name in ISO C. If UTC-FLAG is present and is either
      nonzero or non-null, the value is formatted as UTC (Coordinated
      Universal Time, formerly GMT or Greenwich Mean Time).  Otherwise,
      the value is formatted for the local time zone.  The TIMESTAMP is
-     in the same format as the value returned by the 'systime()'
-     function.  If no TIMESTAMP argument is supplied, 'gawk' uses the
+     in the same format as the value returned by the ‘systime()’
+     function.  If no TIMESTAMP argument is supplied, ‘gawk’ uses the
      current time of day as the timestamp.  Without a FORMAT argument,
-     'strftime()' uses the value of 'PROCINFO["strftime"]' as the format
+     ‘strftime()’ uses the value of ‘PROCINFO["strftime"]’ as the 
format
      string (*note Built-in Variables::).  The default string value is
-     '"%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y"'.  This format string produces output
-     that is equivalent to that of the 'date' utility.  You can assign a
-     new value to 'PROCINFO["strftime"]' to change the default format;
+     ‘"%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y"’.  This format string produces output
+     that is equivalent to that of the ‘date’ utility.  You can assign a
+     new value to ‘PROCINFO["strftime"]’ to change the default format;
      see the following list for the various format directives.
 
-'systime()'
+‘systime()’
      Return the current time as the number of seconds since the system
      epoch.  On POSIX systems, this is the number of seconds since
      1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC, not counting leap seconds.  It may be a
      different number on other systems.
 
-   The 'systime()' function allows you to compare a timestamp from a log
+   The ‘systime()’ function allows you to compare a timestamp from a log
 file with the current time of day.  In particular, it is easy to
 determine how long ago a particular record was logged.  It also allows
-you to produce log records using the "seconds since the epoch" format.
+you to produce log records using the “seconds since the epoch” format.
 
-   The 'mktime()' function allows you to convert a textual
+   The ‘mktime()’ function allows you to convert a textual
 representation of a date and time into a timestamp.  This makes it easy
 to do before/after comparisons of dates and times, particularly when
 dealing with date and time data coming from an external source, such as
 a log file.
 
-   The 'strftime()' function allows you to easily turn a timestamp into
-human-readable information.  It is similar in nature to the 'sprintf()'
+   The ‘strftime()’ function allows you to easily turn a timestamp into
+human-readable information.  It is similar in nature to the ‘sprintf()’
 function (*note String Functions::), in that it copies nonformat
 specification characters verbatim to the returned string, while
 substituting date and time values for format specifications in the
 FORMAT string.
 
-   'strftime()' is guaranteed by the 1999 ISO C standard(4) to support
+   ‘strftime()’ is guaranteed by the 1999 ISO C standard(4) to support
 the following date format specifications:
 
-'%a'
-     The locale's abbreviated weekday name.
+‘%a’
+     The locale’s abbreviated weekday name.
 
-'%A'
-     The locale's full weekday name.
+‘%A’
+     The locale’s full weekday name.
 
-'%b'
-     The locale's abbreviated month name.
+‘%b’
+     The locale’s abbreviated month name.
 
-'%B'
-     The locale's full month name.
+‘%B’
+     The locale’s full month name.
 
-'%c'
-     The locale's "appropriate" date and time representation.  (This is
-     '%A %B %d %T %Y' in the '"C"' locale.)
+‘%c’
+     The locale’s “appropriate” date and time representation.  (This is
+     ‘%A %B %d %T %Y’ in the ‘"C"’ locale.)
 
-'%C'
+‘%C’
      The century part of the current year.  This is the year divided by
      100 and truncated to the next lower integer.
 
-'%d'
-     The day of the month as a decimal number (01-31).
+‘%d’
+     The day of the month as a decimal number (01–31).
 
-'%D'
-     Equivalent to specifying '%m/%d/%y'.
+‘%D’
+     Equivalent to specifying ‘%m/%d/%y’.
 
-'%e'
+‘%e’
      The day of the month, padded with a space if it is only one digit.
 
-'%F'
-     Equivalent to specifying '%Y-%m-%d'.  This is the ISO 8601 date
+‘%F’
+     Equivalent to specifying ‘%Y-%m-%d’.  This is the ISO 8601 date
      format.
 
-'%g'
+‘%g’
      The year modulo 100 of the ISO 8601 week number, as a decimal
-     number (00-99).  For example, January 1, 2012, is in week 53 of
+     number (00–99).  For example, January 1, 2012, is in week 53 of
      2011.  Thus, the year of its ISO 8601 week number is 2011, even
      though its year is 2012.  Similarly, December 31, 2012, is in week
      1 of 2013.  Thus, the year of its ISO week number is 2013, even
      though its year is 2012.
 
-'%G'
+‘%G’
      The full year of the ISO week number, as a decimal number.
 
-'%h'
-     Equivalent to '%b'.
+‘%h’
+     Equivalent to ‘%b’.
 
-'%H'
-     The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (00-23).
+‘%H’
+     The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (00–23).
 
-'%I'
-     The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (01-12).
+‘%I’
+     The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (01–12).
 
-'%j'
-     The day of the year as a decimal number (001-366).
+‘%j’
+     The day of the year as a decimal number (001–366).
 
-'%m'
-     The month as a decimal number (01-12).
+‘%m’
+     The month as a decimal number (01–12).
 
-'%M'
-     The minute as a decimal number (00-59).
+‘%M’
+     The minute as a decimal number (00–59).
 
-'%n'
+‘%n’
      A newline character (ASCII LF).
 
-'%p'
-     The locale's equivalent of the AM/PM designations associated with a
+‘%p’
+     The locale’s equivalent of the AM/PM designations associated with a
      12-hour clock.
 
-'%r'
-     The locale's 12-hour clock time.  (This is '%I:%M:%S %p' in the
-     '"C"' locale.)
+‘%r’
+     The locale’s 12-hour clock time.  (This is ‘%I:%M:%S %p’ in the
+     ‘"C"’ locale.)
 
-'%R'
-     Equivalent to specifying '%H:%M'.
+‘%R’
+     Equivalent to specifying ‘%H:%M’.
 
-'%S'
-     The second as a decimal number (00-60).
+‘%S’
+     The second as a decimal number (00–60).
 
-'%t'
+‘%t’
      A TAB character.
 
-'%T'
-     Equivalent to specifying '%H:%M:%S'.
+‘%T’
+     Equivalent to specifying ‘%H:%M:%S’.
 
-'%u'
-     The weekday as a decimal number (1-7).  Monday is day one.
+‘%u’
+     The weekday as a decimal number (1–7).  Monday is day one.
 
-'%U'
+‘%U’
      The week number of the year (with the first Sunday as the first day
-     of week one) as a decimal number (00-53).
+     of week one) as a decimal number (00–53).
 
-'%V'
+‘%V’
      The week number of the year (with the first Monday as the first day
-     of week one) as a decimal number (01-53).  The method for
+     of week one) as a decimal number (01–53).  The method for
      determining the week number is as specified by ISO 8601.  (To wit:
      if the week containing January 1 has four or more days in the new
      year, then it is week one; otherwise it is the last week [52 or 53]
      of the previous year and the next week is week one.)
 
-'%w'
-     The weekday as a decimal number (0-6).  Sunday is day zero.
+‘%w’
+     The weekday as a decimal number (0–6).  Sunday is day zero.
 
-'%W'
+‘%W’
      The week number of the year (with the first Monday as the first day
-     of week one) as a decimal number (00-53).
+     of week one) as a decimal number (00–53).
 
-'%x'
-     The locale's "appropriate" date representation.  (This is '%A %B %d
-     %Y' in the '"C"' locale.)
+‘%x’
+     The locale’s “appropriate” date representation.  (This is ‘%A %B 
%d
+     %Y’ in the ‘"C"’ locale.)
 
-'%X'
-     The locale's "appropriate" time representation.  (This is '%T' in
-     the '"C"' locale.)
+‘%X’
+     The locale’s “appropriate” time representation.  (This is ‘%T’ 
in
+     the ‘"C"’ locale.)
 
-'%y'
-     The year modulo 100 as a decimal number (00-99).
+‘%y’
+     The year modulo 100 as a decimal number (00–99).
 
-'%Y'
+‘%Y’
      The full year as a decimal number (e.g., 2015).
 
-'%z'
-     The time zone offset in a '+HHMM' format (e.g., the format
+‘%z’
+     The time zone offset in a ‘+HHMM’ format (e.g., the format
      necessary to produce RFC 822/RFC 1036 date headers).
 
-'%Z'
+‘%Z’
      The time zone name or abbreviation; no characters if no time zone
      is determinable.
 
-'%Ec %EC %Ex %EX %Ey %EY %Od %Oe %OH'
-'%OI %Om %OM %OS %Ou %OU %OV %Ow %OW %Oy'
-     "Alternative representations" for the specifications that use only
-     the second letter ('%c', '%C', and so on).(5)  (These facilitate
-     compliance with the POSIX 'date' utility.)
+‘%Ec %EC %Ex %EX %Ey %EY %Od %Oe %OH’
+‘%OI %Om %OM %OS %Ou %OU %OV %Ow %OW %Oy’
+     “Alternative representations” for the specifications that use only
+     the second letter (‘%c’, ‘%C’, and so on).(5)  (These facilitate
+     compliance with the POSIX ‘date’ utility.)
 
-'%%'
-     A literal '%'.
+‘%%’
+     A literal ‘%’.
 
    If a conversion specifier is not one of those just listed, the
 behavior is undefined.(6)
 
-   For systems that are not yet fully standards-compliant, 'gawk'
-supplies a copy of 'strftime()' from the GNU C Library.  It supports all
+   For systems that are not yet fully standards-compliant, ‘gawk’
+supplies a copy of ‘strftime()’ from the GNU C Library.  It supports all
 of the just-listed format specifications.  If that version is used to
-compile 'gawk' (*note Installation::), then the following additional
+compile ‘gawk’ (*note Installation::), then the following additional
 format specifications are available:
 
-'%k'
-     The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (0-23).  Single-digit
+‘%k’
+     The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (0–23).  Single-digit
      numbers are padded with a space.
 
-'%l'
-     The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (1-12).  Single-digit
+‘%l’
+     The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (1–12).  Single-digit
      numbers are padded with a space.
 
-'%s'
+‘%s’
      The time as a decimal timestamp in seconds since the epoch.
 
    Additionally, the alternative representations are recognized but
 their normal representations are used.
 
-   The following example is an 'awk' implementation of the POSIX 'date'
-utility.  Normally, the 'date' utility prints the current date and time
+   The following example is an ‘awk’ implementation of the POSIX ‘date’
+utility.  Normally, the ‘date’ utility prints the current date and time
 of day in a well-known format.  However, if you provide an argument to
-it that begins with a '+', 'date' copies nonformat specifier characters
+it that begins with a ‘+’, ‘date’ copies nonformat specifier characters
 to the standard output and interprets the current time according to the
 format specifiers in the string.  For example:
 
      $ date '+Today is %A, %B %d, %Y.'
-     -| Today is Monday, September 22, 2014.
+     ⊣ Today is Monday, September 22, 2014.
 
-   Here is the 'gawk' version of the 'date' utility.  It has a shell
-"wrapper" to handle the '-u' option, which requires that 'date' run as
+   Here is the ‘gawk’ version of the ‘date’ utility.  It has a shell
+“wrapper” to handle the ‘-u’ option, which requires that ‘date’ 
run as
 if the time zone is set to UTC:
 
      #! /bin/sh
@@ -14339,26 +14339,26 @@ if the time zone is set to UTC:
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) *Note Glossary::, especially the entries "Epoch" and "UTC."
+   (1) *Note Glossary::, especially the entries “Epoch” and “UTC.”
 
-   (2) The GNU 'date' utility can also do many of the things described
+   (2) The GNU ‘date’ utility can also do many of the things described
 here.  Its use may be preferable for simple time-related operations in
 shell scripts.
 
    (3) Occasionally there are minutes in a year with a leap second,
 which is why the seconds can go up to 60.
 
-   (4) Unfortunately, not every system's 'strftime()' necessarily
+   (4) Unfortunately, not every system’s ‘strftime()’ necessarily
 supports all of the conversions listed here.
 
-   (5) If you don't understand any of this, don't worry about it; these
-facilities are meant to make it easier to "internationalize" programs.
+   (5) If you don’t understand any of this, don’t worry about it; these
+facilities are meant to make it easier to “internationalize” programs.
 Other internationalization features are described in *note
 Internationalization::.
 
    (6) This is because ISO C leaves the behavior of the C version of
-'strftime()' undefined and 'gawk' uses the system's version of
-'strftime()' if it's there.  Typically, the conversion specifier either
+‘strftime()’ undefined and ‘gawk’ uses the system’s version of
+‘strftime()’ if it’s there.  Typically, the conversion specifier either
 does not appear in the returned string or appears literally.
 
