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[SCM] gawk branch, feature/pma, created. gawk-4.1.0-4734-gb72ee95d

From: Arnold Robbins
Subject: [SCM] gawk branch, feature/pma, created. gawk-4.1.0-4734-gb72ee95d
Date: Thu, 26 May 2022 15:00:09 -0400 (EDT)

This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script. It was
generated because a ref change was pushed to the repository containing
the project "gawk".

The branch, feature/pma has been created
        at  b72ee95db8eb6caa2b0b946ac3eba6d4771a33d5 (commit)

- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------

commit b72ee95db8eb6caa2b0b946ac3eba6d4771a33d5
Author: Arnold D. Robbins <>
Date:   Thu May 26 14:59:23 2022 -0400

    Add pma files to support directory.

diff --git a/support/ChangeLog b/support/ChangeLog
index 1fea9a7d..03780887 100644
--- a/support/ChangeLog
+++ b/support/ChangeLog
@@ -1,3 +1,7 @@
+2022-05-26         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
+       * pma.h, pma.c, agpl-3.0.txt: New files.
 2022-05-23         Arnold D. Robbins     <>
        * cdefs.h, dfa.c, dfa.h, libc-config.h: Sync with GNULIB.
diff --git a/support/agpl-3.0.txt b/support/agpl-3.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..be3f7b28
--- /dev/null
+++ b/support/agpl-3.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,661 @@
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+            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
+    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+    it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
+    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+    (at your option) any later version.
+    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+    GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
+    You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
+    along with this program.  If not, see <>.
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+  If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer
+network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to
+get its source.  For example, if your program is a web application, its
+interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive
+of the code.  There are many ways you could offer source, and different
+solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the
+specific requirements.
+  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
+if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
+For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see
diff --git a/support/pma.c b/support/pma.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..0b8224e9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/support/pma.c
@@ -0,0 +1,658 @@
+/* "pma", a persistent memory allocator (implementation)
+   Copyright (C) 2019, 2022  Terence Kelly
+   Contact:  tpkelly @ {,, }
+   This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+   it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
+   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+   (at your option) any later version.
+   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
+   along with this program.  If not, see <>.
+   Code is intended to be (mostly) C99 / POSIX 2017.
+   Compile and link with your programs in the obvious way.  If
+   assertions are enabled (the default) extensive integrity checks
+   are frequently performed; these checks may be slow, depending on
+   the size and state of the persistent heap.
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <limits.h>
+#include <math.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include "pma.h"
+// Software version; not the same as backing file format version.
+const char pma_version[] = "2022.05May.01 (Avon 5)";
+#define S(s) #s
+#define S2(s) S(s)
+#define COORDS __FILE__ ":" S2(__LINE__) ": "
+#define FP(...) (void)fprintf(stderr, COORDS __VA_ARGS__)
+#define ERN " errno => '%s'\n", strerror(errno)
+#define ERR(...) do { if (0 < state.vrb) FP("ERROR: "   __VA_ARGS__); } while 
+#define WRN(...) do { if (1 < state.vrb) FP("Warning: " __VA_ARGS__); } while 
+#define FYI(...) do { if (2 < state.vrb) FP("FYI: "     __VA_ARGS__); } while 
+int        pma_errno;
+#define SE pma_errno = __LINE__
+#define RL return      __LINE__
+#define RN return NULL
+#define SERL do { SE; RL; } while (0)
+#define SERN do { SE; RN; } while (0)
+enum {
+  VERS = 2,     // backing file format version number
+  PGSZ = 4096,  // page size (bytes)
+  WDSZ = 8,     // word size (bytes)
+  NFL  = 422    // number of free lists / size classes
+typedef struct ao {  // alloc object
+  struct ao *anext,          // header; singly linked list of all aos in addr 
+            *fprev, *fnext;  // for doubly linked free list
+} ao_t;
+// We stash three flags in the least significant bits of a header:
+// bit 0:  is this ao in use (i.e., live, as opposed to free)?
