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[SCM] gawk branch, master, updated. gawk-4.1.0-5073-g196e6d66

From: Arnold Robbins
Subject: [SCM] gawk branch, master, updated. gawk-4.1.0-5073-g196e6d66
Date: Thu, 1 Dec 2022 15:13:09 -0500 (EST)

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generated because a ref change was pushed to the repository containing
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The branch, master has been updated
       via  196e6d6674c19e5b22efeb9de03bbd7ee2ef4cba (commit)
       via  4693c3cde8056d9179d7d712f32cb121c8902916 (commit)
       via  8ef27c83a23fea93cca0b4efc12521a5bb5b186f (commit)
      from  7e43bd58d61acb67ec7032bfc97251552944fd2c (commit)

Those revisions listed above that are new to this repository have
not appeared on any other notification email; so we list those
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- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------

commit 196e6d6674c19e5b22efeb9de03bbd7ee2ef4cba
Author: Arnold D. Robbins <>
Date:   Thu Dec 1 22:12:55 2022 +0200

    Update TODO.

diff --git a/TODO b/TODO
index 5a9aa6f0..f556787c 100644
--- a/TODO
+++ b/TODO
@@ -15,9 +15,19 @@ TODO
 Minor Cleanups and Code Improvements
-       Clean up file and directory permissions to 0644 and 0755
+       Tzvetelin Katchov <> points out the following:
+       - Clean up file and directory permissions to 0644 and 0755
        across the board.
+       - Use consistent #! lines in awk scripts in the test suite.
+       - Double check uses of xxx:: targets in the test suite Makefile,
+       maybe only one colon is needed.
+       - The commas, mbstr1 and mbstr2 tests should probably be moved
+       into the locale tests.
                ??? #if !defined(GAWK) && !defined(GAWK_OMIT_CONVENIENCE_MACROS)

commit 4693c3cde8056d9179d7d712f32cb121c8902916
Merge: 7e43bd58 8ef27c83
Author: Arnold D. Robbins <>
Date:   Thu Dec 1 22:03:01 2022 +0200

    Merge branch 'gawk-5.2-stable'

diff --cc ChangeLog
index 9c36e30f,01923d60..d3ec9455
--- a/ChangeLog
+++ b/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,13 -1,14 +1,24 @@@
+ 2022-12-01         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
+       Disallow using / not using -M across invocations of gawk with
+       a persistent heap.
+       * awk.h (pma_mpfr_check): Add declaration.
+       * symbol.c (pma_mpfr_check): New function. Enhance root pointer
+       structure.
+       * main.c (parse_args): Call pma_mpfr_check() if using persisent
+       malloc.
 +2022-12-01         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
 +      * Removed use of libsigsegv.
 +      * main.c: Removed code related to libsigsegv.
 +      * NEWS: Updated.
 +2022-11-25         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
 +      * field.c (comma_parse_field): Remove unused variable `field'.
  2022-11-23         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
        * msg.c: Update to GPL 3.  Thanks to Corinna Vinschen for
diff --cc doc/ChangeLog
index 4e1533be,1d753f97..6b6e09a2
--- a/doc/ChangeLog
+++ b/doc/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,8 -1,8 +1,13 @@@
+ 2022-12-01         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
+       * (Persistent Memory): Document that using / not using
+       -M across invocations doesn't work and issues a fatal error message.
 +2022-12-01         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
 +      * (Feature History): Document removal of use of
 +      libsigsegv.
  2022-11-17         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
        * 5.2.1: Release tar ball made.
diff --cc doc/
index 317fbd23,937784cc..adf85165
--- a/doc/
+++ b/doc/
@@@ -5244,58 -5243,9 +5245,59 @@@ Options::), if 'FS' is the null string
 -File:,  Node: Command Line Field Separator,  Next: Full Line 
Fields,  Prev: Single Character Fields,  Up: Field Separators
 +File:,  Node: Comma Separated Fields,  Next: Command Line Field 
Separator,  Prev: Single Character Fields,  Up: Field Separators
 -4.5.4 Setting 'FS' from the Command Line
 +4.5.4 Working With Comma Separated Value Files
 +Many commonly-used tools use a comma to separate fields, instead of
 +whitespace.  This is particularly true of popular spreadsheet programs.
 +There is no universally accepted standard for the format of these files,
 +although RFC 4180 ( lists the common
 +   For decades, anyone wishing to work with CSV files and 'awk' had to
 +"roll their own" solution.  (For example, *note Splitting By Content::).
 +In 2023, Brian Kernighan decided to add basic CSV support to his version
 +of 'awk'.  In order to keep up, 'gawk' too provides the same support as
 +his version.  To use CSV data, set 'FS' equal to a string with a single
 +comma, like so: 'FS = ","'.
 +   Fields in CSV files are separated by commas.  In order to allow a
 +comma to appear inside a field (i.e., as data), the field may be quoted
 +by beginning and ending it with double quotes.  In order to allow a
 +double quote inside a double-quoted field, two double quotes are used.
 +*note Table 4.1: table-csv-examples. shows some examples.
 +Input                  Field Contents
 +'abc def'              'abc def'
 +'"quoted data"'        'quoted data'
 +'"quoted, data"'       'quoted, data'
 +'"She said             'She said "Stop!".'
 +'She said "Stop!".'    'She said "Stop!".'
 +Table 4.1: Examples of CSV data
 +   The double-quote that starts a quoted field must be the first
 +character after the comma.
 +   Some programs that support CSV-formatted data even allow fields to
 +include embedded newlines (such as a postal address, for example).  This
 +is _not_ supported in either BWK 'awk' or in 'gawk'.  This cannot be
 +done using only facilities in the 'awk' language, since 'awk' first
 +splits the input into records, and the default record separator is a
 +newline.  Thus any newline embedded in a field simply terminates the
 +   CSV input parsing is disabled in POSIX mode.
 +File:,  Node: Command Line Field Separator,  Next: Full Line 
Fields,  Prev: Comma Separated Fields,  Up: Field Separators
 +4.5.5 Setting 'FS' from the Command Line
  'FS' can be set on the command line.  Use the '-F' option to do so.  For
@@@ -35701,7 -35640,7 +35725,7 @@@ Inde
  * * (asterisk), *= operator <1>:         Precedence.          (line  94)
  * * (asterisk), **= operator <1>:        Precedence.          (line  94)
  * * (asterisk), * operator, null strings, matching: String Functions.
-                                                               (line 569)
 -                                                              (line 563)
++                                                              (line 567)
  * + (plus sign), regexp operator:        Regexp Operator Details.
                                                                (line 107)
  * + (plus sign), += operator:            Assignment Ops.      (line  81)
@@@ -36142,7 -36081,7 +36166,7 @@@
  * asterisk (*), *= operator <1>:         Precedence.          (line  94)
  * asterisk (*), **= operator <1>:        Precedence.          (line  94)
  * asterisk (*), * operator, null strings, matching: String Functions.
-                                                               (line 569)
 -                                                              (line 563)
++                                                              (line 567)
  * at-sign (@), @include directive:       Include Files.       (line   8)
  * at-sign (@), @load directive:          Loading Shared Libraries.
                                                                (line   8)
@@@ -36306,9 -36244,9 +36329,9 @@@
                                                                (line   6)
  * backtrace debugger command:            Execution Stack.     (line  13)
  * Beebe, Nelson H.F.:                    Acknowledgments.     (line  60)
- * Beebe, Nelson H.F. <1>:                Numeric Functions.   (line  33)
+ * Beebe, Nelson H.F. <1>:                Numeric Functions.   (line  32)
  * Beebe, Nelson H.F. <2>:                Other Versions.      (line  82)
 -* BEGIN pattern:                         Field Separators.    (line  44)
 +* BEGIN pattern:                         Field Separators.    (line  45)
  * BEGIN pattern, getline and:            Getline Notes.       (line  19)
  * BEGIN pattern, headings, adding:       Print Examples.      (line  42)
  * BEGIN pattern, OFS/ORS variables, assigning values to: Output Separators.
@@@ -36419,7 -36357,7 +36442,7 @@@
  * Brian Kernighan's awk <9>:             Continue Statement.  (line  44)
  * Brian Kernighan's awk <10>:            Nextfile Statement.  (line  47)
  * Brian Kernighan's awk <11>:            Delete.              (line  51)
- * Brian Kernighan's awk <12>:            String Functions.    (line 516)
 -* Brian Kernighan's awk <12>:            String Functions.    (line 510)
++* Brian Kernighan's awk <12>:            String Functions.    (line 514)
  * Brian Kernighan's awk <13>:            Gory Details.        (line  19)
  * Brian Kernighan's awk <14>:            I/O Functions.       (line  43)
  * Brian Kernighan's awk, extensions:     BTL.                 (line   6)
@@@ -36486,9 -36424,9 +36509,9 @@@
  * case sensitivity, string comparisons and: User-modified.    (line  79)
  * case sensitivity, regexps and <1>:     User-modified.       (line  79)
  * case sensitivity, array indices and:   Array Intro.         (line 100)
- * case sensitivity, converting case:     String Functions.    (line 546)
 -* case sensitivity, converting case:     String Functions.    (line 540)
++* case sensitivity, converting case:     String Functions.    (line 544)
  * case sensitivity, example programs:    Library Functions.   (line  50)
- * CGI, awk scripts for:                  Options.             (line 147)
+ * CGI, awk scripts for:                  Options.             (line 146)
  * character sets (machine character encodings): Ordinal Functions.
                                                                (line  45)
  * character sets (machine character encodings) <1>: Glossary. (line 194)
@@@ -36630,12 -36566,12 +36653,12 @@@
  * converting, numbers to strings:        Strings And Numbers. (line   6)
  * converting, integer array subscripts to strings: Numeric Array Subscripts.