 
@@ -14367,10 +14367,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Bitwise Functions,  Next: 
Type Functions,  Prev: Time Fu
 9.1.7 Bit-Manipulation Functions
 --------------------------------
 
-     I can explain it for you, but I can't understand it for you.
-                            -- _Anonymous_
+     I can explain it for you, but I can’t understand it for you.
+                             — _Anonymous_
 
-   Many languages provide the ability to perform "bitwise" operations on
+   Many languages provide the ability to perform “bitwise” operations on
 two integer numbers.  In other words, the operation is performed on each
 successive pair of bits in the operands.  Three common operations are
 bitwise AND, OR, and XOR. The operations are described in *note Table
@@ -14390,43 +14390,43 @@ Table 9.6: Bitwise operations
    As you can see, the result of an AND operation is 1 only when _both_
 bits are 1.  The result of an OR operation is 1 if _either_ bit is 1.
 The result of an XOR operation is 1 if either bit is 1, but not both.
-The next operation is the "complement"; the complement of 1 is 0 and the
-complement of 0 is 1.  Thus, this operation "flips" all the bits of a
+The next operation is the “complement”; the complement of 1 is 0 and the
+complement of 0 is 1.  Thus, this operation “flips” all the bits of a
 given value.
 
    Finally, two other common operations are to shift the bits left or
-right.  For example, if you have a bit string '10111001' and you shift
-it right by three bits, you end up with '00010111'.(1)  If you start
-over again with '10111001' and shift it left by three bits, you end up
-with '11001000'.  The following list describes 'gawk''s built-in
+right.  For example, if you have a bit string ‘10111001’ and you shift
+it right by three bits, you end up with ‘00010111’.(1)  If you start
+over again with ‘10111001’ and shift it left by three bits, you end up
+with ‘11001000’.  The following list describes ‘gawk’’s built-in
 functions that implement the bitwise operations.  Optional parameters
 are enclosed in square brackets ([ ]):
 
-'and('V1',' V2 [',' ...]')'
+‘and(’V1‘,’ V2 [‘,’ ...]‘)’
      Return the bitwise AND of the arguments.  There must be at least
      two.
 
-'compl(VAL)'
+‘compl(VAL)’
      Return the bitwise complement of VAL.
 
-'lshift(VAL, COUNT)'
+‘lshift(VAL, COUNT)’
      Return the value of VAL, shifted left by COUNT bits.
 
-'or('V1',' V2 [',' ...]')'
+‘or(’V1‘,’ V2 [‘,’ ...]‘)’
      Return the bitwise OR of the arguments.  There must be at least
      two.
 
-'rshift(VAL, COUNT)'
+‘rshift(VAL, COUNT)’
      Return the value of VAL, shifted right by COUNT bits.
 
-'xor('V1',' V2 [',' ...]')'
+‘xor(’V1‘,’ V2 [‘,’ ...]‘)’
      Return the bitwise XOR of the arguments.  There must be at least
      two.
 
-     CAUTION: Beginning with 'gawk' version 4.2, negative operands are
+     CAUTION: Beginning with ‘gawk’ version 4.2, negative operands are
      not allowed for any of these functions.  A negative operand
-     produces a fatal error.  See the sidebar "Beware The Smoke and
-     Mirrors!"  for more information as to why.
+     produces a fatal error.  See the sidebar “Beware The Smoke and
+     Mirrors!” for more information as to why.
 
    Here is a user-defined function (*note User-defined::) that
 illustrates the use of these functions:
@@ -14463,31 +14463,31 @@ illustrates the use of these functions:
 This program produces the following output when run:
 
      $ gawk -f testbits.awk
-     -| 123 = 01111011
-     -| 0123 = 01010011
-     -| 0x99 = 10011001
-     -| compl(0x99) = 0x3fffffffffff66 =
-     -| 00111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111101100110
-     -| lshift(0x99, 2) = 0x264 = 0000001001100100
-     -| rshift(0x99, 2) = 0x26 = 00100110
-
-   The 'bits2str()' function turns a binary number into a string.
-Initializing 'mask' to one creates a binary value where the rightmost
+     ⊣ 123 = 01111011
+     ⊣ 0123 = 01010011
+     ⊣ 0x99 = 10011001
+     ⊣ compl(0x99) = 0x3fffffffffff66 =
+     ⊣ 00111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111101100110
+     ⊣ lshift(0x99, 2) = 0x264 = 0000001001100100
+     ⊣ rshift(0x99, 2) = 0x26 = 00100110
+
+   The ‘bits2str()’ function turns a binary number into a string.
+Initializing ‘mask’ to one creates a binary value where the rightmost
 bit is set to one.  Using this mask, the function repeatedly checks the
 rightmost bit.  ANDing the mask with the value indicates whether the
-rightmost bit is one or not.  If so, a '"1"' is concatenated onto the
-front of the string.  Otherwise, a '"0"' is added.  The value is then
+rightmost bit is one or not.  If so, a ‘"1"’ is concatenated onto the
+front of the string.  Otherwise, a ‘"0"’ is added.  The value is then
 shifted right by one bit and the loop continues until there are no more
 one bits.
 
-   If the initial value is zero, it returns a simple '"0"'.  Otherwise,
+   If the initial value is zero, it returns a simple ‘"0"’.  Otherwise,
 at the end, it pads the value with zeros to represent multiples of 8-bit
 quantities.  This is typical in modern computers.
 
-   The main code in the 'BEGIN' rule shows the difference between the
+   The main code in the ‘BEGIN’ rule shows the difference between the
 decimal and octal values for the same numbers (*note
 Nondecimal-numbers::), and then demonstrates the results of the
-'compl()', 'lshift()', and 'rshift()' functions.
+‘compl()’, ‘lshift()’, and ‘rshift()’ functions.
 
                      Beware The Smoke and Mirrors!
 
@@ -14495,52 +14495,52 @@ Nondecimal-numbers::), and then demonstrates the 
results of the
 values, not floating-point values.  As a general statement, such
 operations work best when performed on unsigned integers.
 
-   'gawk' attempts to treat the arguments to the bitwise functions as
+   ‘gawk’ attempts to treat the arguments to the bitwise functions as
 unsigned integers.  For this reason, negative arguments produce a fatal
 error.
 
    In normal operation, for all of these functions, first the
 double-precision floating-point value is converted to the widest C
 unsigned integer type, then the bitwise operation is performed.  If the
-result cannot be represented exactly as a C 'double', leading nonzero
+result cannot be represented exactly as a C ‘double’, leading nonzero
 bits are removed one by one until it can be represented exactly.  The
-result is then converted back into a C 'double'.(2)
+result is then converted back into a C ‘double’.(2)
 
-   However, when using arbitrary precision arithmetic with the '-M'
+   However, when using arbitrary precision arithmetic with the ‘-M’
 option (*note Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic::), the results may differ.
-This is particularly noticeable with the 'compl()' function:
+This is particularly noticeable with the ‘compl()’ function:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print compl(42) }'
-     -| 9007199254740949
+     ⊣ 9007199254740949
      $ gawk -M 'BEGIN { print compl(42) }'
-     -| -43
+     ⊣ -43
 
-   What's going on becomes clear when printing the results in
+   What’s going on becomes clear when printing the results in
 hexadecimal:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { printf "%#x\n", compl(42) }'
-     -| 0x1fffffffffffd5
+     ⊣ 0x1fffffffffffd5
      $ gawk -M 'BEGIN { printf "%#x\n", compl(42) }'
-     -| 0xffffffffffffffd5
+     ⊣ 0xffffffffffffffd5
 
-   When using the '-M' option, under the hood, 'gawk' uses GNU MP
+   When using the ‘-M’ option, under the hood, ‘gawk’ uses GNU MP
 arbitrary precision integers which have at least 64 bits of precision.
-When not using '-M', 'gawk' stores integral values in regular
+When not using ‘-M’, ‘gawk’ stores integral values in regular
 double-precision floating point, which only maintain 53 bits of
 precision.  Furthermore, the GNU MP library treats (or at least seems to
-treat) the leading bit as a sign bit; thus the result with '-M' in this
+treat) the leading bit as a sign bit; thus the result with ‘-M’ in this
 case is a negative number.
 
-   In short, using 'gawk' for any but the simplest kind of bitwise
+   In short, using ‘gawk’ for any but the simplest kind of bitwise
 operations is probably a bad idea; caveat emptor!
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) This example shows that zeros come in on the left side.  For
-'gawk', this is always true, but in some languages, it's possible to
+‘gawk’, this is always true, but in some languages, it’s possible to
 have the left side fill with ones.
 
-   (2) If you don't understand this paragraph, the upshot is that 'gawk'
+   (2) If you don’t understand this paragraph, the upshot is that ‘gawk’
 can only store a particular range of integer values; numbers outside
 that range are reduced to fit within the range.
 
@@ -14550,39 +14550,39 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Type Functions,  Next: I18N 
Functions,  Prev: Bitwise Fu
 9.1.8 Getting Type Information
 ------------------------------
 
-'gawk' provides two functions that let you distinguish the type of a
+‘gawk’ provides two functions that let you distinguish the type of a
 variable.  This is necessary for writing code that traverses every
 element of an array of arrays (*note Arrays of Arrays::), and in other
 contexts.
 
-'isarray(X)'
+‘isarray(X)’
      Return a true value if X is an array.  Otherwise, return false.
 
-'typeof(X)'
+‘typeof(X)’
      Return one of the following strings, depending upon the type of X:
 
-     '"array"'
+     ‘"array"’
           X is an array.
 
-     '"regexp"'
+     ‘"regexp"’
           X is a strongly typed regexp (*note Strong Regexp
           Constants::).
 
-     '"number"'
+     ‘"number"’
           X is a number.
 
-     '"number|bool"'
+     ‘"number|bool"’
           X is a Boolean typed value (*note Boolean Typed Values::).
 
-     '"string"'
+     ‘"string"’
           X is a string.
 
-     '"strnum"'
+     ‘"strnum"’
           X is a number that started life as user input, such as a field
-          or the result of calling 'split()'.  (I.e., X has the strnum
+          or the result of calling ‘split()’.  (I.e., X has the strnum
           attribute; *note Variable Typing::.)
 
-     '"unassigned"'
+     ‘"unassigned"’
           X is a scalar variable that has not been assigned a value yet.
           For example:
 
@@ -14592,7 +14592,7 @@ contexts.
                    print typeof(a[1])  # unassigned
                }
 
-     '"untyped"'
+     ‘"untyped"’
           X has not yet been used yet at all; it can become a scalar or
           an array.  The typing could even conceivably differ from run
           to run of the same program!  For example:
@@ -14612,24 +14612,24 @@ contexts.
 
                function make_array(p) { p[1] = 1 }
 
-   'isarray()' is meant for use in two circumstances.  The first is when
+   ‘isarray()’ is meant for use in two circumstances.  The first is when
 traversing a multidimensional array: you can test if an element is
 itself an array or not.  The second is inside the body of a user-defined
 function (not discussed yet; *note User-defined::), to test if a
 parameter is an array or not.
 
-     NOTE: While you can use 'isarray()' at the global level to test
+     NOTE: While you can use ‘isarray()’ at the global level to test
      variables, doing so makes no sense.  Because _you_ are the one
      writing the program, _you_ are supposed to know if your variables
      are arrays or not.
 
-   The 'typeof()' function is general; it allows you to determine if a
+   The ‘typeof()’ function is general; it allows you to determine if a
 variable or function parameter is a scalar (number, string, or strongly
 typed regexp) or an array.
 
    Normally, passing a variable that has never been used to a built-in
 function causes it to become a scalar variable (unassigned).  However,
-'isarray()' and 'typeof()' are different; they do not change their
+‘isarray()’ and ‘typeof()’ are different; they do not change their
 arguments from untyped to unassigned.
 
    This applies to both variables denoted by simple identifiers and
@@ -14637,18 +14637,18 @@ array elements that come into existence simply by 
referencing them.
 Consider:
 
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print typeof(x) }'
-     -| untyped
+     ⊣ untyped
      $ gawk 'BEGIN { print typeof(x["foo"]) }'
-     -| untyped
+     ⊣ untyped
 
    Note that prior to version 5.2, array elements that come into
 existence simply by referencing them were different, they were
 automatically forced to be scalars:
 
      $ gawk-5.1.1 'BEGIN { print typeof(x) }'
-     -| untyped
+     ⊣ untyped
      $ gawk-5.1.1 'BEGIN { print typeof(x["foo"]) }'
-     -| unassigned
+     ⊣ unassigned
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: I18N Functions,  Prev: Type Functions,  Up: Built-in
@@ -14656,34 +14656,34 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: I18N Functions,  Prev: Type 
Functions,  Up: Built-in
 9.1.9 String-Translation Functions
 ----------------------------------
 
-'gawk' provides facilities for internationalizing 'awk' programs.  These
+‘gawk’ provides facilities for internationalizing ‘awk’ programs.  
These
 include the functions described in the following list.  The descriptions
 here are purposely brief.  *Note Internationalization::, for the full
 story.  Optional parameters are enclosed in square brackets ([ ]):
 
-'bindtextdomain(DIRECTORY' [',' DOMAIN]')'
-     Set the directory in which 'gawk' will look for message translation
-     files, in case they will not or cannot be placed in the "standard"
+‘bindtextdomain(DIRECTORY’ [‘,’ DOMAIN]‘)’
+     Set the directory in which ‘gawk’ will look for message translation
+     files, in case they will not or cannot be placed in the “standard”
      locations (e.g., during testing).  It returns the directory in
-     which DOMAIN is "bound."
+     which DOMAIN is “bound.”
 