+// bit 1:  is the previous ao on the state.anext list in use?
+// bit 2:  has this ao ever grown via realloc?
+static const uintptr_t lomask = 0x7, himask = ~lomask;  // requires recent 
+// extract bits from header
+#define HIBH(ao_t_ptr) ((ao_t *)((uintptr_t)(ao_t_ptr) & himask))
+#define LOBH(ao_t_ptr) ((ao_t *)((uintptr_t)(ao_t_ptr) & lomask))
+// size of an ao is its memory footprint; capacity of ao is number of bytes
+// available to caller; difference is header overhead of live (in-use) ao
+#define AOSZ(ao_t_ptr) ((size_t)((uintptr_t)HIBH((ao_t_ptr)->anext) - 
+#define AOCAP(ao_t_ptr) (AOSZ(ao_t_ptr) - WDSZ)
+#define Z1(i) assert(0 == (i) || 1 == (i))
+static void slobh(ao_t *p, int iu, int piu, int grown) {  // set low bits of 
header to which p points
+  uintptr_t h;
+  assert(p);  Z1(iu);  Z1(piu);  Z1(grown);
+  h = (uintptr_t)p->anext;
+  h &= himask;  // clear low bits
+  h |= (uintptr_t)(iu | piu << 1 | grown << 2);
+  p->anext = (ao_t *)h;
+// getters below could be re-written as simpler macros
+static void globh(const ao_t *p, int *iu, int *piu, int *grown) {  // get low 
bits of header to which p points
+  uintptr_t h;
+  assert(p && iu && piu && grown);
+  h = (uintptr_t)p->anext;
+  *iu    = !!(h & 0x1);  Z1(*iu);
+  *piu   = !!(h & 0x2);  Z1(*piu);
+  *grown = !!(h & 0x4);  Z1(*grown);
+typedef struct {     // header of backing file; contains allocator metadata
+  void * mapaddr;    // virtual address where backing file must be mapped
+  uint64_t bf_vers,  // version number of backing file format
+           nallocs,  // number of allocations
+           nfrees,   // number of de-allocations
+           res_0;    // reserved for possible future use
+  void * root;       // live persistent data must be reachable from root
+  ao_t * afirst,     // list of all alloc objects, both live & free, in addr 
+       * abound;     // one beyond end of allocatable area
+  ao_t free[NFL];    // free lists; each has dummy header
+} pma_hdr_t;
+static struct {
+  int init,           // has persistent heap been initialized?
+      vrb;            // verbsity level
+  const char * file;  // name of backing file
+  pma_hdr_t * hdr;    // addr where backing file is mapped
+} state;
+#define ASI assert(1 == state.init || 2 == state.init)
+enum { IU = 0, PIU = 1, GROWN = 2 };
+static int getbit(ao_t *p, int bit) {
+  int iu, piu, grown;
+  globh(p, &iu, &piu, &grown);
+  switch (bit) {
+    case     IU:  return      iu;
+    case    PIU:  return     piu;
+    case  GROWN:  return   grown;
+    default:
+      ERR("bad bit: %d\n", bit);
+      assert(0);
+      return INT_MIN;
+  }
+#define DP(...) (void)fprintf(stderr, __VA_ARGS__)
+#define VS      (void *)
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+static int valid_footer(ao_t *p) {
+  if (!getbit(p, IU)) {
+    ao_t **ftr = (ao_t **)HIBH(p->anext) - 1;
+    return *ftr == p;   // footer should point to header
+  }
+  else
+    return 1;
+// valid ao ptr:
+#define VAO(p)  (VS state.hdr->afirst <= VS (p) && VS state.hdr->abound > VS 
+#define VAF(p)  (VAO(p) && valid_footer(p))
+#endif // NDEBUG
+static void pao(ao_t *p) {  // print ao
+  int iu, piu, grown;
+  ao_t **footer = (ao_t **) ((char *)p + AOSZ(p)) - 1;  // TODO:  squelch 
alignment warning?