                                                                (line  31)
- * converting, string to numbers <1>:     String Functions.    (line 414)
- * converting, string to lower case:      String Functions.    (line 547)
- * converting, string to upper case:      String Functions.    (line 553)
- * converting, dates to timestamps:       Time Functions.      (line  78)
- * converting, string to numbers <2>:     Bitwise Functions.   (line 109)
- * converting, numbers to strings <1>:    Bitwise Functions.   (line 109)
 -* converting, string to numbers <1>:     String Functions.    (line 408)
 -* converting, string to lower case:      String Functions.    (line 541)
 -* converting, string to upper case:      String Functions.    (line 547)
++* converting, string to numbers <1>:     String Functions.    (line 412)
++* converting, string to lower case:      String Functions.    (line 545)
++* converting, string to upper case:      String Functions.    (line 551)
+ * converting, dates to timestamps:       Time Functions.      (line  77)
+ * converting, string to numbers <2>:     Bitwise Functions.   (line 110)
+ * converting, numbers to strings <1>:    Bitwise Functions.   (line 110)
  * CONVFMT variable:                      Strings And Numbers. (line  29)
  * CONVFMT variable <1>:                  User-modified.       (line  30)
  * CONVFMT variable, array subscripts and: Numeric Array Subscripts.
@@@ -36646,14 -36582,12 +36669,14 @@@
  * coprocesses, closing:                  Close Files And Pipes.
                                                                (line   6)
  * coprocesses <1>:                       Two-way I/O.         (line  27)
- * cos:                                   Numeric Functions.   (line  16)
- * cosine:                                Numeric Functions.   (line  16)
+ * cos:                                   Numeric Functions.   (line  15)
+ * cosine:                                Numeric Functions.   (line  15)
  * counting words, lines, characters, and bytes: Wc Program.   (line   6)
  * csh utility:                           Statements/Lines.    (line  45)
- * csh utility, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options. (line 412)
+ * csh utility, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options. (line 411)
  * csh utility, |& operator, comparison with: Two-way I/O.     (line  27)
 +* CSV (comma separated values) data, parsing with FS: Comma Separated Fields.
 +                                                              (line   6)
  * CSV (comma separated values) data, parsing with FPAT: Splitting By Content.
                                                                (line  20)
  * CSV (comma separated values) data, parsing with CSVMODE library: More CSV.
@@@ -36722,9 -36656,9 +36745,9 @@@
  * dark corner, array subscripts:         Uninitialized Subscripts.
                                                                (line  43)
  * dark corner, regexp as second argument to index(): String Functions.
-                                                               (line 179)
- * dark corner, length() function:        String Functions.    (line 201)
- * dark corner, split() function:         String Functions.    (line 384)
+                                                               (line 178)
+ * dark corner, length() function:        String Functions.    (line 200)
 -* dark corner, split() function:         String Functions.    (line 379)
++* dark corner, split() function:         String Functions.    (line 383)
  * dark corner, parameter name restrictions: Definition Syntax.
                                                                (line  44)
  * dark corner <1>:                       Glossary.            (line 266)
@@@ -36974,11 -36908,11 +36997,11 @@@
  * differences in awk and gawk, function arguments: Calling Built-in.
                                                                (line  16)
  * differences in awk and gawk, length() function: String Functions.
-                                                               (line 215)
+                                                               (line 214)
  * differences in awk and gawk, match() function: String Functions.
-                                                               (line 277)
+                                                               (line 276)
  * differences in awk and gawk, split() function: String Functions.
-                                                               (line 369)
 -                                                              (line 364)
++                                                              (line 368)
  * differences in awk and gawk, indirect function calls: Indirect Calls.
                                                                (line   6)
  * differences in awk and gawk, BINMODE variable <1>: PC Using.
@@@ -37425,7 -37358,7 +37447,7 @@@
  * format time string:                    Time Functions.      (line  50)
  * formats, numeric output:               OFMT.                (line   6)
  * formatting, output:                    Printf.              (line   6)
- * formatting, strings:                   String Functions.    (line 407)
 -* formatting, strings:                   String Functions.    (line 401)
++* formatting, strings:                   String Functions.    (line 405)
  * forward slash (/), to enclose regular expressions: Regexp.  (line  10)
  * forward slash (/), /= operator:        Assignment Ops.      (line 129)
  * forward slash (/), /= operator, vs. /=.../ regexp constant: Assignment Ops.
@@@ -37446,17 -37379,13 +37468,17 @@@
  * Free Software Foundation (FSF) <3>:    Glossary.            (line 403)
  * FreeBSD:                               Glossary.            (line 747)
  * FS variable, --field-separator option and: Options.         (line  21)
- * FS variable, TAB character as:         Options.             (line 312)
+ * FS variable, TAB character as:         Options.             (line 311)
 -* FS variable:                           Field Separators.    (line  15)
 -* FS variable, changing value of:        Field Separators.    (line  34)
 +* FS variable:                           Field Separators.    (line  16)
 +* FS variable, changing value of:        Field Separators.    (line  35)
  * FS variable, containing ^:             Regexp Field Splitting.
-                                                               (line  59)
+                                                               (line  58)
  * FS variable, null string as:           Single Character Fields.
                                                                (line  20)
 +* FS variable, character "," as:         Comma Separated Fields.
 +                                                              (line   6)
 +* FS variable, parsing CSV files:        Comma Separated Fields.
 +                                                              (line   6)
  * FS variable, setting from command line: Command Line Field Separator.
                                                                (line   6)
  * FS variable, in multiline records:     Multiple Line.       (line  41)
@@@ -37579,15 -37508,15 +37601,15 @@@
  * gawk, ERRNO variable in <3>:           Auto-set.            (line  87)
  * gawk, FUNCTAB array in:                Auto-set.            (line 134)
  * gawk, PROCINFO array in <1>:           Auto-set.            (line 148)
 -* gawk, version of:                      Auto-set.            (line 257)
 -* gawk, RT variable in <3>:              Auto-set.            (line 343)
 -* gawk, SYMTAB array in:                 Auto-set.            (line 347)
 +* gawk, version of:                      Auto-set.            (line 265)
 +* gawk, RT variable in <3>:              Auto-set.            (line 351)
 +* gawk, SYMTAB array in:                 Auto-set.            (line 355)
  * gawk, IGNORECASE variable in <2>:      Array Intro.         (line 100)
  * gawk, function arguments and:          Calling Built-in.    (line  16)
- * gawk, IGNORECASE variable in <3>:      String Functions.    (line  58)
+ * gawk, IGNORECASE variable in <3>:      String Functions.    (line  57)
  * gawk, timestamps:                      Time Functions.      (line   6)
  * gawk, PROCINFO array in <2>:           Time Functions.      (line  49)
- * gawk, bitwise operations in:           Bitwise Functions.   (line  40)
+ * gawk, bitwise operations in:           Bitwise Functions.   (line  41)
  * gawk, string-translation functions:    I18N Functions.      (line   6)
  * gawk, features, advanced:              Advanced Features.   (line   6)
  * gawk, IGNORECASE variable in <4>:      Array Sorting Functions.
@@@ -37736,8 -37663,8 +37756,8 @@@
  * groups, information about:             Group Functions.     (line   6)
  * gsub:                                  Standard Regexp Constants.
                                                                (line  43)
- * gsub <1>:                              String Functions.    (line 154)
- * gsub() function, arguments of:         String Functions.    (line 486)
+ * gsub <1>:                              String Functions.    (line 153)
 -* gsub() function, arguments of:         String Functions.    (line 480)
++* gsub() function, arguments of:         String Functions.    (line 484)
  * gsub() function, escape processing:    Gory Details.        (line   6)
  * Guerrero, Juan Manuel:                 Acknowledgments.     (line  60)
  * Guerrero, Juan Manuel <1>:             Contributors.        (line 150)
@@@ -38049,8 -37975,8 +38068,8 @@@
  * matching, leftmost longest:            Multiple Line.       (line  26)
  * matching, expressions:                 Typing and Comparison.
                                                                (line   9)
- * matching, null strings:                String Functions.    (line 569)
- * mawk utility:                          Escape Sequences.    (line 121)
 -* matching, null strings:                String Functions.    (line 563)
++* matching, null strings:                String Functions.    (line 567)
+ * mawk utility:                          Escape Sequences.    (line 120)
  * mawk utility <1>:                      Getline/Pipe.        (line  62)
  * mawk utility <2>:                      Concatenation.       (line  36)
  * mawk utility <3>:                      Nextfile Statement.  (line  47)
@@@ -38068,9 -37994,9 +38087,9 @@@
  * message object files, converting from portable object files: I18N Example.
                                                                (line  80)
  * messages from extensions:              Printing Messages.   (line   6)
- * metacharacters, escape sequences for:  Escape Sequences.    (line 140)
+ * metacharacters, escape sequences for:  Escape Sequences.    (line 139)
  * metacharacters, in regular expressions: Regexp Operators.   (line   6)
 -* minimum precision required by MPFR library: Auto-set.       (line 274)
 +* minimum precision required by MPFR library: Auto-set.       (line 282)
  * Minshall, Greg:                        Getopt Function.     (line 105)
  * mkbool:                                Boolean Functions.   (line  10)
  * mktime:                                Time Functions.      (line  25)
@@@ -38180,9 -38106,9 +38199,9 @@@
  * null strings, as array subscripts:     Uninitialized Subscripts.
                                                                (line  43)
  * null strings, deleting array elements and: Delete.          (line  27)
- * null strings, matching:                String Functions.    (line 569)
 -* null strings, matching:                String Functions.    (line 563)
++* null strings, matching:                String Functions.    (line 567)
  * null strings <3>:                      Basic Data Typing.   (line  26)
- * number of array elements:              String Functions.    (line 215)
+ * number of array elements:              String Functions.    (line 214)
  * number sign (#), #! (executable scripts): Executable Scripts.