-     The default DOMAIN is the value of 'TEXTDOMAIN'.  If DIRECTORY is
-     the null string ('""'), then 'bindtextdomain()' returns the current
+     The default DOMAIN is the value of ‘TEXTDOMAIN’.  If DIRECTORY is
+     the null string (‘""’), then ‘bindtextdomain()’ returns the 
current
      binding for the given DOMAIN.
 
-'dcgettext(STRING' [',' DOMAIN [',' CATEGORY] ]')'
+‘dcgettext(STRING’ [‘,’ DOMAIN [‘,’ CATEGORY] ]‘)’
      Return the translation of STRING in text domain DOMAIN for locale
      category CATEGORY.  The default value for DOMAIN is the current
-     value of 'TEXTDOMAIN'.  The default value for CATEGORY is
-     '"LC_MESSAGES"'.
+     value of ‘TEXTDOMAIN’.  The default value for CATEGORY is
+     ‘"LC_MESSAGES"’.
 
-'dcngettext(STRING1, STRING2, NUMBER' [',' DOMAIN [',' CATEGORY] ]')'
+‘dcngettext(STRING1, STRING2, NUMBER’ [‘,’ DOMAIN [‘,’ CATEGORY] 
]‘)’
      Return the plural form used for NUMBER of the translation of
      STRING1 and STRING2 in text domain DOMAIN for locale category
      CATEGORY.  STRING1 is the English singular variant of a message,
      and STRING2 is the English plural variant of the same message.  The
-     default value for DOMAIN is the current value of 'TEXTDOMAIN'.  The
-     default value for CATEGORY is '"LC_MESSAGES"'.
+     default value for DOMAIN is the current value of ‘TEXTDOMAIN’.  The
+     default value for CATEGORY is ‘"LC_MESSAGES"’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: User-defined,  Next: Indirect Calls,  Prev: Built-in,  
Up: Functions
@@ -14691,10 +14691,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: User-defined,  Next: Indirect 
Calls,  Prev: Built-in,  U
 9.2 User-Defined Functions
 ==========================
 
-Complicated 'awk' programs can often be simplified by defining your own
+Complicated ‘awk’ programs can often be simplified by defining your own
 functions.  User-defined functions can be called just like built-in ones
 (*note Function Calls::), but it is up to you to define them (i.e., to
-tell 'awk' what they should do).
+tell ‘awk’ what they should do).
 
 * Menu:
 
@@ -14711,32 +14711,32 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Definition Syntax,  Next: 
Function Example,  Up: User-de
 9.2.1 Function Definition Syntax
 --------------------------------
 
-     It's entirely fair to say that the awk syntax for local variable
+     It’s entirely fair to say that the awk syntax for local variable
      definitions is appallingly awful.
-                         -- _Brian Kernighan_
+                          — _Brian Kernighan_
 
    Definitions of functions can appear anywhere between the rules of an
-'awk' program.  Thus, the general form of an 'awk' program is extended
+‘awk’ program.  Thus, the general form of an ‘awk’ program is extended
 to include sequences of rules _and_ user-defined function definitions.
 There is no need to put the definition of a function before all uses of
-the function.  This is because 'awk' reads the entire program before
+the function.  This is because ‘awk’ reads the entire program before
 starting to execute any of it.
 
    The definition of a function named NAME looks like this:
 
-     'function' NAME'('[PARAMETER-LIST]')'
-     '{'
+     ‘function’ NAME‘(’[PARAMETER-LIST]‘)’
+     ‘{’
           BODY-OF-FUNCTION
-     '}'
+     ‘}’
 
 Here, NAME is the name of the function to define.  A valid function name
 is like a valid variable name: a sequence of letters, digits, and
-underscores that doesn't start with a digit.  Here too, only the 52
+underscores that doesn’t start with a digit.  Here too, only the 52
 upper- and lowercase English letters may be used in a function name.
-Within a single 'awk' program, any particular name can only be used as a
+Within a single ‘awk’ program, any particular name can only be used as a
 variable, array, or function.
 
-   PARAMETER-LIST is an optional list of the function's arguments and
+   PARAMETER-LIST is an optional list of the function’s arguments and
 local variable names, separated by commas.  When the function is called,
 the argument names are used to hold the argument values given in the
 call.
@@ -14749,8 +14749,8 @@ have a parameter with the same name as the function 
itself.
      variables (*note Built-in Variables::), nor may a function
      parameter have the same name as another function.
 
-     Not all versions of 'awk' enforce these restrictions.  (d.c.)
-     'gawk' always enforces the first restriction.  With '--posix'
+     Not all versions of ‘awk’ enforce these restrictions.  (d.c.)
+     ‘gawk’ always enforces the first restriction.  With ‘--posix’
      (*note Options::), it also enforces the second restriction.
 
    Local variables act like the empty string if referenced where a
@@ -14759,7 +14759,7 @@ value is required.  This is the same as the behavior of 
regular
 variables that have never been assigned a value.  (There is more to
 understand about local variables; *note Dynamic Typing::.)
 
-   The BODY-OF-FUNCTION consists of 'awk' statements.  It is the most
+   The BODY-OF-FUNCTION consists of ‘awk’ statements.  It is the most
 important part of the definition, because it says what the function
 should actually _do_.  The argument names exist to give the body a way
 to talk about the arguments; local variables exist to give the body
@@ -14783,12 +14783,12 @@ the local variables, in order to document how your 
function is supposed
 to be used.
 
    During execution of the function body, the arguments and local
-variable values hide, or "shadow", any variables of the same names used
+variable values hide, or “shadow”, any variables of the same names used
 in the rest of the program.  The shadowed variables are not accessible
 in the function definition, because there is no way to name them while
 their names have been taken away for the arguments and local variables.
-All other variables used in the 'awk' program can be referenced or set
-normally in the function's body.
+All other variables used in the ‘awk’ program can be referenced or set
+normally in the function’s body.
 
    The arguments and local variables last only as long as the function
 body is executing.  Once the body finishes, you can once again access
@@ -14796,35 +14796,35 @@ the variables that were shadowed while the function 
was running.
 
    The function body can contain expressions that call functions.  They
 can even call this function, either directly or by way of another
-function.  When this happens, we say the function is "recursive".  The
-act of a function calling itself is called "recursion".
+function.  When this happens, we say the function is “recursive”.  The
+act of a function calling itself is called “recursion”.
 
    All the built-in functions return a value to their caller.
-User-defined functions can do so also, using the 'return' statement,
+User-defined functions can do so also, using the ‘return’ statement,
 which is described in detail in *note Return Statement::.  Many of the
-subsequent examples in this minor node use the 'return' statement.
+subsequent examples in this minor node use the ‘return’ statement.
 
-   In many 'awk' implementations, including 'gawk', the keyword
-'function' may be abbreviated 'func'.  (c.e.)  However, POSIX only
-specifies the use of the keyword 'function'.  This actually has some
-practical implications.  If 'gawk' is in POSIX-compatibility mode (*note
+   In many ‘awk’ implementations, including ‘gawk’, the keyword
+‘function’ may be abbreviated ‘func’.  (c.e.)  However, POSIX only
+specifies the use of the keyword ‘function’.  This actually has some
+practical implications.  If ‘gawk’ is in POSIX-compatibility mode (*note
 Options::), then the following statement does _not_ define a function:
 
      func foo() { a = sqrt($1) ; print a }
 
 Instead, it defines a rule that, for each record, concatenates the value
-of the variable 'func' with the return value of the function 'foo'.  If
+of the variable ‘func’ with the return value of the function ‘foo’.  If
 the resulting string is non-null, the action is executed.  This is
-probably not what is desired.  ('awk' accepts this input as
+probably not what is desired.  (‘awk’ accepts this input as
 syntactically valid, because functions may be used before they are
-defined in 'awk' programs.(1))
+defined in ‘awk’ programs.(1))
 
-   To ensure that your 'awk' programs are portable, always use the
-keyword 'function' when defining a function.
+   To ensure that your ‘awk’ programs are portable, always use the
+keyword ‘function’ when defining a function.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) This program won't actually run, because 'foo()' is undefined.
+   (1) This program won’t actually run, because ‘foo()’ is undefined.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Example,  Next: Function Calling,  Prev: 
Definition Syntax,  Up: User-defined
@@ -14832,7 +14832,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Example,  Next: 
Function Calling,  Prev: Defini
 9.2.2 Function Definition Examples
 ----------------------------------
 
-Here is an example of a user-defined function, called 'myprint()', that
+Here is an example of a user-defined function, called ‘myprint()’, that
 takes a number and prints it in a specific format:
 
      function myprint(num)
@@ -14840,7 +14840,7 @@ takes a number and prints it in a specific format:
           printf "%6.3g\n", num
      }
 
-To illustrate, here is an 'awk' rule that uses our 'myprint()' function:
+To illustrate, here is an ‘awk’ rule that uses our ‘myprint()’ 
function:
 
      $3 > 0     { myprint($3) }
 
@@ -14869,8 +14869,8 @@ extra whitespace signifies the start of the local 
variable list):
    When working with arrays, it is often necessary to delete all the
 elements in an array and start over with a new list of elements (*note
 Delete::).  Instead of having to repeat this loop everywhere that you
-need to clear out an array, your program can just call 'delarray()'.
-(This guarantees portability.  The use of 'delete ARRAY' to delete the
+need to clear out an array, your program can just call ‘delarray()’.
+(This guarantees portability.  The use of ‘delete ARRAY’ to delete the
 contents of an entire array is a relatively recent(1) addition to the
 POSIX standard.)
 
@@ -14888,17 +14888,17 @@ empty:
          return (rev(substr(str, 2)) substr(str, 1, 1))
      }
 
-   If this function is in a file named 'rev.awk', it can be tested this
+   If this function is in a file named ‘rev.awk’, it can be tested this
 way:
 
      $ echo "Don't Panic!" |
      > gawk -e '{ print rev($0) }' -f rev.awk
-     -| !cinaP t'noD
+     ⊣ !cinaP t'noD
 
-   The C 'ctime()' function takes a timestamp and returns it as a
+   The C ‘ctime()’ function takes a timestamp and returns it as a
 string, formatted in a well-known fashion.  The following example uses
-the built-in 'strftime()' function (*note Time Functions::) to create an
-'awk' version of 'ctime()':
+the built-in ‘strftime()’ function (*note Time Functions::) to create an
+‘awk’ version of ‘ctime()’:
 
      # ctime.awk
      #
@@ -14913,10 +14913,10 @@ the built-in 'strftime()' function (*note Time 
Functions::) to create an
          return strftime(format, ts)
      }
 
-   You might think that 'ctime()' could use 'PROCINFO["strftime"]' for
-its format string.  That would be a mistake, because 'ctime()' is
+   You might think that ‘ctime()’ could use ‘PROCINFO["strftime"]’ for
+its format string.  That would be a mistake, because ‘ctime()’ is
 supposed to return the time formatted in a standard fashion, and
-user-level code could have changed 'PROCINFO["strftime"]'.
+user-level code could have changed ‘PROCINFO["strftime"]’.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
@@ -14928,13 +14928,13 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Calling,  Next: 
Return Statement,  Prev: Functi
 9.2.3 Calling User-Defined Functions
 ------------------------------------
 
-"Calling a function" means causing the function to run and do its job.
+“Calling a function” means causing the function to run and do its job.
 A function call is an expression and its value is the value returned by
 the function.
 
 * Menu:
 
-* Calling A Function::          Don't use spaces.
+* Calling A Function::          Don’t use spaces.
 * Variable Scope::              Controlling variable scope.
 * Pass By Value/Reference::     Passing parameters.
 * Function Caveats::            Other points to know about functions.
@@ -14946,17 +14946,17 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Calling A Function,  Next: 
Variable Scope,  Up: Function
 ...............................
 