+  assert(VAO(p));
+  assert(0 == AOSZ(p) % WDSZ);
+  assert(0 == LOBH(p));
+  globh(p, &iu, &piu, &grown);
+  DP("    AO at %p:  size %lu B / %lu w\n"
+     "      hdr %p (H 0%lo L 0%lo) iu %d piu %d grown %d\n"
+     "      fp  %p%s\n"
+     "      fn  %p%s\n"
+     "      ft  %p%s\n",
+     VS p, AOSZ(p), AOSZ(p) / WDSZ,
+     VS p->anext, (uintptr_t)HIBH(p->anext), (uintptr_t)LOBH(p->anext), iu, 
piu, grown,
+     VS p->fprev, iu ? " (ignore)" : "",
+     VS p->fnext, iu ? " (ignore)" : "",
+     VS *footer,  iu ? " (ignore)" : "");
+static size_t UB[NFL];  // UB[c] is upper bound of size class c in machine 
+#define IC integrity_check(__LINE__)
+static int integrity_check(int line) {  // can be slow; intended for debugging 
small heaps
+  pma_hdr_t *h = state.hdr;
+  int nadd = 0, naddfree = 0, tiu = 0, tpiu = 0, tf = 0;  // beware overflow 
if lists are long
+  FYI("integrity_check called from line %d\n", line);
+#ifdef NDEBUG
+  WRN("integrity check relies on assertions, which are disabled (call at line 
%d)\n", line);
+  assert(h && h == h->mapaddr);
+  // check addr-ordered list
+  for (ao_t *next, *a = h->afirst; a < h->abound; a = next) {
+    next = HIBH(a->anext);
+    assert(VAF(a));
+    assert(32 <= AOSZ(a));
+    assert(next > a && next <= h->abound);
+    if (1000000 < ++nadd) {
+      WRN("integrity check discontinued; anext list too long (call at line 
%d)\n", line);
+      SE;        // if persistent heap contains too many aos/blocks,
+      return 0;  // integrity check will be too slow; therefore discontinue
+    }
+    if (0 == getbit(a, IU))
+      ++naddfree;
+    tiu  += getbit(a,  IU);  // total number of aos with in-use bit set
+    tpiu += getbit(a, PIU);  // total number of aos with previous-ao-is-in-use 
bit set
+  }
+  assert(tpiu == tiu || 1 + tpiu == tiu);
+  FYI("anext list length: %d  tiu %d  tpiu %d  nallocs %lu  nfrees %lu\n",
+                          nadd,   tiu,     tpiu,       h->nallocs, h->nfrees);
+  assert(h->nallocs >= h->nfrees);
+  assert(h->nallocs - h->nfrees == (uint64_t)tiu);
+  // check free lists
+  for (int i = 0; i < NFL; i++) {
+    ao_t *p, *f = &(h->free[i]);
+    if (f->fprev == f)   // empty list
+      assert(f->fnext == f);
+    else {
+      int nfwd = 0, nrev = 0;  // count how many we find going forward and 
+      for (p = f->fnext; p != f; p = p->fnext) { nfwd++; assert(VAF(p)); 
assert(0 == getbit(p, IU)); }
+      for (p = f->fprev; p != f; p = p->fprev) { nrev++; assert(VAF(p)); 
assert(0 == getbit(p, IU)); }
+      assert(nfwd == nrev);    // count should be the same in both directions
+      tf += nfwd;
+      // check ao sizes against UB
+      for (p = f->fnext; p != f; p = p->fnext) {
+        #ifndef NDEBUG
+        size_t capwords = AOCAP(p) / WDSZ;
+        #endif
+        assert(capwords <= UB[i]);
+        if (0 < i)
+          assert(capwords > UB[i-1]);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  FYI("total free aos: %d  naddfree %d  integrity check line %d\n", tf, 
naddfree, line);