                                                                (line   6)
  * number sign (#), commenting:           Comments.            (line   6)
@@@ -38360,8 -38284,8 +38377,8 @@@
  * portability, operators:                Increment Ops.       (line  60)
  * portability, operators, not in POSIX awk: Precedence.       (line  97)
  * portability, deleting array elements:  Delete.              (line  56)
- * portability, length() function:        String Functions.    (line 194)
- * portability, substr() function:        String Functions.    (line 536)
+ * portability, length() function:        String Functions.    (line 193)
 -* portability, substr() function:        String Functions.    (line 530)
++* portability, substr() function:        String Functions.    (line 534)
  * portability, functions, defining:      Definition Syntax.   (line 114)
  * portability, next statement in user-defined functions: Function Caveats.
                                                                (line  26)
@@@ -38436,7 -38360,7 +38453,7 @@@
                                                                (line  12)
  * POSIX mode <9>:                        POSIX String Comparison.
                                                                (line  34)
- * POSIX mode <10>:                       String Functions.    (line 403)
 -* POSIX mode <10>:                       String Functions.    (line 397)
++* POSIX mode <10>:                       String Functions.    (line 401)
  * POSIX mode <11>:                       Controlling Array Traversal.
                                                                (line 226)
  * POSIX mode <12>:                       POSIX Floating Point Problems.
@@@ -38666,7 -38590,7 +38683,7 @@@
  * regular expressions, as patterns <1>:  Regexp Patterns.     (line   6)
  * regular expressions, case sensitivity <1>: User-modified.   (line  79)
  * regular expressions, searching for:    Egrep Program.       (line   6)
- * replace in string:                     String Functions.    (line 432)
 -* replace in string:                     String Functions.    (line 426)
++* replace in string:                     String Functions.    (line 430)
  * retrying input:                        Retrying Input.      (line   6)
  * return debugger command:               Debugger Execution Control.
                                                                (line  54)
@@@ -38688,10 -38612,10 +38705,10 @@@
  * right angle bracket (>), >= operator <1>: Precedence.       (line  64)
  * right angle bracket (>), > operator <1>: Precedence.        (line  64)
  * right angle bracket (>), >> operator (I/O) <1>: Precedence. (line  64)
- * right shift, bitwise:                  Bitwise Functions.   (line  32)
+ * right shift, bitwise:                  Bitwise Functions.   (line  33)
  * Ritchie, Dennis:                       Basic Data Typing.   (line  54)
 -* RLENGTH variable:                      Auto-set.            (line 330)
 +* RLENGTH variable:                      Auto-set.            (line 338)
- * RLENGTH variable, match() function and: String Functions.   (line 242)
+ * RLENGTH variable, match() function and: String Functions.   (line 241)
  * Robbins, Miriam:                       Acknowledgments.     (line  94)
  * Robbins, Jean:                         Acknowledgments.     (line  94)
  * Robbins, Harry:                        Acknowledgments.     (line  94)
@@@ -38718,14 -38642,14 +38735,14 @@@
                                                                (line   6)
  * RS variable:                           awk split records.   (line  12)
  * RS variable, multiline records and:    Multiple Line.       (line  17)
- * RS variable <1>:                       User-modified.       (line 136)
- * rshift:                                Bitwise Functions.   (line  54)
+ * RS variable <1>:                       User-modified.       (line 135)
+ * rshift:                                Bitwise Functions.   (line  55)
 -* RSTART variable:                       Auto-set.            (line 336)
 +* RSTART variable:                       Auto-set.            (line 344)
- * RSTART variable, match() function and: String Functions.    (line 242)
+ * RSTART variable, match() function and: String Functions.    (line 241)
  * RT variable:                           awk split records.   (line 118)
  * RT variable <1>:                       gawk split records.  (line  66)
- * RT variable <2>:                       Multiple Line.       (line 139)
+ * RT variable <2>:                       Multiple Line.       (line 138)
 -* RT variable <3>:                       Auto-set.            (line 343)
 +* RT variable <3>:                       Auto-set.            (line 351)
  * Rubin, Paul:                           History.             (line  30)
  * Rubin, Paul <1>:                       Contributors.        (line  16)
  * rule, definition of:                   Getting Started.     (line  21)
@@@ -38830,9 -38754,9 +38847,9 @@@
  * side effects, statements:              Action Overview.     (line  32)
  * side effects, array indexing:          Reference to Elements.
                                                                (line  43)
- * side effects, match() function:        String Functions.    (line 242)
- * side effects, sub() function:          String Functions.    (line 486)
- * side effects, gsub() function:         String Functions.    (line 486)
+ * side effects, match() function:        String Functions.    (line 241)
 -* side effects, sub() function:          String Functions.    (line 480)
 -* side effects, gsub() function:         String Functions.    (line 480)
++* side effects, sub() function:          String Functions.    (line 484)
++* side effects, gsub() function:         String Functions.    (line 484)
  * side effects, asort() function:        Array Sorting Functions.
                                                                (line  24)
  * side effects, asorti() function:       Array Sorting Functions.
@@@ -38865,15 -38789,15 +38882,15 @@@
  * sidebar, Pre-POSIX awk Used OFMT for String Conversion: Strings And Numbers.
                                                                (line  54)
  * sidebar, Syntactic Ambiguities Between /= and Regular Expressions: 
Assignment Ops.
-                                                               (line 147)
+                                                               (line 148)
  * sidebar, Operator Evaluation Order:    Increment Ops.       (line  58)
 -* sidebar, Changing NR and FNR:          Auto-set.            (line 402)
 -* sidebar, Matching the Null String:     String Functions.    (line 561)
 +* sidebar, Changing NR and FNR:          Auto-set.            (line 410)
- * sidebar, Matching the Null String:     String Functions.    (line 567)
++* sidebar, Matching the Null String:     String Functions.    (line 565)
  * sidebar, Interactive Versus Noninteractive Buffering: I/O Functions.
-                                                               (line  74)
+                                                               (line  73)
  * sidebar, Controlling Output Buffering with system(): I/O Functions.
                                                                (line 166)
- * sidebar, Beware The Smoke and Mirrors!: Bitwise Functions.  (line 127)
+ * sidebar, Beware The Smoke and Mirrors!: Bitwise Functions.  (line 128)
  * sidebar, So Why Does gawk Have BEGINFILE and ENDFILE?: Filetrans Function.
                                                                (line  83)
  * sidebar, Rounding Modes and Conversion: Setting the rounding mode.
@@@ -38947,14 -38871,14 +38964,14 @@@
  * split() function, array elements, deleting: Delete.         (line  61)
  * split.awk program:                     Split Program.       (line  51)
  * sprintf:                               OFMT.                (line  15)
- * sprintf <1>:                           String Functions.    (line 407)
 -* sprintf <1>:                           String Functions.    (line 401)
++* sprintf <1>:                           String Functions.    (line 405)
  * sprintf() function, print/printf statements and: Round Function.
                                                                (line   6)
- * sqrt:                                  Numeric Functions.   (line  78)
+ * sqrt:                                  Numeric Functions.   (line  77)
  * square brackets ([]), regexp operator: Regexp Operator Details.
                                                                (line  52)
- * square root:                           Numeric Functions.   (line  78)
- * srand:                                 Numeric Functions.   (line  82)
+ * square root:                           Numeric Functions.   (line  77)
+ * srand:                                 Numeric Functions.   (line  81)
  * stack frame (debugger):                Debugging Terms.     (line  10)
  * Stallman, Richard:                     Manual History.      (line   6)
  * Stallman, Richard <1>:                 Acknowledgments.     (line  18)
@@@ -38998,23 -38922,23 +39015,23 @@@
  * strings, numeric:                      Variable Typing.     (line  67)
  * strings, converting, numbers to:       User-modified.       (line  30)
  * strings, converting, numbers to <1>:   User-modified.       (line 107)
- * strings, splitting, example:           String Functions.    (line 355)
- * strings, converting letter case:       String Functions.    (line 546)
- * strings, converting <1>:               Bitwise Functions.   (line 109)
 -* strings, splitting, example:           String Functions.    (line 350)
 -* strings, converting letter case:       String Functions.    (line 540)
++* strings, splitting, example:           String Functions.    (line 354)
++* strings, converting letter case:       String Functions.    (line 544)
+ * strings, converting <1>:               Bitwise Functions.   (line 110)
  * strings, merging arrays into:          Join Function.       (line   6)
  * strings, for localization:             Programmer i18n.     (line  13)
  * strings, extracting:                   String Extraction.   (line   6)
- * strtonum:                              String Functions.    (line 414)
 -* strtonum:                              String Functions.    (line 408)
++* strtonum:                              String Functions.    (line 412)
  * strtonum() function (gawk), --non-decimal-data option and: Nondecimal Data.
                                                                (line  35)
  * STR_CHAIN_MAX environment variable:    Other Environment Variables.
                                                                (line  91)
  * sub:                                   Standard Regexp Constants.
                                                                (line  43)
- * sub <1>:                               String Functions.    (line 432)
- * sub() function, arguments of:          String Functions.    (line 486)
 -* sub <1>:                               String Functions.    (line 426)
 -* sub() function, arguments of:          String Functions.    (line 480)
++* sub <1>:                               String Functions.    (line 430)
++* sub() function, arguments of:          String Functions.    (line 484)
  * sub() function, escape processing:     Gory Details.        (line   6)
- * subscript separators:                  User-modified.       (line 149)
+ * subscript separators:                  User-modified.       (line 148)
  * subscripts in arrays, numbers as:      Numeric Array Subscripts.
                                                                (line   6)
  * subscripts in arrays, uninitialized variables as: Uninitialized Subscripts.
@@@ -39022,20 -38946,20 +39039,20 @@@
  * subscripts in arrays, multidimensional: Multidimensional.   (line  10)
  * subscripts in arrays, multidimensional, scanning: Multiscanning.
                                                                (line  11)
- * SUBSEP variable:                       User-modified.       (line 149)
+ * SUBSEP variable:                       User-modified.       (line 148)
  * SUBSEP variable, multidimensional arrays and: Multidimensional.