 A function call consists of the function name followed by the arguments
-in parentheses.  'awk' expressions are what you write in the call for
+in parentheses.  ‘awk’ expressions are what you write in the call for
 the arguments.  Each time the call is executed, these expressions are
 evaluated, and the values become the actual arguments.  For example,
-here is a call to 'foo()' with three arguments (the first being a string
+here is a call to ‘foo()’ with three arguments (the first being a string
 concatenation):
 
      foo(x y, "lose", 4 * z)
 
      CAUTION: Whitespace characters (spaces and TABs) are not allowed
      between the function name and the opening parenthesis of the
-     argument list.  If you write whitespace by mistake, 'awk' might
+     argument list.  If you write whitespace by mistake, ‘awk’ might
      think that you mean to concatenate a variable with an expression in
      parentheses.  However, it notices that you used a function name and
      not a variable name, and reports an error.
@@ -14968,14 +14968,14 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Variable Scope,  Next: Pass 
By Value/Reference,  Prev: C
 ..................................
 
 Unlike in many languages, there is no way to make a variable local to a
-'{' ... '}' block in 'awk', but you can make a variable local to a
+‘{’ ... ‘}’ block in ‘awk’, but you can make a variable local to a
 function.  It is good practice to do so whenever a variable is needed
 only in that function.
 
    To make a variable local to a function, simply declare the variable
 as an argument after the actual function arguments (*note Definition
-Syntax::).  Look at the following example, where variable 'i' is a
-global variable used by both functions 'foo()' and 'bar()':
+Syntax::).  Look at the following example, where variable ‘i’ is a
+global variable used by both functions ‘foo()’ and ‘bar()’:
 
      function bar()
      {
@@ -14998,8 +14998,8 @@ global variable used by both functions 'foo()' and 
'bar()':
            print "top's i=" i
      }
 
-   Running this script produces the following, because the 'i' in
-functions 'foo()' and 'bar()' and at the top level refer to the same
+   Running this script produces the following, because the ‘i’ in
+functions ‘foo()’ and ‘bar()’ and at the top level refer to the same
 variable instance:
 
      top's i=10
@@ -15010,9 +15010,9 @@ variable instance:
      foo's i=3
      top's i=3
 
-   If you want 'i' to be local to both 'foo()' and 'bar()', do as
-follows (the extra space before 'i' is a coding convention to indicate
-that 'i' is a local variable, not an argument):
+   If you want ‘i’ to be local to both ‘foo()’ and ‘bar()’, do as
+follows (the extra space before ‘i’ is a coding convention to indicate
+that ‘i’ is a local variable, not an argument):
 
      function bar(    i)
      {
@@ -15046,7 +15046,7 @@ that 'i' is a local variable, not an argument):
      top's i=10
 
    Besides scalar values (strings and numbers), you may also have local
-arrays.  By using a parameter name as an array, 'awk' treats it as an
+arrays.  By using a parameter name as an array, ‘awk’ treats it as an
 array, and it is local to the function.  In addition, recursive calls
 create new arrays.  Consider this example:
 
@@ -15087,9 +15087,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Pass By Value/Reference,  Next: 
Function Caveats,  Prev:
 9.2.3.3 Passing Function Arguments by Value Or by Reference
 ...........................................................
 
-In 'awk', when you declare a function, there is no way to declare
-explicitly whether the arguments are passed "by value" or "by
-reference".
+In ‘awk’, when you declare a function, there is no way to declare
+explicitly whether the arguments are passed “by value” or “by
+reference”.
 
    Instead, the passing convention is determined at runtime when the
 function is called, according to the following rule: if the argument is
@@ -15099,17 +15099,17 @@ argument is passed by value.
    Passing an argument by value means that when a function is called, it
 is given a _copy_ of the value of this argument.  The caller may use a
 variable as the expression for the argument, but the called function
-does not know this--it only knows what value the argument had.  For
+does not know this—it only knows what value the argument had.  For
 example, if you write the following code:
 
      foo = "bar"
      z = myfunc(foo)
 
-then you should not think of the argument to 'myfunc()' as being "the
-variable 'foo'."  Instead, think of the argument as the string value
-'"bar"'.  If the function 'myfunc()' alters the values of its local
+then you should not think of the argument to ‘myfunc()’ as being “the
+variable ‘foo’.” Instead, think of the argument as the string value
+‘"bar"’.  If the function ‘myfunc()’ alters the values of its local
 variables, this has no effect on any other variables.  Thus, if
-'myfunc()' does this:
+‘myfunc()’ does this:
 
      function myfunc(str)
      {
@@ -15118,17 +15118,17 @@ variables, this has no effect on any other variables. 
 Thus, if
         print str
      }
 
-to change its first argument variable 'str', it does _not_ change the
-value of 'foo' in the caller.  The role of 'foo' in calling 'myfunc()'
-ended when its value ('"bar"') was computed.  If 'str' also exists
-outside of 'myfunc()', the function body cannot alter this outer value,
-because it is shadowed during the execution of 'myfunc()' and cannot be
+to change its first argument variable ‘str’, it does _not_ change the
+value of ‘foo’ in the caller.  The role of ‘foo’ in calling 
‘myfunc()’
+ended when its value (‘"bar"’) was computed.  If ‘str’ also exists
+outside of ‘myfunc()’, the function body cannot alter this outer value,
+because it is shadowed during the execution of ‘myfunc()’ and cannot be
 seen or changed from there.
 
    However, when arrays are the parameters to functions, they are _not_
 copied.  Instead, the array itself is made available for direct
-manipulation by the function.  This is usually termed "call by
-reference".  Changes made to an array parameter inside the body of a
+manipulation by the function.  This is usually termed “call by
+reference”.  Changes made to an array parameter inside the body of a
 function _are_ visible outside that function.
 
      NOTE: Changing an array parameter inside a function can be very
@@ -15146,8 +15146,8 @@ function _are_ visible outside that function.
                       a[1], a[2], a[3]
           }
 
-     prints 'a[1] = 1, a[2] = two, a[3] = 3', because 'changeit()'
-     stores '"two"' in the second element of 'a'.
+     prints ‘a[1] = 1, a[2] = two, a[3] = 3’, because ‘changeit()’
+     stores ‘"two"’ in the second element of ‘a’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Caveats,  Prev: Pass By Value/Reference,  Up: 
Function Calling
@@ -15155,7 +15155,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Function Caveats,  Prev: Pass 
By Value/Reference,  Up: F
 9.2.3.4 Other Points About Calling Functions
 ............................................
 
-Some 'awk' implementations allow you to call a function that has not
+Some ‘awk’ implementations allow you to call a function that has not
 been defined.  They only report a problem at runtime, when the program
 actually tries to call the function.  For example:
 
@@ -15168,17 +15168,17 @@ actually tries to call the function.  For example:
      function bar() { ... }
      # note that `foo' is not defined
 
-Because the 'if' statement will never be true, it is not really a
-problem that 'foo()' has not been defined.  Usually, though, it is a
+Because the ‘if’ statement will never be true, it is not really a
+problem that ‘foo()’ has not been defined.  Usually, though, it is a
 problem if a program calls an undefined function.
 
-   If '--lint' is specified (*note Options::), 'gawk' reports calls to
+   If ‘--lint’ is specified (*note Options::), ‘gawk’ reports calls to
 undefined functions.
 
-   Some 'awk' implementations generate a runtime error if you use either
-the 'next' statement or the 'nextfile' statement (*note Next
+   Some ‘awk’ implementations generate a runtime error if you use either
+the ‘next’ statement or the ‘nextfile’ statement (*note Next
 Statement::, and *note Nextfile Statement::) inside a user-defined
-function.  'gawk' does not have this limitation.
+function.  ‘gawk’ does not have this limitation.
 
    You can call a function and pass it more parameters than it was
 declared with, like so:
@@ -15193,7 +15193,7 @@ declared with, like so:
      }
 
    Doing so is bad practice, however.  The called function cannot do
-anything with the additional values being passed to it, so 'awk'
+anything with the additional values being passed to it, so ‘awk’
 evaluates the expressions but then just throws them away.
 
    More importantly, such a call is confusing for whoever will next read
@@ -15202,44 +15202,44 @@ influence the computation performed by the function.  
Calling a function
 with more parameters than it accepts gives the false impression that
 those values are important to the function, when in fact they are not.
 
-   Because this is such a bad practice, 'gawk' _unconditionally_ issues
-a warning whenever it executes such a function call.  (If you don't like
-the warning, fix your code!  It's incorrect, after all.)
+   Because this is such a bad practice, ‘gawk’ _unconditionally_ issues
+a warning whenever it executes such a function call.  (If you don’t like
+the warning, fix your code!  It’s incorrect, after all.)
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Said person might even be you, sometime in the future, at which
-point you will wonder, "what was I thinking?!?"
+point you will wonder, “what was I thinking?!?”
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Return Statement,  Next: Dynamic Typing,  Prev: 
Function Calling,  Up: User-defined
 
-9.2.4 The 'return' Statement
+9.2.4 The ‘return’ Statement
 ----------------------------
 
 As seen in several earlier examples, the body of a user-defined function
-can contain a 'return' statement.  This statement returns control to the
-calling part of the 'awk' program.  It can also be used to return a
-value for use in the rest of the 'awk' program.  It looks like this:
+can contain a ‘return’ statement.  This statement returns control to the
+calling part of the ‘awk’ program.  It can also be used to return a
+value for use in the rest of the ‘awk’ program.  It looks like this:
 
-     'return' [EXPRESSION]
+     ‘return’ [EXPRESSION]
 
    The EXPRESSION part is optional.  Due most likely to an oversight,
 POSIX does not define what the return value is if you omit the
 EXPRESSION.  Technically speaking, this makes the returned value
 undefined, and therefore, unpredictable.  In practice, though, all
-versions of 'awk' simply return the null string, which acts like zero if
+versions of ‘awk’ simply return the null string, which acts like zero if
 used in a numeric context.
 
-   A 'return' statement without an EXPRESSION is assumed at the end of
+   A ‘return’ statement without an EXPRESSION is assumed at the end of
 every function definition.  So, if control reaches the end of the
 function body, then technically the function returns an unpredictable
-value.  In practice, it returns the empty string.  'awk' does _not_ warn
+value.  In practice, it returns the empty string.  ‘awk’ does _not_ warn
 you if you use the return value of such a function.
 
    Sometimes, you want to write a function for what it does, not for
-what it returns.  Such a function corresponds to a 'void' function in C,
-C++, or Java, or to a 'procedure' in Ada.  Thus, it may be appropriate
+what it returns.  Such a function corresponds to a ‘void’ function in C,
+C++, or Java, or to a ‘procedure’ in Ada.  Thus, it may be appropriate
 to not return any value; simply bear in mind that you should not be
 using the return value of such a function.
 
@@ -15255,15 +15255,15 @@ value for the largest number among the elements of an 
array:
           return ret
      }
 
-You call 'maxelt()' with one argument, which is an array name.  The
-local variables 'i' and 'ret' are not intended to be arguments; there is
-nothing to stop you from passing more than one argument to 'maxelt()'
-but the results would be strange.  The extra space before 'i' in the
-function parameter list indicates that 'i' and 'ret' are local
+You call ‘maxelt()’ with one argument, which is an array name.  The
+local variables ‘i’ and ‘ret’ are not intended to be arguments; there 
is
+nothing to stop you from passing more than one argument to ‘maxelt()’
+but the results would be strange.  The extra space before ‘i’ in the
+function parameter list indicates that ‘i’ and ‘ret’ are local
 variables.  You should follow this convention when defining functions.
 
-   The following program uses the 'maxelt()' function.  It loads an
-array, calls 'maxelt()', and then reports the maximum number in that
+   The following program uses the ‘maxelt()’ function.  It loads an
+array, calls ‘maxelt()’, and then reports the maximum number in that
 array:
 
      function maxelt(vec,   i, ret)
@@ -15302,7 +15302,7 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Dynamic Typing,  Prev: Return 
Statement,  Up: User-defin
 9.2.5 Functions and Their Effects on Variable Typing
 ----------------------------------------------------
 
-'awk' is a very fluid language.  It is possible that 'awk' can't tell if
+‘awk’ is a very fluid language.  It is possible that ‘awk’ can’t 
tell if
 an identifier represents a scalar variable or an array until runtime.
 Here is an annotated sample program:
 
@@ -15319,11 +15319,11 @@ Here is an annotated sample program:
          x = 1   # now not allowed, runtime error
      }
 
-   In this example, the first call to 'foo()' generates a fatal error,
-so 'awk' will not report the second error.  If you comment out that
-call, though, then 'awk' does report the second error.
+   In this example, the first call to ‘foo()’ generates a fatal error,
+so ‘awk’ will not report the second error.  If you comment out that
+call, though, then ‘awk’ does report the second error.
 
-   Usually, such things aren't a big issue, but it's worth being aware
+   Usually, such things aren’t a big issue, but it’s worth being aware
 of them.
 
 
@@ -15332,21 +15332,21 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Indirect Calls,  Next: 
Functions Summary,  Prev: User-de
 9.3 Indirect Function Calls
 ===========================
 
-This minor node describes an advanced, 'gawk'-specific extension.
+This minor node describes an advanced, ‘gawk’-specific extension.
 