+  assert(tf == naddfree);
+  return 0;
+#define NM " not meaningful in fallback mode\n"
+void pma_check_and_dump(void) {
+  pma_hdr_t *h = state.hdr;
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) { ERR("check_and_dump" NM); assert(0); SE; return; }
+  if (IC) ERR("integrity check failed\n");
+  DP(COORDS "check data structures and dump\n");
+  DP("header version:    %s\n", PMA_H_VERSION);
+  DP("software version:  %s\n", pma_version);
+  DP("sizeof state:  %lu\n", sizeof state);
+  DP("sizeof header: %lu\n", sizeof(pma_hdr_t));
+  DP("state:\n");
+  DP("  init: %d\n", state.init);  assert(0 == state.init || 1 == state.init 
|| 2 == state.init);
+  DP("  vrb:  %d\n", state.vrb);   assert(0 <= state.vrb && 3 >= state.vrb);
+  DP("  file: %p \"%s\"\n", (const void *)state.file, state.file);
+  DP("  hdr:  %p\n", VS h);
+  if (NULL != h) {
+    DP("header:\n");   // nallocs & nfrees not printed; they'd add noise to 
initial/final state diff
+    DP("  mapaddr: %p\n", h->mapaddr);
+    DP("  bf_vers: %" PRIu64 "\n", h->bf_vers);
+    DP("  root:   %p\n", h->root);    assert(NULL == h->root || (h->root >= VS 
h->afirst && h->root < VS h->abound));
+    DP("  afirst: %p\n", VS h->afirst);  assert(VS h->afirst > h->mapaddr);
+    DP("  abound: %p\n", VS h->abound);  assert(h->abound > h->afirst);
+    DP("  all allocated objects in addr order:\n");
+    for (ao_t *a = h->afirst; a < h->abound; a = HIBH(a->anext)) {
+      assert(HIBH(a->anext) > a);
+      pao(a);
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < NFL; i++) {
+      ao_t *f = &(h->free[i]);
+      if (f->fprev == f)   // empty list
+        assert(f->fnext == f);
+      else {
+        DP("  free list of size class %d UB %lu (prev %lu) list head %p:\n", 
i, UB[i], i > 0 ? UB[i-1] : 0, VS f);
+        for (ao_t *p = f->fnext; p != f; p = p->fnext)
+          pao(p);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+#undef DP
+static int sc(size_t nbytes) {  // compute size class; nbytes is malloc() arg
+  static int init;
+  const size_t maxwords = (size_t)0x1 << 61;  // 2^61 words == 2^64 bytes
+  size_t nwords;
+  int c;
+  if (! init) {
+    FYI("initializing UB[]\n");
+    UB[0] = 3;  // smallest allocation has size (AOSZ) 4 words and capacity 
(AOCAP) 3 words
+    for (c = 1; ; c++) {
+      long double hi = floorl((long double)(1 + UB[c-1]) * 1.1L);
+      assert(NFL > c);
+      if (hi >= (long double)maxwords) { UB[c] = maxwords; break; }
+      else                               UB[c] = (size_t)hi;
+    }
+    assert(NFL - 1 == c);
+    init = 1;
+  }
+  nwords = (nbytes / WDSZ) + !!(nbytes % WDSZ);
+  assert(nwords <= maxwords);
+  for (c = 0; NFL > c; c++)
+    if (nwords <= UB[c])
+      break;
+  assert(NFL > c);
+  return c;
+static void fli(ao_t *p) {  // insert given ao at head of appropriate free list
+  ao_t *h;
+  int fl;
+  assert(NULL != p);
+  assert(VAO(p));
+  fl = sc(AOCAP(p));
+  assert(0 <= fl && NFL > fl);
+  h = &(state.hdr->free[fl]);  // head of free list