                                                                (line  16)
- * substitute in string:                  String Functions.    (line  99)
- * substr:                                String Functions.    (line 505)
- * substring:                             String Functions.    (line 505)
+ * substitute in string:                  String Functions.    (line  98)
 -* substr:                                String Functions.    (line 499)
 -* substring:                             String Functions.    (line 499)
++* substr:                                String Functions.    (line 503)
++* substring:                             String Functions.    (line 503)
  * Sumner, Andrew:                        Other Versions.      (line  64)
 -* supplementary groups of gawk process:  Auto-set.            (line 287)
 +* supplementary groups of gawk process:  Auto-set.            (line 295)
  * switch statement:                      Switch Statement.    (line   6)
 -* SYMTAB array:                          Auto-set.            (line 347)
 +* SYMTAB array:                          Auto-set.            (line 355)
  * syntactic ambiguity: /= operator vs. /=.../ regexp constant: Assignment Ops.
-                                                               (line 149)
- * system:                                I/O Functions.       (line 106)
- * systime:                               Time Functions.      (line  68)
+                                                               (line 150)
+ * system:                                I/O Functions.       (line 105)
+ * systime:                               Time Functions.      (line  67)
  * t debugger command (alias for tbreak): Breakpoint Control.  (line  90)
  * tbreak debugger command:               Breakpoint Control.  (line  90)
  * Tcl:                                   Library Names.       (line  58)
@@@ -39086,12 -39010,12 +39103,12 @@@
  * time functions:                        Time Functions.      (line   6)
  * timeout, reading input:                Read Timeout.        (line   6)
  * timestamps:                            Time Functions.      (line   6)
- * timestamps <1>:                        Time Functions.      (line  68)
- * timestamps, converting dates to:       Time Functions.      (line  78)
+ * timestamps <1>:                        Time Functions.      (line  67)
+ * timestamps, converting dates to:       Time Functions.      (line  77)
  * timestamps, formatted:                 Getlocaltime Function.
                                                                (line   6)
- * tolower:                               String Functions.    (line 547)
- * toupper:                               String Functions.    (line 553)
 -* tolower:                               String Functions.    (line 541)
 -* toupper:                               String Functions.    (line 547)
++* tolower:                               String Functions.    (line 545)
++* toupper:                               String Functions.    (line 551)
  * tr utility:                            Translate Program.   (line   6)
  * trace debugger command:                Miscellaneous Debugger Commands.
                                                                (line 108)
@@@ -39123,11 -39047,11 +39140,11 @@@
  * troubleshooting, function call syntax: Function Calls.      (line  30)
  * troubleshooting, gawk, fatal errors, function arguments: Calling Built-in.
                                                                (line  16)
- * troubleshooting, match() function:     String Functions.    (line 306)
- * troubleshooting, gsub()/sub() functions: String Functions.  (line 496)
- * troubleshooting, substr() function:    String Functions.    (line 523)
- * troubleshooting, fflush() function:    I/O Functions.       (line  63)
- * troubleshooting, system() function:    I/O Functions.       (line 128)
+ * troubleshooting, match() function:     String Functions.    (line 305)
 -* troubleshooting, gsub()/sub() functions: String Functions.  (line 490)
 -* troubleshooting, substr() function:    String Functions.    (line 517)
++* troubleshooting, gsub()/sub() functions: String Functions.  (line 494)
++* troubleshooting, substr() function:    String Functions.    (line 521)
+ * troubleshooting, fflush() function:    I/O Functions.       (line  62)
+ * troubleshooting, system() function:    I/O Functions.       (line 127)
  * troubleshooting, readable data files:  File Checking.       (line   6)
  * troubleshooting, getline command:      File Checking.       (line  25)
  * troubleshooting, gawk, bug reports:    Bugs.                (line   9)
@@@ -39327,620 -39251,617 +39344,619 @@@
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 -Node: Registration Functions1072898
 -Node: Extension Functions1073598
 -Node: Exit Callback Functions1078920
 -Node: Extension Version String1080170
 -Node: Input Parsers1080833
 -Node: Output Wrappers1093554
 -Node: Two-way processors1098066
 -Node: Printing Messages1100331
 -Ref: Printing Messages-Footnote-11101502
 -Node: Updating ERRNO1101655
 -Node: Requesting Values1102394
 -Ref: table-value-types-returned1103131
 -Node: Accessing Parameters1104240
 -Node: Symbol Table Access1105477
 -Node: Symbol table by name1105989
 -Ref: Symbol table by name-Footnote-11109014
 -Node: Symbol table by cookie1109142
 -Ref: Symbol table by cookie-Footnote-11113327
 -Node: Cached values1113391
 -Ref: Cached values-Footnote-11116927
 -Node: Array Manipulation1117080
 -Ref: Array Manipulation-Footnote-11118171
 -Node: Array Data Types1118208
 -Ref: Array Data Types-Footnote-11120866
 -Node: Array Functions1120958
 -Node: Flattening Arrays1125743
 -Node: Creating Arrays1132719
 -Node: Redirection API1137486
 -Node: Extension API Variables1140319
 -Node: Extension Versioning1141030
 -Ref: gawk-api-version1141459
 -Node: Extension GMP/MPFR Versioning1143191
 -Node: Extension API Informational Variables1144819
 -Node: Extension API Boilerplate1145892
 -Node: Changes from API V11149866
 -Node: Finding Extensions1151438
 -Node: Extension Example1151997
 -Node: Internal File Description1152795
 -Node: Internal File Ops1156875
 -Ref: Internal File Ops-Footnote-11168225
 -Node: Using Internal File Ops1168365
 -Ref: Using Internal File Ops-Footnote-11170748
 -Node: Extension Samples1171022
 -Node: Extension Sample File Functions1172551
 -Node: Extension Sample Fnmatch1180200
 -Node: Extension Sample Fork1181687
 -Node: Extension Sample Inplace1182905
 -Node: Extension Sample Ord1186531
 -Node: Extension Sample Readdir1187367
 -Ref: table-readdir-file-types1188256
 -Node: Extension Sample Revout1189324
 -Node: Extension Sample Rev2way1189913
 -Node: Extension Sample Read write array1190653
 -Node: Extension Sample Readfile1193839
 -Node: Extension Sample Time1194934
 -Node: Extension Sample API Tests1196686
 -Node: gawkextlib1197178
 -Node: Extension summary1200096
 -Node: Extension Exercises1203798
 -Node: Language History1205040
 -Node: V7/SVR3.11206696
 -Node: SVR41208848
 -Node: POSIX1210282
 -Node: BTL1211663
 -Node: POSIX/GNU1212392
 -Node: Feature History1218309
 -Node: Common Extensions1236048
 -Node: Ranges and Locales1237331
 -Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-11241947
 -Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-21241974
 -Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-31242209
 -Node: Contributors1242432
 -Node: History summary1248429
 -Node: Installation1249809
 -Node: Gawk Distribution1250753
 -Node: Getting1251237
 -Node: Extracting1252200
 -Node: Distribution contents1253838
 -Node: Unix Installation1261336
 -Node: Quick Installation1262140
 -Node: Compiling with MPFR1264560
 -Node: Shell Startup Files1265250
 -Node: Additional Configuration Options1266339
 -Node: Configuration Philosophy1268654
 -Node: Compiling from Git1271050
 -Node: Building the Documentation1271605
 -Node: Non-Unix Installation1272989
 -Node: PC Installation1273453
 -Node: PC Binary Installation1274298
 -Node: PC Compiling1275171
 -Node: PC Using1276277
 -Node: Cygwin1279773
 -Node: MSYS1280997
 -Node: OpenVMS Installation1281599
 -Node: OpenVMS Compilation1282260
 -Ref: OpenVMS Compilation-Footnote-11283683
 -Node: OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions1283741
 -Node: OpenVMS Installation Details1285353
 -Node: OpenVMS Running1287648
 -Node: OpenVMS GNV1291649
 -Node: Bugs1292392
 -Node: Bug definition1293304
 -Node: Bug address1296806
 -Node: Usenet1300325
 -Node: Performance bugs1301514
 -Node: Asking for help1304435
 -Node: Maintainers1306402
 -Node: Other Versions1307409
 -Node: Installation summary1315988
 -Node: Notes1317328
 -Node: Compatibility Mode1318122
 -Node: Additions1318904
 -Node: Accessing The Source1319829
 -Node: Adding Code1321266
 -Node: New Ports1328081
 -Node: Derived Files1332456
 -Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-11338115
 -Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-21338150
 -Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-31338745
 -Node: Future Extensions1338859
 -Node: Implementation Limitations1339517
 -Node: Extension Design1340727
 -Node: Old Extension Problems1341871
 -Ref: Old Extension Problems-Footnote-11343389
 -Node: Extension New Mechanism Goals1343446
 -Ref: Extension New Mechanism Goals-Footnote-11346810
 -Node: Extension Other Design Decisions1346999
 -Node: Extension Future Growth1349112
 -Node: Notes summary1349718
 -Node: Basic Concepts1350876
 -Node: Basic High Level1351557
 -Ref: figure-general-flow1351839
 -Ref: figure-process-flow1352525
 -Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-11355827
 -Node: Basic Data Typing1356012
 -Node: Glossary1359340
 -Node: Copying1391227
 -Node: GNU Free Documentation License1428770
 -Node: Index1453890
 +Node: Foreword345918
 +Node: Foreword450360
 +Node: Preface51892
 +Ref: Preface-Footnote-154754
 +Ref: Preface-Footnote-254863
 +Ref: Preface-Footnote-355097
 +Node: History55239
 +Node: Names57591