    Often, you may wish to defer the choice of function to call until
 runtime.  For example, you may have different kinds of records, each of
 which should be processed differently.
 
-   Normally, you would have to use a series of 'if'-'else' statements to
-decide which function to call.  By using "indirect" function calls, you
+   Normally, you would have to use a series of ‘if’-‘else’ statements 
to
+decide which function to call.  By using “indirect” function calls, you
 can specify the name of the function to call as a string variable, and
-then call the function.  Let's look at an example.
+then call the function.  Let’s look at an example.
 
    Suppose you have a file with your test scores for the classes you are
 taking, and you wish to get the sum and the average of your test scores.
 The first field is the class name.  The following fields are the
-functions to call to process the data, up to a "marker" field 'data:'.
+functions to call to process the data, up to a “marker” field ‘data:’.
 Following the marker, to the end of the record, are the various numeric
 test scores.
 
@@ -15369,14 +15369,14 @@ test scores.
          }
      }
 
-This style of programming works, but can be awkward.  With "indirect"
-function calls, you tell 'gawk' to use the _value_ of a variable as the
+This style of programming works, but can be awkward.  With “indirect”
+function calls, you tell ‘gawk’ to use the _value_ of a variable as the
 _name_ of the function to call.
 
    The syntax is similar to that of a regular function call: an
 identifier immediately followed by an opening parenthesis, any
 arguments, and then a closing parenthesis, with the addition of a
-leading '@' character:
+leading ‘@’ character:
 
      the_function = "sum"
      result = @the_function()   # calls the sum() function
@@ -15409,7 +15409,7 @@ using indirect function calls:
      }
 
    These two functions expect to work on fields; thus, the parameters
-'first' and 'last' indicate where in the fields to start and end.
+‘first’ and ‘last’ indicate where in the fields to start and end.
 Otherwise, they perform the expected computations and are not unusual:
 
      # For each record, print the class name and the requested statistics
@@ -15435,11 +15435,11 @@ Otherwise, they perform the expected computations and 
are not unusual:
 
    This is the main processing for each record.  It prints the class
 name (with underscores replaced with spaces).  It then finds the start
-of the actual data, saving it in 'start'.  The last part of the code
-loops through each function name (from '$2' up to the marker, 'data:'),
+of the actual data, saving it in ‘start’.  The last part of the code
+loops through each function name (from ‘$2’ up to the marker, ‘data:’),
 calling the function named by the field.  The indirect function call
-itself occurs as a parameter in the call to 'printf'.  (The 'printf'
-format string uses '%s' as the format specifier so that we can use
+itself occurs as a parameter in the call to ‘printf’.  (The ‘printf’
+format string uses ‘%s’ as the format specifier so that we can use
 functions that return strings, as well as numbers.  Note that the result
 from the indirect call is concatenated with the empty string, in order
 to force it to be a string value.)
@@ -15447,29 +15447,29 @@ to force it to be a string value.)
    Here is the result of running the program:
 
      $ gawk -f indirectcall.awk class_data1
-     -| Biology 101:
-     -|     sum: <352.8>
-     -|     average: <88.2>
-     -|
-     -| Chemistry 305:
-     -|     sum: <356.4>
-     -|     average: <89.1>
-     -|
-     -| English 401:
-     -|     sum: <376.1>
-     -|     average: <94.025>
+     ⊣ Biology 101:
+     ⊣     sum: <352.8>
+     ⊣     average: <88.2>
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Chemistry 305:
+     ⊣     sum: <356.4>
+     ⊣     average: <89.1>
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ English 401:
+     ⊣     sum: <376.1>
+     ⊣     average: <94.025>
 
    The ability to use indirect function calls is more powerful than you
-may think at first.  The C and C++ languages provide "function
-pointers," which are a mechanism for calling a function chosen at
+may think at first.  The C and C++ languages provide “function
+pointers,” which are a mechanism for calling a function chosen at
 runtime.  One of the most well-known uses of this ability is the C
-'qsort()' function, which sorts an array using the famous "quicksort"
+‘qsort()’ function, which sorts an array using the famous “quicksort”
 algorithm (see the Wikipedia article
 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicksort) for more information).  To use
 this function, you supply a pointer to a comparison function.  This
 mechanism allows you to sort arbitrary data in an arbitrary fashion.
 
-   We can do something similar using 'gawk', like this:
+   We can do something similar using ‘gawk’, like this:
 
      # quicksort.awk --- Quicksort algorithm, with user-supplied
      #                   comparison function
@@ -15501,9 +15501,9 @@ mechanism allows you to sort arbitrary data in an 
arbitrary fashion.
          data[j] = temp
      }
 
-   The 'quicksort()' function receives the 'data' array, the starting
-and ending indices to sort ('left' and 'right'), and the name of a
-function that performs a "less than" comparison.  It then implements the
+   The ‘quicksort()’ function receives the ‘data’ array, the starting
+and ending indices to sort (‘left’ and ‘right’), and the name of a
+function that performs a “less than” comparison.  It then implements the
 quicksort algorithm.
 
    To make use of the sorting function, we return to our previous
@@ -15523,14 +15523,14 @@ example.  The first thing to do is write some 
comparison functions:
          return ((left + 0) >= (right + 0))
      }
 
-   The 'num_ge()' function is needed to perform a descending sort; when
-used to perform a "less than" test, it actually does the opposite
+   The ‘num_ge()’ function is needed to perform a descending sort; when
+used to perform a “less than” test, it actually does the opposite
 (greater than or equal to), which yields data sorted in descending
 order.
 
    Next comes a sorting function.  It is parameterized with the starting
 and ending field numbers and the comparison function.  It builds an
-array with the data and calls 'quicksort()' appropriately, and then
+array with the data and calls ‘quicksort()’ appropriately, and then
 formats the results as a single string:
 
      # do_sort --- sort the data according to `compare'
@@ -15553,7 +15553,7 @@ formats the results as a single string:
          return retval
      }
 
-   Finally, the two sorting functions call 'do_sort()', passing in the
+   Finally, the two sorting functions call ‘do_sort()’, passing in the
 names of the two comparison functions:
 
      # sort --- sort the data in ascending order and return it as a string
@@ -15579,65 +15579,65 @@ names of the two comparison functions:
    Finally, here are the results when the enhanced program is run:
 
      $ gawk -f quicksort.awk -f indirectcall.awk class_data2
-     -| Biology 101:
-     -|     sum: <352.8>
-     -|     average: <88.2>
-     -|     sort: <78.5 87.0 92.4 94.9>
-     -|     rsort: <94.9 92.4 87.0 78.5>
-     -|
-     -| Chemistry 305:
-     -|     sum: <356.4>
-     -|     average: <89.1>
-     -|     sort: <75.2 88.2 94.7 98.3>
-     -|     rsort: <98.3 94.7 88.2 75.2>
-     -|
-     -| English 401:
-     -|     sum: <376.1>
-     -|     average: <94.025>
-     -|     sort: <87.1 93.4 95.6 100.0>
-     -|     rsort: <100.0 95.6 93.4 87.1>
+     ⊣ Biology 101:
+     ⊣     sum: <352.8>
+     ⊣     average: <88.2>
+     ⊣     sort: <78.5 87.0 92.4 94.9>
+     ⊣     rsort: <94.9 92.4 87.0 78.5>
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ Chemistry 305:
+     ⊣     sum: <356.4>
+     ⊣     average: <89.1>
+     ⊣     sort: <75.2 88.2 94.7 98.3>
+     ⊣     rsort: <98.3 94.7 88.2 75.2>
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ English 401:
+     ⊣     sum: <376.1>
+     ⊣     average: <94.025>
+     ⊣     sort: <87.1 93.4 95.6 100.0>
+     ⊣     rsort: <100.0 95.6 93.4 87.1>
 
    Another example where indirect functions calls are useful can be
 found in processing arrays.  This is described in *note Walking
 Arrays::.
 
-   Remember that you must supply a leading '@' in front of an indirect
+   Remember that you must supply a leading ‘@’ in front of an indirect
 function call.
 
-   Starting with version 4.1.2 of 'gawk', indirect function calls may
+   Starting with version 4.1.2 of ‘gawk’, indirect function calls may
 also be used with built-in functions and with extension functions (*note
 Dynamic Extensions::).  There are some limitations when calling built-in
 functions indirectly, as follows.
 
-   * You cannot pass a regular expression constant to a built-in
+   • You cannot pass a regular expression constant to a built-in
      function through an indirect function call.  This applies to the
-     'sub()', 'gsub()', 'gensub()', 'match()', 'split()' and
-     'patsplit()' functions.  However, you can pass a strongly typed
+     ‘sub()’, ‘gsub()’, ‘gensub()’, ‘match()’, ‘split()’ 
and
+     ‘patsplit()’ functions.  However, you can pass a strongly typed
      regexp constant (*note Strong Regexp Constants::).
 
-   * If calling 'sub()' or 'gsub()', you may only pass two arguments,
+   • If calling ‘sub()’ or ‘gsub()’, you may only pass two arguments,
      since those functions are unusual in that they update their third
-     argument.  This means that '$0' will be updated.
+     argument.  This means that ‘$0’ will be updated.
 
-   * You cannot indirectly call built-in functions that can take '$0' as
+   • You cannot indirectly call built-in functions that can take ‘$0’ as
      a default parameter; you must supply an argument instead.  For
-     example, you must pass an argument to 'length()' if calling it
+     example, you must pass an argument to ‘length()’ if calling it
      indirectly.
 
-   * Calling a built-in function indirectly with the wrong number of
+   • Calling a built-in function indirectly with the wrong number of
      arguments for that function causes a fatal error.  For example,
-     calling 'length()' with two arguments.  These errors are found at
-     runtime instead of when 'gawk' parses your program, since 'gawk'
-     doesn't know until runtime if you have passed the correct number of
+     calling ‘length()’ with two arguments.  These errors are found at
+     runtime instead of when ‘gawk’ parses your program, since ‘gawk’
+     doesn’t know until runtime if you have passed the correct number of
      arguments or not.
 
-   'gawk' does its best to make indirect function calls efficient.  For
+   ‘gawk’ does its best to make indirect function calls efficient.  For
 example, in the following case:
 
      for (i = 1; i <= n; i++)
          @the_function()
 
-'gawk' looks up the actual function to call only once.
+‘gawk’ looks up the actual function to call only once.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Functions Summary,  Prev: Indirect Calls,  Up: 
Functions
@@ -15645,27 +15645,27 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Functions Summary,  Prev: 
Indirect Calls,  Up: Functions
 9.4 Summary
 ===========
 
-   * 'awk' provides built-in functions and lets you define your own
+   • ‘awk’ provides built-in functions and lets you define your own
      functions.
 
-   * POSIX 'awk' provides three kinds of built-in functions: numeric,
-     string, and I/O. 'gawk' provides functions that sort arrays, work
+   • POSIX ‘awk’ provides three kinds of built-in functions: numeric,
+     string, and I/O. ‘gawk’ provides functions that sort arrays, work
      with values representing time, do bit manipulation, determine
      variable type (array versus scalar), and internationalize and
-     localize programs.  'gawk' also provides several extensions to some
+     localize programs.  ‘gawk’ also provides several extensions to some
      of standard functions, typically in the form of additional
      arguments.
 
-   * Functions accept zero or more arguments and return a value.  The
+   • Functions accept zero or more arguments and return a value.  The
      expressions that provide the argument values are completely
      evaluated before the function is called.  Order of evaluation is
      not defined.  The return value can be ignored.
 
-   * The handling of backslash in 'sub()' and 'gsub()' is not simple.
-     It is more straightforward in 'gawk''s 'gensub()' function, but
+   • The handling of backslash in ‘sub()’ and ‘gsub()’ is not simple.
+     It is more straightforward in ‘gawk’’s ‘gensub()’ function, but
      that function still requires care in its use.
 
-   * User-defined functions provide important capabilities but come with
+   • User-defined functions provide important capabilities but come with
      some syntactic inelegancies.  In a function call, there cannot be
      any space between the function name and the opening left
      parenthesis of the argument list.  Also, there is no provision for
@@ -15673,26 +15673,26 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Functions Summary,  Prev: 
Indirect Calls,  Up: Functions
      to separate them visually from the real parameters by extra
      whitespace.
 
-   * User-defined functions may call other user-defined (and built-in)
+   • User-defined functions may call other user-defined (and built-in)
      functions and may call themselves recursively.  Function parameters
-     "hide" any global variables of the same names.  You cannot use the
-     name of a reserved variable (such as 'ARGC') as the name of a
+     “hide” any global variables of the same names.  You cannot use the
+     name of a reserved variable (such as ‘ARGC’) as the name of a
      parameter in user-defined functions.
 