 +Ref: Names-Footnote-158695
 +Node: This Manual58842
 +Ref: This Manual-Footnote-165481
 +Node: Conventions65581
 +Node: Manual History67950
 +Ref: Manual History-Footnote-170947
 +Ref: Manual History-Footnote-270988
 +Node: How To Contribute71062
 +Node: Acknowledgments71984
 +Node: Getting Started76921
 +Node: Running gawk79360
 +Node: One-shot80550
 +Node: Read Terminal81813
 +Node: Long83806
 +Node: Executable Scripts85319
 +Ref: Executable Scripts-Footnote-187952
 +Node: Comments88055
 +Node: Quoting90539
 +Node: DOS Quoting96065
 +Node: Sample Data Files98121
 +Node: Very Simple100716
 +Node: Two Rules106818
 +Node: More Complex108703
 +Node: Statements/Lines111035
 +Ref: Statements/Lines-Footnote-1115803
 +Node: Other Features116068
 +Node: When117004
 +Ref: When-Footnote-1118758
 +Node: Intro Summary118823
 +Node: Invoking Gawk119707
 +Node: Command Line121221
 +Node: Options122019
 +Ref: Options-Footnote-1140268
 +Ref: Options-Footnote-2140499
 +Node: Other Arguments140524
 +Node: Naming Standard Input144535
 +Node: Environment Variables145745
 +Node: AWKPATH Variable146303
 +Ref: AWKPATH Variable-Footnote-1149715
 +Ref: AWKPATH Variable-Footnote-2149749
 +Node: AWKLIBPATH Variable150120
 +Ref: AWKLIBPATH Variable-Footnote-1151817
 +Node: Other Environment Variables152192
 +Node: Exit Status156480
 +Node: Include Files157157
 +Node: Loading Shared Libraries160847
 +Node: Obsolete162275
 +Node: Undocumented162895
 +Node: Invoking Summary163192
 +Node: Regexp166033
 +Node: Regexp Usage167487
 +Node: Escape Sequences169524
 +Node: Regexp Operators175766
 +Node: Regexp Operator Details176251
 +Ref: Regexp Operator Details-Footnote-1183615
 +Node: Interval Expressions183762
 +Ref: Interval Expressions-Footnote-1185937
 +Node: Bracket Expressions186035
 +Ref: table-char-classes188511
- Node: Leftmost Longest191837
- Node: Computed Regexps193140
- Node: GNU Regexp Operators196567
- Node: Case-sensitivity200363
- Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-1203229
- Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-2203464
- Node: Regexp Summary203572
- Node: Reading Files205038
- Node: Records207307
- Node: awk split records208382
- Node: gawk split records213082
- Ref: gawk split records-Footnote-1218156
- Node: Fields218193
- Node: Nonconstant Fields220934
- Ref: Nonconstant Fields-Footnote-1223170
- Node: Changing Fields223374
- Node: Field Separators229405
- Node: Default Field Splitting232160
- Node: Regexp Field Splitting233278
- Node: Single Character Fields236955
- Node: Comma Separated Fields238009
- Ref: table-csv-examples239273
- Node: Command Line Field Separator240168
- Node: Full Line Fields243385
- Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-1244907
- Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-2244953
- Node: Field Splitting Summary245054
- Node: Constant Size247234
- Node: Fixed width data247966
- Node: Skipping intervening251433
- Node: Allowing trailing data252231
- Node: Fields with fixed data253268
- Node: Splitting By Content254786
- Ref: Splitting By Content-Footnote-1258860
- Node: More CSV259023
- Node: FS versus FPAT260638
- Node: Testing field creation261798
- Node: Multiple Line263423
- Node: Getline269700
- Node: Plain Getline272169
- Node: Getline/Variable274742
- Node: Getline/File275893
- Node: Getline/Variable/File277281
- Ref: Getline/Variable/File-Footnote-1278886
- Node: Getline/Pipe278974
- Node: Getline/Variable/Pipe281678
- Node: Getline/Coprocess282813
- Node: Getline/Variable/Coprocess284080
- Node: Getline Notes284822
- Node: Getline Summary287619
- Ref: table-getline-variants288043
- Node: Read Timeout288791
- Ref: Read Timeout-Footnote-1292707
- Node: Retrying Input292765
- Node: Command-line directories293964
- Node: Input Summary294870
- Node: Input Exercises298042
- Node: Printing298476
- Node: Print300310
- Node: Print Examples301767
- Node: Output Separators304547
- Node: OFMT306564
- Node: Printf307920
- Node: Basic Printf308705
- Node: Control Letters310279
- Node: Format Modifiers315441
- Node: Printf Examples321456
- Node: Redirection323942
- Node: Special FD330783
- Ref: Special FD-Footnote-1333951
- Node: Special Files334025
- Node: Other Inherited Files334642
- Node: Special Network335643
- Node: Special Caveats336503
- Node: Close Files And Pipes337452
- Ref: table-close-pipe-return-values344359
- Ref: Close Files And Pipes-Footnote-1345172
- Ref: Close Files And Pipes-Footnote-2345320
- Node: Nonfatal345472
- Node: Output Summary347810
- Node: Output Exercises349032
- Node: Expressions349711
- Node: Values350899
- Node: Constants351577
- Node: Scalar Constants352268
- Ref: Scalar Constants-Footnote-1354778
- Node: Nondecimal-numbers355028
- Node: Regexp Constants358029
- Node: Using Constant Regexps358555
- Node: Standard Regexp Constants359177
- Node: Strong Regexp Constants362365
- Node: Variables366080
- Node: Using Variables366737
- Node: Assignment Options368647
- Node: Conversion371118
- Node: Strings And Numbers371642
- Ref: Strings And Numbers-Footnote-1374705
- Node: Locale influences conversions374814
- Ref: table-locale-affects377572
- Node: All Operators378190
- Node: Arithmetic Ops378819
- Node: Concatenation381535
- Ref: Concatenation-Footnote-1384382
- Node: Assignment Ops384489
- Ref: table-assign-ops389480
- Node: Increment Ops390793
- Node: Truth Values and Conditions394253
- Node: Truth Values395327
- Node: Typing and Comparison396375
- Node: Variable Typing397195
- Ref: Variable Typing-Footnote-1403658
- Ref: Variable Typing-Footnote-2403730
- Node: Comparison Operators403807
- Ref: table-relational-ops404226
- Node: POSIX String Comparison407721
- Ref: POSIX String Comparison-Footnote-1409416
- Ref: POSIX String Comparison-Footnote-2409555
- Node: Boolean Ops409639
- Ref: Boolean Ops-Footnote-1414121
- Node: Conditional Exp414213
- Node: Function Calls415949
- Node: Precedence419826
- Node: Locales423485
- Node: Expressions Summary425117
- Node: Patterns and Actions427690
- Node: Pattern Overview428810
- Node: Regexp Patterns430487
- Node: Expression Patterns431029
- Node: Ranges434810
- Node: BEGIN/END437918
- Node: Using BEGIN/END438679
- Ref: Using BEGIN/END-Footnote-1441433
- Node: I/O And BEGIN/END441539
- Node: Empty447083
- Node: Using Shell Variables447400
- Node: Action Overview449674
- Node: Statements451999
- Node: If Statement453847
- Node: While Statement455342
- Node: Do Statement457370
- Node: For Statement458518
- Node: Switch Statement461773
- Node: Break Statement464214
- Node: Continue Statement466306
- Node: Next Statement468133
- Node: Nextfile Statement470516
- Node: Exit Statement473205
- Node: Built-in Variables475608
- Node: User-modified476741
- Node: Auto-set484508
- Ref: Auto-set-Footnote-1501508
- Ref: Auto-set-Footnote-2501714
- Node: ARGC and ARGV501770
- Node: Pattern Action Summary505983
- Node: Arrays508413
- Node: Array Basics509742
- Node: Array Intro510586
- Ref: figure-array-elements512561
- Ref: Array Intro-Footnote-1515265
- Node: Reference to Elements515393
- Node: Assigning Elements517857
- Node: Array Example518348
- Node: Scanning an Array520302
- Node: Controlling Scanning523324
- Ref: Controlling Scanning-Footnote-1529780
- Node: Numeric Array Subscripts530096
- Node: Uninitialized Subscripts532280
- Node: Delete533899
- Ref: Delete-Footnote-1536651
- Node: Multidimensional536708
- Node: Multiscanning539803
- Node: Arrays of Arrays541394
- Node: Arrays Summary546162
- Node: Functions548255
- Node: Built-in549293
- Node: Calling Built-in550446
- Node: Boolean Functions552442
- Node: Numeric Functions552996
- Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-1557023
- Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-2557671
- Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-3557719
- Node: String Functions557991
- Ref: String Functions-Footnote-1583131
- Ref: String Functions-Footnote-2583259
- Ref: String Functions-Footnote-3583507
- Node: Gory Details583594
- Ref: table-sub-escapes585385
- Ref: table-sub-proposed586904
- Ref: table-posix-sub588267
- Ref: table-gensub-escapes589808
- Ref: Gory Details-Footnote-1590631
- Node: I/O Functions590785
- Ref: table-system-return-values597239
- Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-1599319
- Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-2599467
- Node: Time Functions599587
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-1610258
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-2610326
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-3610484
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-4610595
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-5610707
- Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-6610934
- Node: Bitwise Functions611200
- Ref: table-bitwise-ops611794
- Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-1617857
- Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-2618030
- Node: Type Functions618221
- Node: I18N Functions621742
- Node: User-defined623393
- Node: Definition Syntax624205
- Ref: Definition Syntax-Footnote-1629899
- Node: Function Example629970
- Ref: Function Example-Footnote-1632892
- Node: Function Calling632914
- Node: Calling A Function633502
- Node: Variable Scope634460
- Node: Pass By Value/Reference637454
- Node: Function Caveats640098
- Ref: Function Caveats-Footnote-1642145
- Node: Return Statement642265
- Node: Dynamic Typing645244
- Node: Indirect Calls646174
- Node: Functions Summary657101
- Node: Library Functions659806
- Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-1663290
- Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-2663433
- Node: Library Names663604
- Ref: Library Names-Footnote-1667271
- Ref: Library Names-Footnote-2667494
- Node: General Functions667580
- Node: Strtonum Function668762
- Node: Assert Function671784
- Node: Round Function675110
- Node: Cliff Random Function676650
- Node: Ordinal Functions677666
- Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-1680729
- Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-2680981
- Node: Join Function681191
- Ref: Join Function-Footnote-1682961
- Node: Getlocaltime Function683161
- Node: Readfile Function686903
- Node: Shell Quoting688880
- Node: Isnumeric Function690308
- Node: Data File Management691696
- Node: Filetrans Function692328
- Node: Rewind Function696424
- Node: File Checking698333
- Ref: File Checking-Footnote-1699667
- Node: Empty Files699868
- Node: Ignoring Assigns701847
- Node: Getopt Function703397
- Ref: Getopt Function-Footnote-1718694
- Node: Passwd Functions718894
- Ref: Passwd Functions-Footnote-1727733
- Node: Group Functions727821
- Ref: Group Functions-Footnote-1735719
- Node: Walking Arrays735926
- Node: Library Functions Summary738934
- Node: Library Exercises740340
- Node: Sample Programs740805
- Node: Running Examples741575
- Node: Clones742303
- Node: Cut Program743527
- Node: Egrep Program753667
- Node: Id Program762668
- Node: Split Program772603
- Ref: Split Program-Footnote-1782496
- Node: Tee Program782669
- Node: Uniq Program785459
- Node: Wc Program793047
- Node: Bytes vs. Characters793434
- Node: Using extensions794982
- Node: wc program795736
- Node: Miscellaneous Programs800601
- Node: Dupword Program801814
- Node: Alarm Program803844
- Node: Translate Program808699
- Ref: Translate Program-Footnote-1813264
- Node: Labels Program813534
- Ref: Labels Program-Footnote-1816885
- Node: Word Sorting816969
- Node: History Sorting821041
- Node: Extract Program823266
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- Node: Igawk Program834353
- Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-1848982
- Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-2849184
- Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-3849306
- Node: Anagram Program849421
- Node: Signature Program852483
- Node: Programs Summary853730
- Node: Programs Exercises854944
- Ref: Programs Exercises-Footnote-1859074
- Node: Advanced Features859160
- Node: Nondecimal Data861557
- Node: Boolean Typed Values863155
- Node: Array Sorting865036
- Node: Controlling Array Traversal865741
- Ref: Controlling Array Traversal-Footnote-1874109
- Node: Array Sorting Functions874227
- Ref: Array Sorting Functions-Footnote-1880138
- Node: Two-way I/O880334
- Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-1888060
- Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-2888247
- Node: TCP/IP Networking888329
- Node: Profiling891405
- Node: Persistent Memory900711
- Ref: Persistent Memory-Footnote-1909017
- Ref: Persistent Memory-Footnote-2909156
- Node: Extension Philosophy909283
- Node: Advanced Features Summary910770
- Node: Internationalization912942
- Node: I18N and L10N914616
- Node: Explaining gettext915303
- Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-1921195
- Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-2921380
- Node: Programmer i18n921545
- Ref: Programmer i18n-Footnote-1926494
- Node: Translator i18n926543
- Node: String Extraction927337
- Ref: String Extraction-Footnote-1928469
- Node: Printf Ordering928555
- Ref: Printf Ordering-Footnote-1931341
- Node: I18N Portability931405
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- Node: I18N Example933924
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- Ref: I18N Example-Footnote-2937272
- Node: Gawk I18N937381
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- Node: Debugging940344
- Node: Debugging Concepts940785
- Node: Debugging Terms942594
- Node: Awk Debugging945169
- Ref: Awk Debugging-Footnote-1946114
- Node: Sample Debugging Session946246
- Node: Debugger Invocation946780
- Node: Finding The Bug948166
- Node: List of Debugger Commands954640
- Node: Breakpoint Control955973
- Node: Debugger Execution Control959667
- Node: Viewing And Changing Data963029
- Node: Execution Stack966570
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- Node: Namespaces982069
- Node: Global Namespace983180
- Node: Qualified Names984578
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- Node: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic996296
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- Ref: table-numeric-ranges1001549
- Ref: table-floating-point-ranges1002042
- Ref: Computer Arithmetic-Footnote-11002700
- Node: Math Definitions1002757
- Ref: table-ieee-formats1005733
- Node: MPFR features1006300
- Node: MPFR On Parole1006745
- Ref: MPFR On Parole-Footnote-11007574
- Node: MPFR Intro1007729
- Node: FP Math Caution1009380
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- Node: Inexactness of computations1010821
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- Node: Comparing FP Values1013212
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- Node: Strange values1015909
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- Node: Getting Accuracy1018602
- Node: Try To Round1021312
- Node: Setting precision1022211
- Ref: table-predefined-precision-strings1022908
- Node: Setting the rounding mode1024738
- Ref: table-gawk-rounding-modes1025112
- Ref: Setting the rounding mode-Footnote-11029043
- Node: Arbitrary Precision Integers1029222
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- Node: Checking for MPFR1032546
- Node: POSIX Floating Point Problems1034020
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- Node: Floating point summary1038711
- Node: Dynamic Extensions1040901
- Node: Extension Intro1042454
- Node: Plugin License1043720
- Node: Extension Mechanism Outline1044517
- Ref: figure-load-extension1044956
- Ref: figure-register-new-function1046521
- Ref: figure-call-new-function1047613
- Node: Extension API Description1049675
- Node: Extension API Functions Introduction1051388
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- Node: General Data Types1057473
- Ref: General Data Types-Footnote-11066179
- Node: Memory Allocation Functions1066478
- Ref: Memory Allocation Functions-Footnote-11070979
- Node: Constructor Functions1071078
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- Node: Registration Functions1076264
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- Node: Requesting Values1105760
- Ref: table-value-types-returned1106497
- Node: Accessing Parameters1107605
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- Node: Array Functions1124323
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- Node: Redirection API1140851
- Node: Extension API Variables1143684
- Node: Extension Versioning1144395
- Ref: gawk-api-version1144824
- Node: Extension GMP/MPFR Versioning1146555
- Node: Extension API Informational Variables1148183
- Node: Extension API Boilerplate1149256
- Node: Changes from API V11153230
- Node: Finding Extensions1154802
- Node: Extension Example1155361
- Node: Internal File Description1156159
- Node: Internal File Ops1160239
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- Node: Using Internal File Ops1171729
- Ref: Using Internal File Ops-Footnote-11174112
- Node: Extension Samples1174386
- Node: Extension Sample File Functions1175915
- Node: Extension Sample Fnmatch1183564
- Node: Extension Sample Fork1185051
- Node: Extension Sample Inplace1186269
- Node: Extension Sample Ord1189895
- Node: Extension Sample Readdir1190731
- Ref: table-readdir-file-types1191620
- Node: Extension Sample Revout1192687
- Node: Extension Sample Rev2way1193276
- Node: Extension Sample Read write array1194016
- Node: Extension Sample Readfile1197202
- Node: Extension Sample Time1198297
- Node: Extension Sample API Tests1200049
- Node: gawkextlib1200541
- Node: Extension summary1203459
- Node: Extension Exercises1207161
- Node: Language History1208403
- Node: V7/SVR3.11210059
- Node: SVR41212211
- Node: POSIX1213645
- Node: BTL1215026
- Node: POSIX/GNU1215755
- Node: Feature History1221672
- Node: Common Extensions1239793
- Node: Ranges and Locales1241076
- Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-11245692
- Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-21245719
- Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-31245954
- Node: Contributors1246177
- Node: History summary1252174
- Node: Installation1253554
- Node: Gawk Distribution1254498
- Node: Getting1254982
- Node: Extracting1255945
- Node: Distribution contents1257583
- Node: Unix Installation1265081
- Node: Quick Installation1265885
- Node: Compiling with MPFR1268305
- Node: Shell Startup Files1268995
- Node: Additional Configuration Options1270084
- Node: Configuration Philosophy1272399
- Node: Compiling from Git1274795
- Node: Building the Documentation1275350
- Node: Non-Unix Installation1276734
- Node: PC Installation1277198
- Node: PC Binary Installation1278043
- Node: PC Compiling1278916
- Node: PC Using1280022
- Node: Cygwin1283518
- Node: MSYS1284742
- Node: OpenVMS Installation1285344
- Node: OpenVMS Compilation1286005
- Ref: OpenVMS Compilation-Footnote-11287428
- Node: OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions1287486
- Node: OpenVMS Installation Details1289098
- Node: OpenVMS Running1291393
- Node: OpenVMS GNV1295394
- Node: Bugs1296137
- Node: Bug definition1297049
- Node: Bug address1300551
- Node: Usenet1304070
- Node: Performance bugs1305259
- Node: Asking for help1308180
- Node: Maintainers1310147
- Node: Other Versions1311154
- Node: Installation summary1319733
- Node: Notes1321073
- Node: Compatibility Mode1321867
- Node: Additions1322649
- Node: Accessing The Source1323574
- Node: Adding Code1325011
- Node: New Ports1331826
- Node: Derived Files1336201
- Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-11341860
- Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-21341895
- Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-31342490
- Node: Future Extensions1342604
- Node: Implementation Limitations1343262
- Node: Extension Design1344472
- Node: Old Extension Problems1345616
- Ref: Old Extension Problems-Footnote-11347134
- Node: Extension New Mechanism Goals1347191
- Ref: Extension New Mechanism Goals-Footnote-11350555
- Node: Extension Other Design Decisions1350744