-   * Scalar values are passed to user-defined functions by value.  Array
+   • Scalar values are passed to user-defined functions by value.  Array
      parameters are passed by reference; any changes made by the
      function to array parameters are thus visible after the function
      has returned.
 
-   * Use the 'return' statement to return from a user-defined function.
-     An optional expression becomes the function's return value.  Only
+   • Use the ‘return’ statement to return from a user-defined function.
+     An optional expression becomes the function’s return value.  Only
      scalar values may be returned by a function.
 
-   * If a variable that has never been used is passed to a user-defined
+   • If a variable that has never been used is passed to a user-defined
      function, how that function treats the variable can set its nature:
      either scalar or array.
 
-   * 'gawk' provides indirect function calls using a special syntax.  By
+   • ‘gawk’ provides indirect function calls using a special syntax.  By
      setting a variable to the name of a function, you can determine at
      runtime what function will be called at that point in the program.
      This is equivalent to function pointers in C and C++.
@@ -15700,16 +15700,16 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Functions Summary,  Prev: 
Indirect Calls,  Up: Functions
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Library Functions,  Next: Sample Programs,  Prev: 
Functions,  Up: Top
 
-10 A Library of 'awk' Functions
+10 A Library of ‘awk’ Functions
 *******************************
 
-*note User-defined:: describes how to write your own 'awk' functions.
+*note User-defined:: describes how to write your own ‘awk’ functions.
 Writing functions is important, because it allows you to encapsulate
 algorithms and program tasks in a single place.  It simplifies
 programming, making program development more manageable and making
 programs more readable.
 
-   In their seminal 1976 book, 'Software Tools',(1) Brian Kernighan and
+   In their seminal 1976 book, ‘Software Tools’,(1) Brian Kernighan and
 P.J. Plauger wrote:
 
      Good Programming is not learned from generalities, but by seeing
@@ -15725,7 +15725,7 @@ their statement is correct, this major node and *note 
Sample Programs::,
 provide a good-sized body of code for you to read and, we hope, to learn
 from.
 
-   This major node presents a library of useful 'awk' functions.  Many
+   This major node presents a library of useful ‘awk’ functions.  Many
 of the sample programs presented later in this Info file use these
 functions.  The functions are presented here in a progression from
 simple to complex.
@@ -15733,23 +15733,23 @@ simple to complex.
    *note Extract Program:: presents a program that you can use to
 extract the source code for these example library functions and programs
 from the Texinfo source for this Info file.  (This has already been done
-as part of the 'gawk' distribution.)
+as part of the ‘gawk’ distribution.)
 
-   If you have written one or more useful, general-purpose 'awk'
-functions and would like to contribute them to the 'awk' user community,
+   If you have written one or more useful, general-purpose ‘awk’
+functions and would like to contribute them to the ‘awk’ user community,
 see *note How To Contribute::, for more information.
 
    The programs in this major node and in *note Sample Programs::,
-freely use 'gawk'-specific features.  Rewriting these programs for
-different implementations of 'awk' is pretty straightforward:
+freely use ‘gawk’-specific features.  Rewriting these programs for
+different implementations of ‘awk’ is pretty straightforward:
 
-   * Diagnostic error messages are sent to '/dev/stderr'.  Use '| "cat
-     1>&2"' instead of '> "/dev/stderr"' if your system does not have a
-     '/dev/stderr', or if you cannot use 'gawk'.
+   • Diagnostic error messages are sent to ‘/dev/stderr’.  Use ‘| "cat
+     1>&2"’ instead of ‘> "/dev/stderr"’ if your system does not have a
+     ‘/dev/stderr’, or if you cannot use ‘gawk’.
 
-   * Finally, some of the programs choose to ignore upper- and lowercase
+   • Finally, some of the programs choose to ignore upper- and lowercase
      distinctions in their input.  They do so by assigning one to
-     'IGNORECASE'.  You can achieve almost the same effect(2) by adding
+     ‘IGNORECASE’.  You can achieve almost the same effect(2) by adding
      the following rule to the beginning of the program:
 
           # ignore case
@@ -15779,7 +15779,7 @@ different implementations of 'awk' is pretty 
straightforward:
 book have yet to be learned by a vast number of practicing programmers.
 
    (2) The effects are not identical.  Output of the transformed record
-will be in all lowercase, while 'IGNORECASE' preserves the original
+will be in all lowercase, while ‘IGNORECASE’ preserves the original
 contents of the input record.
 
 
@@ -15788,32 +15788,32 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Library Names,  Next: General 
Functions,  Up: Library Fu
 10.1 Naming Library Function Global Variables
 =============================================
 
-Due to the way the 'awk' language evolved, variables are either "global"
-(usable by the entire program) or "local" (usable just by a specific
-function).  There is no intermediate state analogous to 'static'
+Due to the way the ‘awk’ language evolved, variables are either 
“global”
+(usable by the entire program) or “local” (usable just by a specific
+function).  There is no intermediate state analogous to ‘static’
 variables in C.
 
    Library functions often need to have global variables that they can
-use to preserve state information between calls to the function--for
-example, 'getopt()''s variable '_opti' (*note Getopt Function::).  Such
-variables are called "private", as the only functions that need to use
+use to preserve state information between calls to the function—for
+example, ‘getopt()’’s variable ‘_opti’ (*note Getopt Function::).  
Such
+variables are called “private”, as the only functions that need to use
 them are the ones in the library.
 
    When writing a library function, you should try to choose names for
 your private variables that will not conflict with any variables used by
-either another library function or a user's main program.  For example,
-a name like 'i' or 'j' is not a good choice, because user programs often
+either another library function or a user’s main program.  For example,
+a name like ‘i’ or ‘j’ is not a good choice, because user programs 
often
 use variable names like these for their own purposes.
 
    The example programs shown in this major node all start the names of
-their private variables with an underscore ('_').  Users generally don't
+their private variables with an underscore (‘_’).  Users generally don’t
 use leading underscores in their variable names, so this convention
 immediately decreases the chances that the variable names will be
-accidentally shared with the user's program.
+accidentally shared with the user’s program.
 
    In addition, several of the library functions use a prefix that helps
-indicate what function or set of functions use the variables--for
-example, '_pw_byname()' in the user database routines (*note Passwd
+indicate what function or set of functions use the variables—for
+example, ‘_pw_byname()’ in the user database routines (*note Passwd
 Functions::).  This convention is recommended, as it even further
 decreases the chance of inadvertent conflict among variable names.  Note
 that this convention is used equally well for variable names and for
@@ -15821,15 +15821,15 @@ private function names.(1)
 
    As a final note on variable naming, if a function makes global
 variables available for use by a main program, it is a good convention
-to start those variables' names with a capital letter--for example,
-'getopt()''s 'Opterr' and 'Optind' variables (*note Getopt Function::).
+to start those variables’ names with a capital letter—for example,
+‘getopt()’’s ‘Opterr’ and ‘Optind’ variables (*note Getopt 
Function::).
 The leading capital letter indicates that it is global, while the fact
 that the variable name is not all capital letters indicates that the
-variable is not one of 'awk''s predefined variables, such as 'FS'.
+variable is not one of ‘awk’’s predefined variables, such as ‘FS’.
 
    It is also important that _all_ variables in library functions that
 do not need to save state are, in fact, declared local.(2)  If this is
-not done, the variables could accidentally be used in the user's
+not done, the variables could accidentally be used in the user’s
 program, leading to bugs that are very difficult to track down:
 
      function lib_func(x, y,    l1, l2)
@@ -15842,29 +15842,29 @@ program, leading to bugs that are very difficult to 
track down:
 
    A different convention, common in the Tcl community, is to use a
 single associative array to hold the values needed by the library
-function(s), or "package."  This significantly decreases the number of
+function(s), or “package.” This significantly decreases the number of
 actual global names in use.  For example, the functions described in
 *note Passwd Functions:: might have used array elements
-'PW_data["inited"]', 'PW_data["total"]', 'PW_data["count"]', and
-'PW_data["awklib"]', instead of '_pw_inited', '_pw_awklib', '_pw_total',
-and '_pw_count'.
+‘PW_data["inited"]’, ‘PW_data["total"]’, ‘PW_data["count"]’, and
+‘PW_data["awklib"]’, instead of ‘_pw_inited’, ‘_pw_awklib’, 
‘_pw_total’,
+and ‘_pw_count’.
 
    The conventions presented in this minor node are exactly that:
-conventions.  You are not required to write your programs this way--we
+conventions.  You are not required to write your programs this way—we
 merely recommend that you do so.
 
-   Beginning with version 5.0, 'gawk' provides a powerful mechanism for
-solving the problems described in this section: "namespaces".
+   Beginning with version 5.0, ‘gawk’ provides a powerful mechanism for
+solving the problems described in this section: “namespaces”.
 Namespaces and their use are described in detail in *note Namespaces::.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
    (1) Although all the library routines could have been rewritten to
 use this convention, this was not done, in order to show how our own
-'awk' programming style has evolved and to provide some basis for this
+‘awk’ programming style has evolved and to provide some basis for this
 discussion.
 
-   (2) 'gawk''s '--dump-variables' command-line option is useful for
+   (2) ‘gawk’’s ‘--dump-variables’ command-line option is useful for
 verifying this.
 
 
@@ -15879,10 +15879,10 @@ programming use.
 * Menu:
 
 * Strtonum Function::           A replacement for the built-in
-                                'strtonum()' function.
-* Assert Function::             A function for assertions in 'awk'
+                                ‘strtonum()’ function.
+* Assert Function::             A function for assertions in ‘awk’
                                 programs.
-* Round Function::              A function for rounding if 'sprintf()'
+* Round Function::              A function for rounding if ‘sprintf()’
                                 does not do it correctly.
 * Cliff Random Function::       The Cliff Random Number Generator.
 * Ordinal Functions::           Functions for using characters as numbers and
@@ -15899,9 +15899,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Strtonum Function,  Next: 
Assert Function,  Up: General
 10.2.1 Converting Strings to Numbers
 ------------------------------------
 
-The 'strtonum()' function (*note String Functions::) is a 'gawk'
+The ‘strtonum()’ function (*note String Functions::) is a ‘gawk’
 extension.  The following function provides an implementation for other
-versions of 'awk':
+versions of ‘awk’:
 
      # mystrtonum --- convert string to number
 
@@ -15959,24 +15959,24 @@ versions of 'awk':
 
    The function first looks for C-style octal numbers (base 8).  If the
 input string matches a regular expression describing octal numbers, then
-'mystrtonum()' loops through each character in the string.  It sets 'k'
-to the index in '"1234567"' of the current octal digit.  The return
+‘mystrtonum()’ loops through each character in the string.  It sets ‘k’
+to the index in ‘"1234567"’ of the current octal digit.  The return
 value will either be the same number as the digit, or zero if the
-character is not there, which will be true for a '0'.  This is safe,
-because the regexp test in the 'if' ensures that only octal values are
+character is not there, which will be true for a ‘0’.  This is safe,
+because the regexp test in the ‘if’ ensures that only octal values are
 converted.
 
    Similar logic applies to the code that checks for and converts a
-hexadecimal value, which starts with '0x' or '0X'.  The use of
-'tolower()' simplifies the computation for finding the correct numeric
+hexadecimal value, which starts with ‘0x’ or ‘0X’.  The use of
+‘tolower()’ simplifies the computation for finding the correct numeric
 value for each hexadecimal digit.
 
    Finally, if the string matches the (rather complicated) regexp for a
-regular decimal integer or floating-point number, the computation 'ret =
-str + 0' lets 'awk' convert the value to a number.
+regular decimal integer or floating-point number, the computation ‘ret =
+str + 0’ lets ‘awk’ convert the value to a number.
 
    A commented-out test program is included, so that the function can be
-tested with 'gawk' and the results compared to the built-in 'strtonum()'
+tested with ‘gawk’ and the results compared to the built-in 
‘strtonum()’
 function.
 