- Node: Extension Future Growth1352857
- Node: Notes summary1353463
- Node: Basic Concepts1354621
- Node: Basic High Level1355302
- Ref: figure-general-flow1355584
- Ref: figure-process-flow1356269
- Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-11359570
- Node: Basic Data Typing1359755
- Node: Glossary1363083
- Node: Copying1394970
- Node: GNU Free Documentation License1432513
- Node: Index1457633
++Node: Leftmost Longest191838
++Node: Computed Regexps193141
++Node: GNU Regexp Operators196568
++Node: Case-sensitivity200364
++Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-1203230
++Ref: Case-sensitivity-Footnote-2203465
++Node: Regexp Summary203573
++Node: Reading Files205039
++Node: Records207308
++Node: awk split records208383
++Node: gawk split records213083
++Ref: gawk split records-Footnote-1218157
++Node: Fields218194
++Node: Nonconstant Fields220935
++Ref: Nonconstant Fields-Footnote-1223171
++Node: Changing Fields223375
++Node: Field Separators229406
++Node: Default Field Splitting232161
++Node: Regexp Field Splitting233279
++Node: Single Character Fields236956
++Node: Comma Separated Fields238010
++Ref: table-csv-examples239274
++Node: Command Line Field Separator240170
++Node: Full Line Fields243387
++Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-1244909
++Ref: Full Line Fields-Footnote-2244955
++Node: Field Splitting Summary245056
++Node: Constant Size247236
++Node: Fixed width data247968
++Node: Skipping intervening251435
++Node: Allowing trailing data252233
++Node: Fields with fixed data253270
++Node: Splitting By Content254788
++Ref: Splitting By Content-Footnote-1258862
++Node: More CSV259025
++Node: FS versus FPAT260640
++Node: Testing field creation261800
++Node: Multiple Line263425
++Node: Getline269702
++Node: Plain Getline272171
++Node: Getline/Variable274744
++Node: Getline/File275895
++Node: Getline/Variable/File277283
++Ref: Getline/Variable/File-Footnote-1278888
++Node: Getline/Pipe278976
++Node: Getline/Variable/Pipe281680
++Node: Getline/Coprocess282815
++Node: Getline/Variable/Coprocess284082
++Node: Getline Notes284824
++Node: Getline Summary287621
++Ref: table-getline-variants288045
++Node: Read Timeout288794
++Ref: Read Timeout-Footnote-1292710
++Node: Retrying Input292768
++Node: Command-line directories293967
++Node: Input Summary294873
++Node: Input Exercises298045
++Node: Printing298479
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++Node: Print Examples301770
++Node: Output Separators304550
++Node: OFMT306567
++Node: Printf307923
++Node: Basic Printf308708
++Node: Control Letters310282
++Node: Format Modifiers315444
++Node: Printf Examples321459
++Node: Redirection323945
++Node: Special FD330786
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++Node: Special Files334028
++Node: Other Inherited Files334645
++Node: Special Network335646
++Node: Special Caveats336506
++Node: Close Files And Pipes337455
++Ref: table-close-pipe-return-values344362
++Ref: Close Files And Pipes-Footnote-1345176
++Ref: Close Files And Pipes-Footnote-2345324
++Node: Nonfatal345476
++Node: Output Summary347814
++Node: Output Exercises349036
++Node: Expressions349715
++Node: Values350903
++Node: Constants351581
++Node: Scalar Constants352272
++Ref: Scalar Constants-Footnote-1354782
++Node: Nondecimal-numbers355032
++Node: Regexp Constants358033
++Node: Using Constant Regexps358559
++Node: Standard Regexp Constants359181
++Node: Strong Regexp Constants362369
++Node: Variables366084
++Node: Using Variables366741
++Node: Assignment Options368651
++Node: Conversion371122
++Node: Strings And Numbers371646
++Ref: Strings And Numbers-Footnote-1374709
++Node: Locale influences conversions374818
++Ref: table-locale-affects377576
++Node: All Operators378195
++Node: Arithmetic Ops378824
++Node: Concatenation381540
++Ref: Concatenation-Footnote-1384387
++Node: Assignment Ops384494
++Ref: table-assign-ops389485
++Node: Increment Ops390799
++Node: Truth Values and Conditions394259
++Node: Truth Values395333
++Node: Typing and Comparison396381
++Node: Variable Typing397201
++Ref: Variable Typing-Footnote-1403664
++Ref: Variable Typing-Footnote-2403736
++Node: Comparison Operators403813
++Ref: table-relational-ops404232
++Node: POSIX String Comparison407728
++Ref: POSIX String Comparison-Footnote-1409423
++Ref: POSIX String Comparison-Footnote-2409562
++Node: Boolean Ops409646
++Ref: Boolean Ops-Footnote-1414128
++Node: Conditional Exp414220
++Node: Function Calls415956
++Node: Precedence419833
++Node: Locales423492
++Node: Expressions Summary425124
++Node: Patterns and Actions427697
++Node: Pattern Overview428817
++Node: Regexp Patterns430494
++Node: Expression Patterns431036
++Node: Ranges434817
++Node: BEGIN/END437925
++Node: Using BEGIN/END438686
++Ref: Using BEGIN/END-Footnote-1441440
++Node: I/O And BEGIN/END441546
++Node: Empty447090
++Node: Using Shell Variables447407
++Node: Action Overview449681
++Node: Statements452006
++Node: If Statement453854
++Node: While Statement455349
++Node: Do Statement457377
++Node: For Statement458525
++Node: Switch Statement461780
++Node: Break Statement464221
++Node: Continue Statement466313
++Node: Next Statement468140
++Node: Nextfile Statement470523
++Node: Exit Statement473212
++Node: Built-in Variables475615
++Node: User-modified476748
++Node: Auto-set484515
++Ref: Auto-set-Footnote-1501515
++Ref: Auto-set-Footnote-2501721
++Node: ARGC and ARGV501777
++Node: Pattern Action Summary505990
++Node: Arrays508420
++Node: Array Basics509749
++Node: Array Intro510593
++Ref: figure-array-elements512568
++Ref: Array Intro-Footnote-1515273
++Node: Reference to Elements515401
++Node: Assigning Elements517865
++Node: Array Example518356
++Node: Scanning an Array520310
++Node: Controlling Scanning523332
++Ref: Controlling Scanning-Footnote-1529788
++Node: Numeric Array Subscripts530104
++Node: Uninitialized Subscripts532288
++Node: Delete533907
++Ref: Delete-Footnote-1536659
++Node: Multidimensional536716
++Node: Multiscanning539811
++Node: Arrays of Arrays541402
++Node: Arrays Summary546170
++Node: Functions548263
++Node: Built-in549301
++Node: Calling Built-in550454
++Node: Boolean Functions552450
++Node: Numeric Functions553004
++Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-1557031
++Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-2557679
++Ref: Numeric Functions-Footnote-3557727
++Node: String Functions557999
++Ref: String Functions-Footnote-1583139
++Ref: String Functions-Footnote-2583267
++Ref: String Functions-Footnote-3583515
++Node: Gory Details583602
++Ref: table-sub-escapes585393
++Ref: table-sub-proposed586913
++Ref: table-posix-sub588277
++Ref: table-gensub-escapes589819
++Ref: Gory Details-Footnote-1590643
++Node: I/O Functions590797
++Ref: table-system-return-values597251
++Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-1599332
++Ref: I/O Functions-Footnote-2599480
++Node: Time Functions599600
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-1610271
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-2610339
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-3610497
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-4610608
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-5610720
++Ref: Time Functions-Footnote-6610947
++Node: Bitwise Functions611213
++Ref: table-bitwise-ops611807
++Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-1617871
++Ref: Bitwise Functions-Footnote-2618044
++Node: Type Functions618235
++Node: I18N Functions621756
++Node: User-defined623407
++Node: Definition Syntax624219
++Ref: Definition Syntax-Footnote-1629913
++Node: Function Example629984
++Ref: Function Example-Footnote-1632906
++Node: Function Calling632928
++Node: Calling A Function633516
++Node: Variable Scope634474
++Node: Pass By Value/Reference637468
++Node: Function Caveats640112
++Ref: Function Caveats-Footnote-1642159
++Node: Return Statement642279
++Node: Dynamic Typing645258
++Node: Indirect Calls646188
++Node: Functions Summary657115
++Node: Library Functions659820
++Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-1663304
++Ref: Library Functions-Footnote-2663447
++Node: Library Names663618
++Ref: Library Names-Footnote-1667285
++Ref: Library Names-Footnote-2667508
++Node: General Functions667594
++Node: Strtonum Function668776
++Node: Assert Function671798
++Node: Round Function675124
++Node: Cliff Random Function676664
++Node: Ordinal Functions677680
++Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-1680743
++Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-2680995
++Node: Join Function681205
++Ref: Join Function-Footnote-1682975
++Node: Getlocaltime Function683175
++Node: Readfile Function686917
++Node: Shell Quoting688894
++Node: Isnumeric Function690322
++Node: Data File Management691710
++Node: Filetrans Function692342
++Node: Rewind Function696438
++Node: File Checking698347
++Ref: File Checking-Footnote-1699681
++Node: Empty Files699882
++Node: Ignoring Assigns701861
++Node: Getopt Function703411
++Ref: Getopt Function-Footnote-1718708
++Node: Passwd Functions718908
++Ref: Passwd Functions-Footnote-1727747
++Node: Group Functions727835
++Ref: Group Functions-Footnote-1735733
++Node: Walking Arrays735940
++Node: Library Functions Summary738948
++Node: Library Exercises740354
++Node: Sample Programs740819
++Node: Running Examples741589
++Node: Clones742317
++Node: Cut Program743541
++Node: Egrep Program753681
++Node: Id Program762682
++Node: Split Program772617
++Ref: Split Program-Footnote-1782510
++Node: Tee Program782683
++Node: Uniq Program785473
++Node: Wc Program793061
++Node: Bytes vs. Characters793448
++Node: Using extensions794996
++Node: wc program795750
++Node: Miscellaneous Programs800615
++Node: Dupword Program801828
++Node: Alarm Program803858
++Node: Translate Program808713
++Ref: Translate Program-Footnote-1813278
++Node: Labels Program813548
++Ref: Labels Program-Footnote-1816899
++Node: Word Sorting816983
++Node: History Sorting821055
++Node: Extract Program823280