 
@@ -15988,12 +15988,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Assert Function,  Next: Round 
Function,  Prev: Strtonum
 When writing large programs, it is often useful to know that a condition
 or set of conditions is true.  Before proceeding with a particular
 computation, you make a statement about what you believe to be the case.
-Such a statement is known as an "assertion".  The C language provides an
-'<assert.h>' header file and corresponding 'assert()' macro that a
+Such a statement is known as an “assertion”.  The C language provides an
+‘<assert.h>’ header file and corresponding ‘assert()’ macro that a
 programmer can use to make assertions.  If an assertion fails, the
-'assert()' macro arranges to print a diagnostic message describing the
+‘assert()’ macro arranges to print a diagnostic message describing the
 condition that should have been true but was not, and then it kills the
-program.  In C, using 'assert()' looks this:
+program.  In C, using ‘assert()’ looks this:
 
      #include <assert.h>
 
@@ -16009,7 +16009,7 @@ program.  In C, using 'assert()' looks this:
 
    The C language makes it possible to turn the condition into a string
 for use in printing the diagnostic message.  This is not possible in
-'awk', so this 'assert()' function also requires a string version of the
+‘awk’, so this ‘assert()’ function also requires a string version of 
the
 condition that is being tested.  Following is the function:
 
      # assert --- assert that a condition is true. Otherwise, exit.
@@ -16029,19 +16029,19 @@ condition that is being tested.  Following is the 
function:
              exit 1
      }
 
-   The 'assert()' function tests the 'condition' parameter.  If it is
-false, it prints a message to standard error, using the 'string'
+   The ‘assert()’ function tests the ‘condition’ parameter.  If it is
+false, it prints a message to standard error, using the ‘string’
 parameter to describe the failed condition.  It then sets the variable
-'_assert_exit' to one and executes the 'exit' statement.  The 'exit'
-statement jumps to the 'END' rule.  If the 'END' rule finds
-'_assert_exit' to be true, it exits immediately.
+‘_assert_exit’ to one and executes the ‘exit’ statement.  The 
‘exit’
+statement jumps to the ‘END’ rule.  If the ‘END’ rule finds
+‘_assert_exit’ to be true, it exits immediately.
 
-   The purpose of the test in the 'END' rule is to keep any other 'END'
+   The purpose of the test in the ‘END’ rule is to keep any other ‘END’
 rules from running.  When an assertion fails, the program should exit
-immediately.  If no assertions fail, then '_assert_exit' is still false
-when the 'END' rule is run normally, and the rest of the program's 'END'
-rules execute.  For all of this to work correctly, 'assert.awk' must be
-the first source file read by 'awk'.  The function can be used in a
+immediately.  If no assertions fail, then ‘_assert_exit’ is still false
+when the ‘END’ rule is run normally, and the rest of the program’s 
‘END’
+rules execute.  For all of this to work correctly, ‘assert.awk’ must be
+the first source file read by ‘awk’.  The function can be used in a
 program in the following way:
 
      function myfunc(a, b)
@@ -16054,16 +16054,16 @@ If the assertion fails, you see a message similar to 
the following:
 
      mydata:1357: assertion failed: a <= 5 && b >= 17.1
 
-   There is a small problem with this version of 'assert()'.  An 'END'
-rule is automatically added to the program calling 'assert()'.
-Normally, if a program consists of just a 'BEGIN' rule, the input files
+   There is a small problem with this version of ‘assert()’.  An ‘END’
+rule is automatically added to the program calling ‘assert()’.
+Normally, if a program consists of just a ‘BEGIN’ rule, the input files
 and/or standard input are not read.  However, now that the program has
-an 'END' rule, 'awk' attempts to read the input data files or standard
+an ‘END’ rule, ‘awk’ attempts to read the input data files or standard
 input (*note Using BEGIN/END::), most likely causing the program to hang
 as it waits for input.
 
-   There is a simple workaround to this: make sure that such a 'BEGIN'
-rule always ends with an 'exit' statement.
+   There is a simple workaround to this: make sure that such a ‘BEGIN’
+rule always ends with an ‘exit’ statement.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Round Function,  Next: Cliff Random Function,  Prev: 
Assert Function,  Up: General Functions
@@ -16071,15 +16071,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Round Function,  Next: Cliff 
Random Function,  Prev: Ass
 10.2.3 Rounding Numbers
 -----------------------
 
-The way 'printf' and 'sprintf()' (*note Printf::) perform rounding often
-depends upon the system's C 'sprintf()' subroutine.  On many machines,
-'sprintf()' rounding is "unbiased", which means it doesn't always round
+The way ‘printf’ and ‘sprintf()’ (*note Printf::) perform rounding 
often
+depends upon the system’s C ‘sprintf()’ subroutine.  On many machines,
+‘sprintf()’ rounding is “unbiased”, which means it doesn’t always 
round
 a trailing .5 up, contrary to naive expectations.  In unbiased rounding,
 .5 rounds to even, rather than always up, so 1.5 rounds to 2 but 4.5
 rounds to 4.  This means that if you are using a format that does
-rounding (e.g., '"%.0f"'), you should check what your system does.  The
+rounding (e.g., ‘"%.0f"’), you should check what your system does.  The
 following function does traditional rounding; it might be useful if your
-'awk''s 'printf' does unbiased rounding:
+‘awk’’s ‘printf’ does unbiased rounding:
 
      # round.awk --- do normal rounding
 
@@ -16118,9 +16118,9 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Cliff Random Function,  Next: 
Ordinal Functions,  Prev:
 
 The Cliff random number generator
 (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CliffRandomNumberGenerator.html) is a very
-simple random number generator that "passes the noise sphere test for
-randomness by showing no structure."  It is easily programmed, in less
-than 10 lines of 'awk' code:
+simple random number generator that “passes the noise sphere test for
+randomness by showing no structure.” It is easily programmed, in less
+than 10 lines of ‘awk’ code:
 
      # cliff_rand.awk --- generate Cliff random numbers
 
@@ -16134,9 +16134,9 @@ than 10 lines of 'awk' code:
          return _cliff_seed
      }
 
-   This algorithm requires an initial "seed" of 0.1.  Each new value
+   This algorithm requires an initial “seed” of 0.1.  Each new value
 uses the current seed as input for the calculation.  If the built-in
-'rand()' function (*note Numeric Functions::) isn't random enough, you
+‘rand()’ function (*note Numeric Functions::) isn’t random enough, you
 might try using this function instead.
 
 
@@ -16145,15 +16145,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Ordinal Functions,  Next: 
Join Function,  Prev: Cliff Ra
 10.2.5 Translating Between Characters and Numbers
 -------------------------------------------------
 
-One commercial implementation of 'awk' supplies a built-in function,
-'ord()', which takes a character and returns the numeric value for that
-character in the machine's character set.  If the string passed to
-'ord()' has more than one character, only the first one is used.
+One commercial implementation of ‘awk’ supplies a built-in function,
+‘ord()’, which takes a character and returns the numeric value for that
+character in the machine’s character set.  If the string passed to
+‘ord()’ has more than one character, only the first one is used.
 
-   The inverse of this function is 'chr()' (from the function of the
+   The inverse of this function is ‘chr()’ (from the function of the
 same name in Pascal), which takes a number and returns the corresponding
-character.  Both functions are written very nicely in 'awk'; there is no
-real reason to build them into the 'awk' interpreter:
+character.  Both functions are written very nicely in ‘awk’; there is no
+real reason to build them into the ‘awk’ interpreter:
 
      # ord.awk --- do ord and chr
 
@@ -16184,7 +16184,7 @@ real reason to build them into the 'awk' interpreter:
          }
      }
 
-   Some explanation of the numbers used by '_ord_init()' is worthwhile.
+   Some explanation of the numbers used by ‘_ord_init()’ is worthwhile.
 The most prominent character set in use today is ASCII.(1) Although an
 8-bit byte can hold 256 distinct values (from 0 to 255), ASCII only
 defines characters that use the values from 0 to 127.(2)  In the now
@@ -16219,9 +16219,9 @@ on some older systems, but they are not really worth 
worrying about:
      # }
 
    An obvious improvement to these functions is to move the code for the
-'_ord_init' function into the body of the 'BEGIN' rule.  It was written
-this way initially for ease of development.  There is a "test program"
-in a 'BEGIN' rule, to test the function.  It is commented out for
+‘_ord_init’ function into the body of the ‘BEGIN’ rule.  It was written
+this way initially for ease of development.  There is a “test program”
+in a ‘BEGIN’ rule, to test the function.  It is commented out for
 production use.
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
@@ -16233,7 +16233,7 @@ tests such as used here prohibitively expensive.
 
    (2) ASCII has been extended in many countries to use the values from
 128 to 255 for country-specific characters.  If your system uses these
-extensions, you can simplify '_ord_init()' to loop from 0 to 255.
+extensions, you can simplify ‘_ord_init()’ to loop from 0 to 255.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Join Function,  Next: Getlocaltime Function,  Prev: 
Ordinal Functions,  Up: General Functions
@@ -16243,15 +16243,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Join Function,  Next: 
Getlocaltime Function,  Prev: Ordi
 
 When doing string processing, it is often useful to be able to join all
 the strings in an array into one long string.  The following function,
-'join()', accomplishes this task.  It is used later in several of the
+‘join()’, accomplishes this task.  It is used later in several of the
 application programs (*note Sample Programs::).
 
    Good function design is important; this function needs to be general,
 but it should also have a reasonable default behavior.  It is called
 with an array as well as the beginning and ending indices of the
 elements in the array to be merged.  This assumes that the array indices
-are numeric--a reasonable assumption, as the array was likely created
-with 'split()' (*note String Functions::):
+are numeric—a reasonable assumption, as the array was likely created
+with ‘split()’ (*note String Functions::):
 
      # join.awk --- join an array into a string
 
@@ -16269,16 +16269,16 @@ with 'split()' (*note String Functions::):
 
    An optional additional argument is the separator to use when joining
 the strings back together.  If the caller supplies a nonempty value,
-'join()' uses it; if it is not supplied, it has a null value.  In this
-case, 'join()' uses a single space as a default separator for the
-strings.  If the value is equal to 'SUBSEP', then 'join()' joins the
-strings with no separator between them.  'SUBSEP' serves as a "magic"
+‘join()’ uses it; if it is not supplied, it has a null value.  In this
+case, ‘join()’ uses a single space as a default separator for the
+strings.  If the value is equal to ‘SUBSEP’, then ‘join()’ joins the
+strings with no separator between them.  ‘SUBSEP’ serves as a “magic”
 value to indicate that there should be no separation between the
 component strings.(1)
 
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
 
-   (1) It would be nice if 'awk' had an assignment operator for
+   (1) It would be nice if ‘awk’ had an assignment operator for
 concatenation.  The lack of an explicit operator for concatenation makes
 string operations more difficult than they really need to be.
 
@@ -16288,15 +16288,15 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Getlocaltime Function,  Next: 
Readfile Function,  Prev:
 10.2.7 Managing the Time of Day
 -------------------------------
 
-The 'systime()' and 'strftime()' functions described in *note Time
+The ‘systime()’ and ‘strftime()’ functions described in *note Time
 Functions:: provide the minimum functionality necessary for dealing with
-the time of day in human-readable form.  Although 'strftime()' is
+the time of day in human-readable form.  Although ‘strftime()’ is
 extensive, the control formats are not necessarily easy to remember or
 intuitively obvious when reading a program.
 
-   The following function, 'getlocaltime()', populates a user-supplied
+   The following function, ‘getlocaltime()’, populates a user-supplied
 array with preformatted time information.  It returns a string with the
-current time formatted in the same way as the 'date' utility:
+current time formatted in the same way as the ‘date’ utility:
 
      # getlocaltime.awk --- get the time of day in a usable format
 
@@ -16359,9 +16359,9 @@ current time formatted in the same way as the 'date' 
utility:
      }
 
    The string indices are easier to use and read than the various
-formats required by 'strftime()'.  The 'alarm' program presented in
+formats required by ‘strftime()’.  The ‘alarm’ program presented in
 *note Alarm Program:: uses this function.  A more general design for the
-'getlocaltime()' function would have allowed the user to supply an
+‘getlocaltime()’ function would have allowed the user to supply an
 optional timestamp value to use instead of the current time.
 
 
@@ -16387,8 +16387,8 @@ that might be as follows:
          return contents
      }
 
-   This function reads from 'file' one record at a time, building up the
-full contents of the file in the local variable 'contents'.  It works,
+   This function reads from ‘file’ one record at a time, building up the
+full contents of the file in the local variable ‘contents’.  It works,
 but is not necessarily efficient.
 
    The following function, based on a suggestion by Denis Shirokov,
@@ -16407,13 +16407,13 @@ reads the entire contents of the named file in one 
shot:
          return tmp
      }
 
-   It works by setting 'RS' to '^$', a regular expression that will
-never match if the file has contents.  'gawk' reads data from the file
-into 'tmp', attempting to match 'RS'.  The match fails after each read,
-but fails quickly, such that 'gawk' fills 'tmp' with the entire contents
-of the file.  (*Note Records:: for information on 'RT' and 'RS'.)
+   It works by setting ‘RS’ to ‘^$’, a regular expression that will
+never match if the file has contents.  ‘gawk’ reads data from the file
+into ‘tmp’, attempting to match ‘RS’.  The match fails after each read,
+but fails quickly, such that ‘gawk’ fills ‘tmp’ with the entire 
contents
+of the file.  (*Note Records:: for information on ‘RT’ and ‘RS’.)
 
-   In the case that 'file' is empty, the return value is the null
+   In the case that ‘file’ is empty, the return value is the null
 string.  Thus, calling code may use something like:
 
      contents = readfile("/some/path")
@@ -16421,7 +16421,7 @@ string.  Thus, calling code may use something like:
          # file was empty ...
 