++Node: Simple Sed831293
++Node: Igawk Program834367
++Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-1848996
++Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-2849198
++Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-3849320
++Node: Anagram Program849435
++Node: Signature Program852497
++Node: Programs Summary853744
++Node: Programs Exercises854958
++Ref: Programs Exercises-Footnote-1859088
++Node: Advanced Features859174
++Node: Nondecimal Data861571
++Node: Boolean Typed Values863169
++Node: Array Sorting865050
++Node: Controlling Array Traversal865755
++Ref: Controlling Array Traversal-Footnote-1874123
++Node: Array Sorting Functions874241
++Ref: Array Sorting Functions-Footnote-1880152
++Node: Two-way I/O880348
++Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-1888074
++Ref: Two-way I/O-Footnote-2888261
++Node: TCP/IP Networking888343
++Node: Profiling891419
++Node: Persistent Memory900725
++Ref: Persistent Memory-Footnote-1908988
++Node: Extension Philosophy909115
++Node: Advanced Features Summary910602
++Node: Internationalization912774
++Node: I18N and L10N914448
++Node: Explaining gettext915135
++Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-1921027
++Ref: Explaining gettext-Footnote-2921212
++Node: Programmer i18n921377
++Ref: Programmer i18n-Footnote-1926326
++Node: Translator i18n926375
++Node: String Extraction927169
++Ref: String Extraction-Footnote-1928301
++Node: Printf Ordering928387
++Ref: Printf Ordering-Footnote-1931173
++Node: I18N Portability931237
++Ref: I18N Portability-Footnote-1933693
++Node: I18N Example933756
++Ref: I18N Example-Footnote-1937031
++Ref: I18N Example-Footnote-2937104
++Node: Gawk I18N937213
++Node: I18N Summary937835
++Node: Debugger939176
++Node: Debugging940176
++Node: Debugging Concepts940617
++Node: Debugging Terms942426
++Node: Awk Debugging945001
++Ref: Awk Debugging-Footnote-1945946
++Node: Sample Debugging Session946078
++Node: Debugger Invocation946612
++Node: Finding The Bug947998
++Node: List of Debugger Commands954472
++Node: Breakpoint Control955805
++Node: Debugger Execution Control959499
++Node: Viewing And Changing Data962861
++Node: Execution Stack966402
++Node: Debugger Info968039
++Node: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands972110
++Node: Readline Support977172
++Node: Limitations978068
++Node: Debugging Summary980622
++Node: Namespaces981901
++Node: Global Namespace983012
++Node: Qualified Names984410
++Node: Default Namespace985409
++Node: Changing The Namespace986150
++Node: Naming Rules987764
++Node: Internal Name Management989612
++Node: Namespace Example990654
++Node: Namespace And Features993216
++Node: Namespace Summary994651
++Node: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic996128
++Node: Computer Arithmetic997615
++Ref: table-numeric-ranges1001381
++Ref: table-floating-point-ranges1001875
++Ref: Computer Arithmetic-Footnote-11002534
++Node: Math Definitions1002591
++Ref: table-ieee-formats1005567
++Node: MPFR features1006135
++Node: MPFR On Parole1006580
++Ref: MPFR On Parole-Footnote-11007409
++Node: MPFR Intro1007564
++Node: FP Math Caution1009215
++Ref: FP Math Caution-Footnote-11010287
++Node: Inexactness of computations1010656
++Node: Inexact representation1011687
++Node: Comparing FP Values1013047
++Node: Errors accumulate1014288
++Node: Strange values1015744
++Ref: Strange values-Footnote-11018332
++Node: Getting Accuracy1018437
++Node: Try To Round1021147
++Node: Setting precision1022046
++Ref: table-predefined-precision-strings1022743
++Node: Setting the rounding mode1024574
++Ref: table-gawk-rounding-modes1024948
++Ref: Setting the rounding mode-Footnote-11028880
++Node: Arbitrary Precision Integers1029059
++Ref: Arbitrary Precision Integers-Footnote-11032234
++Node: Checking for MPFR1032383
++Node: POSIX Floating Point Problems1033857
++Ref: POSIX Floating Point Problems-Footnote-11038510
++Node: Floating point summary1038548
++Node: Dynamic Extensions1040738
++Node: Extension Intro1042291
++Node: Plugin License1043557
++Node: Extension Mechanism Outline1044354
++Ref: figure-load-extension1044793
++Ref: figure-register-new-function1046359
++Ref: figure-call-new-function1047452
++Node: Extension API Description1049515
++Node: Extension API Functions Introduction1051228
++Ref: table-api-std-headers1053064
++Node: General Data Types1057314
++Ref: General Data Types-Footnote-11066020
++Node: Memory Allocation Functions1066319
++Ref: Memory Allocation Functions-Footnote-11070820
++Node: Constructor Functions1070919
++Node: API Ownership of MPFR and GMP Values1074572
++Node: Registration Functions1076105
++Node: Extension Functions1076805
++Node: Exit Callback Functions1082127
++Node: Extension Version String1083377
++Node: Input Parsers1084040
++Node: Output Wrappers1096761
++Node: Two-way processors1101273
++Node: Printing Messages1103538
++Ref: Printing Messages-Footnote-11104709
++Node: Updating ERRNO1104862
++Node: Requesting Values1105601
++Ref: table-value-types-returned1106338
++Node: Accessing Parameters1107447
++Node: Symbol Table Access1108684
++Node: Symbol table by name1109196
++Ref: Symbol table by name-Footnote-11112221
++Node: Symbol table by cookie1112349
++Ref: Symbol table by cookie-Footnote-11116534
++Node: Cached values1116598
++Ref: Cached values-Footnote-11120134
++Node: Array Manipulation1120287
++Ref: Array Manipulation-Footnote-11121378
++Node: Array Data Types1121415
++Ref: Array Data Types-Footnote-11124073
++Node: Array Functions1124165
++Node: Flattening Arrays1128950
++Node: Creating Arrays1135926
++Node: Redirection API1140693
++Node: Extension API Variables1143526
++Node: Extension Versioning1144237
++Ref: gawk-api-version1144666
++Node: Extension GMP/MPFR Versioning1146398
++Node: Extension API Informational Variables1148026
++Node: Extension API Boilerplate1149099
++Node: Changes from API V11153073
++Node: Finding Extensions1154645
++Node: Extension Example1155204
++Node: Internal File Description1156002
++Node: Internal File Ops1160082
++Ref: Internal File Ops-Footnote-11171432
++Node: Using Internal File Ops1171572
++Ref: Using Internal File Ops-Footnote-11173955
++Node: Extension Samples1174229
++Node: Extension Sample File Functions1175758
++Node: Extension Sample Fnmatch1183407
++Node: Extension Sample Fork1184894
++Node: Extension Sample Inplace1186112
++Node: Extension Sample Ord1189738
++Node: Extension Sample Readdir1190574
++Ref: table-readdir-file-types1191463
++Node: Extension Sample Revout1192531
++Node: Extension Sample Rev2way1193120
++Node: Extension Sample Read write array1193860
++Node: Extension Sample Readfile1197046
++Node: Extension Sample Time1198141
++Node: Extension Sample API Tests1199893
++Node: gawkextlib1200385
++Node: Extension summary1203303
++Node: Extension Exercises1207005
++Node: Language History1208247
++Node: V7/SVR3.11209903
++Node: SVR41212055
++Node: POSIX1213489
++Node: BTL1214870
++Node: POSIX/GNU1215599
++Node: Feature History1221516
++Node: Common Extensions1239637
++Node: Ranges and Locales1240920
++Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-11245536
++Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-21245563
++Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-31245798
++Node: Contributors1246021
++Node: History summary1252018
++Node: Installation1253398
++Node: Gawk Distribution1254342
++Node: Getting1254826
++Node: Extracting1255789
++Node: Distribution contents1257427
++Node: Unix Installation1264925
++Node: Quick Installation1265729
++Node: Compiling with MPFR1268149
++Node: Shell Startup Files1268839
++Node: Additional Configuration Options1269928
++Node: Configuration Philosophy1272243
++Node: Compiling from Git1274639
++Node: Building the Documentation1275194
++Node: Non-Unix Installation1276578
++Node: PC Installation1277042
++Node: PC Binary Installation1277887
++Node: PC Compiling1278760
++Node: PC Using1279866
++Node: Cygwin1283362
++Node: MSYS1284586
++Node: OpenVMS Installation1285188
++Node: OpenVMS Compilation1285849
++Ref: OpenVMS Compilation-Footnote-11287272
++Node: OpenVMS Dynamic Extensions1287330
++Node: OpenVMS Installation Details1288942
++Node: OpenVMS Running1291237
++Node: OpenVMS GNV1295238
++Node: Bugs1295981
++Node: Bug definition1296893
++Node: Bug address1300395
++Node: Usenet1303914
++Node: Performance bugs1305103
++Node: Asking for help1308024
++Node: Maintainers1309991
++Node: Other Versions1310998
++Node: Installation summary1319577
++Node: Notes1320917
++Node: Compatibility Mode1321711
++Node: Additions1322493
++Node: Accessing The Source1323418
++Node: Adding Code1324855
++Node: New Ports1331670
++Node: Derived Files1336045
++Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-11341704
++Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-21341739
++Ref: Derived Files-Footnote-31342334
++Node: Future Extensions1342448
++Node: Implementation Limitations1343106
++Node: Extension Design1344316
++Node: Old Extension Problems1345460
++Ref: Old Extension Problems-Footnote-11346978
++Node: Extension New Mechanism Goals1347035
++Ref: Extension New Mechanism Goals-Footnote-11350399
++Node: Extension Other Design Decisions1350588
++Node: Extension Future Growth1352701
++Node: Notes summary1353307
++Node: Basic Concepts1354465
++Node: Basic High Level1355146
++Ref: figure-general-flow1355428
++Ref: figure-process-flow1356114
++Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-11359416
++Node: Basic Data Typing1359601
++Node: Glossary1362929
++Node: Copying1394816
++Node: GNU Free Documentation License1432359
++Node: Index1457479
  End Tag Table


Summary of changes:
 ChangeLog       |   11 +
 TODO            |   12 +-
 awk.h           |    1 +
 doc/ChangeLog   |    5 +
 doc/   | 1958 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------------
 doc/gawk.texi   |   11 +-
 doc/ |   11 +-
 main.c          |    3 +
 symbol.c        |   36 +-
 9 files changed, 1054 insertions(+), 994 deletions(-)


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