    This tests the result to see if it is empty or not.  An equivalent
-test would be 'contents == ""'.
+test would be ‘contents == ""’.
 
    *Note Extension Sample Readfile:: for an extension function that also
 reads an entire file into memory.
@@ -16443,21 +16443,21 @@ frequently:
 
      INPUT_PROGRAM | awk "$awkp" | /bin/sh
 
-   For example, a program of his named 'flac-edit' has this form:
+   For example, a program of his named ‘flac-edit’ has this form:
 
      $ flac-edit -song="Whoope! That's Great" file.flac
 
    It generates the following output, which is to be piped to the shell
-('/bin/sh'):
+(‘/bin/sh’):
 
      chmod +w file.flac
      metaflac --remove-tag=TITLE file.flac
      LANG=en_US.88591 metaflac --set-tag=TITLE='Whoope! That'"'"'s Great' 
file.flac
      chmod -w file.flac
 
-   Note the need for shell quoting.  The function 'shell_quote()' does
-it.  'SINGLE' is the one-character string '"'"' and 'QSINGLE' is the
-three-character string '"\"'\""':
+   Note the need for shell quoting.  The function ‘shell_quote()’ does
+it.  ‘SINGLE’ is the one-character string ‘"'"’ and ‘QSINGLE’ is 
the
+three-character string ‘"\"'\""’:
 
      # shell_quote --- quote an argument for passing to the shell
 
@@ -16486,8 +16486,8 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Isnumeric Function,  Prev: 
Shell Quoting,  Up: General F
 
 A frequent programming question is how to ascertain whether a value is
 numeric.  This can be solved by using this example function
-'isnumeric()', which employs the trick of converting a string value to
-user input by using the 'split()' function:
+‘isnumeric()’, which employs the trick of converting a string value to
+user input by using the ‘split()’ function:
 
      # isnumeric --- check whether a value is numeric
 
@@ -16509,11 +16509,11 @@ deciding whether a value is numeric or not, so if it 
matters to you, you
 may want to add an additional check for that.
 
    Traditionally, it has been recommended to check for numeric values
-using the test 'x+0 == x'.  This function is superior in two ways: it
+using the test ‘x+0 == x’.  This function is superior in two ways: it
 will not report that unassigned variables contain numeric values; and it
-recognizes string values with numeric contents where 'CONVFMT' does not
-yield the original string.  On the other hand, it uses the 'typeof()'
-function (*note Type Functions::), which is specific to 'gawk'.
+recognizes string values with numeric contents where ‘CONVFMT’ does not
+yield the original string.  On the other hand, it uses the ‘typeof()’
+function (*note Type Functions::), which is specific to ‘gawk’.
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: Data File Management,  Next: Getopt Function,  Prev: 
General Functions,  Up: Library Functions
@@ -16538,24 +16538,24 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Filetrans Function,  Next: 
Rewind Function,  Up: Data Fi
 10.3.1 Noting Data file Boundaries
 ----------------------------------
 
-The 'BEGIN' and 'END' rules are each executed exactly once, at the
-beginning and end of your 'awk' program, respectively (*note
-BEGIN/END::).  We (the 'gawk' authors) once had a user who mistakenly
-thought that the 'BEGIN' rules were executed at the beginning of each
-data file and the 'END' rules were executed at the end of each data
+The ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules are each executed exactly once, at the
+beginning and end of your ‘awk’ program, respectively (*note
+BEGIN/END::).  We (the ‘gawk’ authors) once had a user who mistakenly
+thought that the ‘BEGIN’ rules were executed at the beginning of each
+data file and the ‘END’ rules were executed at the end of each data
 file.
 
    When informed that this was not the case, the user requested that we
-add new special patterns to 'gawk', named 'BEGIN_FILE' and 'END_FILE',
+add new special patterns to ‘gawk’, named ‘BEGIN_FILE’ and 
‘END_FILE’,
 that would have the desired behavior.  He even supplied us the code to
 do so.
 
-   Adding these special patterns to 'gawk' wasn't necessary; the job can
-be done cleanly in 'awk' itself, as illustrated by the following library
-program.  It arranges to call two user-supplied functions, 'beginfile()'
-and 'endfile()', at the beginning and end of each data file.  Besides
+   Adding these special patterns to ‘gawk’ wasn’t necessary; the job can
+be done cleanly in ‘awk’ itself, as illustrated by the following library
+program.  It arranges to call two user-supplied functions, ‘beginfile()’
+and ‘endfile()’, at the beginning and end of each data file.  Besides
 solving the problem in only nine(!)  lines of code, it does so
-_portably_; this works with any implementation of 'awk':
+_portably_; this works with any implementation of ‘awk’:
 
      # transfile.awk
      #
@@ -16574,28 +16574,28 @@ _portably_; this works with any implementation of 
'awk':
 
      END { endfile(FILENAME) }
 
-   This file must be loaded before the user's "main" program, so that
+   This file must be loaded before the user’s “main” program, so that
 the rule it supplies is executed first.
 
-   This rule relies on 'awk''s 'FILENAME' variable, which automatically
+   This rule relies on ‘awk’’s ‘FILENAME’ variable, which 
automatically
 changes for each new data file.  The current file name is saved in a
-private variable, '_oldfilename'.  If 'FILENAME' does not equal
-'_oldfilename', then a new data file is being processed and it is
-necessary to call 'endfile()' for the old file.  Because 'endfile()'
+private variable, ‘_oldfilename’.  If ‘FILENAME’ does not equal
+‘_oldfilename’, then a new data file is being processed and it is
+necessary to call ‘endfile()’ for the old file.  Because ‘endfile()’
 should only be called if a file has been processed, the program first
-checks to make sure that '_oldfilename' is not the null string.  The
-program then assigns the current file name to '_oldfilename' and calls
-'beginfile()' for the file.  Because, like all 'awk' variables,
-'_oldfilename' is initialized to the null string, this rule executes
+checks to make sure that ‘_oldfilename’ is not the null string.  The
+program then assigns the current file name to ‘_oldfilename’ and calls
+‘beginfile()’ for the file.  Because, like all ‘awk’ variables,
+‘_oldfilename’ is initialized to the null string, this rule executes
 correctly even for the first data file.
 
-   The program also supplies an 'END' rule to do the final processing
-for the last file.  Because this 'END' rule comes before any 'END' rules
-supplied in the "main" program, 'endfile()' is called first.  Once
-again, the value of multiple 'BEGIN' and 'END' rules should be clear.
+   The program also supplies an ‘END’ rule to do the final processing
+for the last file.  Because this ‘END’ rule comes before any ‘END’ 
rules
+supplied in the “main” program, ‘endfile()’ is called first.  Once
+again, the value of multiple ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ rules should be clear.
 
    If the same data file occurs twice in a row on the command line, then
-'endfile()' and 'beginfile()' are not executed at the end of the first
+‘endfile()’ and ‘beginfile()’ are not executed at the end of the first
 pass and at the beginning of the second pass.  The following version
 solves the problem:
 
@@ -16615,18 +16615,18 @@ solves the problem:
    *note Wc Program:: shows how this library function can be used and
 how it simplifies writing the main program.
 
-          So Why Does 'gawk' Have 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE'?
+          So Why Does ‘gawk’ Have ‘BEGINFILE’ and ‘ENDFILE’?
 
-   You are probably wondering, if 'beginfile()' and 'endfile()'
-functions can do the job, why does 'gawk' have 'BEGINFILE' and 'ENDFILE'
+   You are probably wondering, if ‘beginfile()’ and ‘endfile()’
+functions can do the job, why does ‘gawk’ have ‘BEGINFILE’ and 
‘ENDFILE’
 patterns?
 
-   Good question.  Normally, if 'awk' cannot open a file, this causes an
+   Good question.  Normally, if ‘awk’ cannot open a file, this causes an
 immediate fatal error.  In this case, there is no way for a user-defined
 function to deal with the problem, as the mechanism for calling it
 relies on the file being open and at the first record.  Thus, the main
-reason for 'BEGINFILE' is to give you a "hook" to catch files that
-cannot be processed.  'ENDFILE' exists for symmetry, and because it
+reason for ‘BEGINFILE’ is to give you a “hook” to catch files that
+cannot be processed.  ‘ENDFILE’ exists for symmetry, and because it
 provides an easy way to do per-file cleanup processing.  For more
 information, refer to *note BEGINFILE/ENDFILE::.
 
@@ -16638,12 +16638,12 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: Rewind Function,  Next: File 
Checking,  Prev: Filetrans
 
 Another request for a new built-in function was for a function that
 would make it possible to reread the current file.  The requesting user
-didn't want to have to use 'getline' (*note Getline::) inside a loop.
+didn’t want to have to use ‘getline’ (*note Getline::) inside a loop.
 
-   However, as long as you are not in the 'END' rule, it is quite easy
+   However, as long as you are not in the ‘END’ rule, it is quite easy
 to arrange to immediately close the current input file and then start
-over with it from the top.  For lack of a better name, we'll call the
-function 'rewind()':
+over with it from the top.  For lack of a better name, we’ll call the
+function ‘rewind()’:
 
      # rewind.awk --- rewind the current file and start over
 
@@ -16663,39 +16663,39 @@ function 'rewind()':
          nextfile
      }
 
-   The 'rewind()' function relies on the 'ARGIND' variable (*note
-Auto-set::), which is specific to 'gawk'.  It also relies on the
-'nextfile' keyword (*note Nextfile Statement::).  Because of this, you
-should not call it from an 'ENDFILE' rule.  (This isn't necessary
-anyway, because 'gawk' goes to the next file as soon as an 'ENDFILE'
+   The ‘rewind()’ function relies on the ‘ARGIND’ variable (*note
+Auto-set::), which is specific to ‘gawk’.  It also relies on the
+‘nextfile’ keyword (*note Nextfile Statement::).  Because of this, you
+should not call it from an ‘ENDFILE’ rule.  (This isn’t necessary
+anyway, because ‘gawk’ goes to the next file as soon as an ‘ENDFILE’
 rule finishes!)
 
-   You need to be careful calling 'rewind()'.  You can end up causing
-infinite recursion if you don't pay attention.  Here is an example use:
+   You need to be careful calling ‘rewind()’.  You can end up causing
+infinite recursion if you don’t pay attention.  Here is an example use:
 
      $ cat data
-     -| a
-     -| b
-     -| c
-     -| d
-     -| e
+     ⊣ a
+     ⊣ b
+     ⊣ c
+     ⊣ d
+     ⊣ e
 
      $ cat test.awk
-     -| FNR == 3 && ! rewound {
-     -|    rewound = 1
-     -|    rewind()
-     -| }
-     -|
-     -| { print FILENAME, FNR, $0 }
+     ⊣ FNR == 3 && ! rewound {
+     ⊣    rewound = 1
+     ⊣    rewind()
+     ⊣ }
+     ⊣
+     ⊣ { print FILENAME, FNR, $0 }
 
      $ gawk -f rewind.awk -f test.awk data
-     -| data 1 a
-     -| data 2 b
-     -| data 1 a
-     -| data 2 b
-     -| data 3 c
-     -| data 4 d
-     -| data 5 e
+     ⊣ data 1 a
+     ⊣ data 2 b
+     ⊣ data 1 a
+     ⊣ data 2 b
+     ⊣ data 3 c
+     ⊣ data 4 d
+     ⊣ data 5 e
 
 
 File: gawk.info,  Node: File Checking,  Next: Empty Files,  Prev: Rewind 
Function,  Up: Data File Management
@@ -16703,10 +16703,10 @@ File: gawk.info,  Node: File Checking,  Next: Empty 
Files,  Prev: Rewind Functio
 10.3.3 Checking for Readable Data files
 ---------------------------------------
 
-Normally, if you give 'awk' a data file that isn't readable, it stops
+Normally, if you give ‘awk’ a data file that isn’t readable, it stops
 with a fatal error.  There are times when you might want to just ignore
 such files and keep going.(1)  You can do this by prepending the
-following program to your 'awk' program:
+following program to your ‘awk’ program:
 
      # readable.awk --- library file to skip over unreadable files
 
@@ -16722,18 +16722,18 @@ following program to your 'awk' program:
          }
      }
 
-   This works, because the 'getline' won't be fatal.  Removing the
-element from 'ARGV' with 'delete' skips the file (because it's no longer
+   This works, because the ‘getline’ won’t be fatal.  Removing the
+element from ‘ARGV’ with ‘delete’ skips the file (because it’s no 
longer
 in the list).  See also *note ARGC and ARGV::.
 
-   Because 'awk' variable names only allow the English letters, the
+   Because ‘awk’ variable names only allow the English letters, the
 regular expression check purposely does not use character classes such
-as '[:alpha:]' and '[:alnum:]' (*note Bracket Expressions::).
+as ‘[:alpha:]’ and ‘[:alnum:]’