+  FYI("fli(%p) h == %p h->fn %p h->fp %p\n", VS p, VS h, VS h->fnext, VS 
+  p->fprev = h;
+  p->fnext = h->fnext;
+  h->fnext->fprev = p;
+  h->fnext = p;
+static void flr(ao_t *p) {  // remove ao from free list
+  p->fnext->fprev = p->fprev;
+  p->fprev->fnext = p->fnext;
+  p->fprev = p->fnext = NULL;
+#define MUNMAP(A, N) do { if (0 != munmap((A), (N))) ERR("mmap()" ERN); } 
while (0)
+static void * addrgap(off_t n) {  // find big gap in address space to map n 
+  void *A, *Amax = NULL;  size_t L = 0, U, Max = 0, N = (size_t)n;  char *r;
+  FYI("addrgap(%ld)\n", n);
+  if (N % (size_t)PGSZ) { ERR("file size %lu not multiple of PGSZ\n", N); 
+  if (N < sizeof(pma_hdr_t) + 10 * PGSZ) { ERR("file size %lu too small\n", 
N); SERN; }
+  for (U = 1; ; U *= 2)  // double upper bound until failure
+    if (MAP_FAILED == (A = MMAP(U))) break;
+    else                   MUNMAP(A, U);
+  while (1 + L < U) {  // binary search between bounds
+    size_t M = L + (U - L) / 2;  // avoid overflow
+    if (MAP_FAILED == (A = MMAP(M))) {      U = M; }
+    else { Amax = A; Max = M; MUNMAP(A, M); L = M; }
+  }
+  FYI("max gap: %lu bytes at %p\n", Max, Amax);
+  if (Max < N + (size_t)PGSZ * 2) {  // safety margin
+    ERR("max gap %lu too small for required %lu\n", Max, N);
+    SERN;
+  }
+  r = (char *)Amax + (Max - N)/2;
+  while ((uintptr_t)r % PGSZ)  // page align
+    r++;
+  FYI("addrgap returns %p == %lu\n", VS r, (uintptr_t)r);
+  return r;
+#undef MMAP
+#undef MUNMAP
+#define MM(a,s,f) mmap((a), (size_t)(s), PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, 
(f), 0)
+int pma_init(int verbose, const char *file) {
+  int fd;  long ps;  void *a1, *a2;  size_t as = sizeof(a1);  struct stat s;
+  pma_hdr_t *h;
+  assert(0 <= verbose && 3 >= verbose);
+  state.vrb = verbose;
+  if (state.init) { ERR("already initialized\n"); assert(0); SERL; }
+  FYI("pma software version \"%s\" header version \"%s\", expects backing file 
format version %d\n",
+      pma_version, PMA_H_VERSION, VERS);
+  assert(0 == strcmp(pma_version, PMA_H_VERSION));
+  FYI("pma_init(%d,\"%s\")\n", verbose, file);
+  // check assumptions
+  assert(WDSZ == sizeof(void *));  // in C11 we'd static_assert()
+  assert(WDSZ == sizeof(size_t));
+  assert(WDSZ == sizeof(unsigned long));
+  assert(0 == sizeof(pma_hdr_t) % WDSZ);
+  if (PGSZ != (ps = sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE))) {
+    ERR("bad page size %ld\n", ps);
+    SERL;
+  }
+  if (NULL == file) {
+    WRN("no backing file provided; falling back on standard malloc\n");
+    state.init = 2;
+    state.file = NULL;
+    state.hdr  = NULL;
+    return 0;
+  }
+  // map backing file containing persistent heap
+  if (0 > (fd = open(file, O_RDWR)))      { ERR("open()"    ERN); SERL; }
+  if (0 != fstat(fd, &s))                 { ERR("fstat()"   ERN); SERL; }
+  if (!S_ISREG(s.st_mode))                { ERR("not reg\n"    ); SERL; }
+  if ((ssize_t)as != read(fd, &a1, as))   { ERR("read()"    ERN); SERL; }
+  if (NULL == a1) a1 = addrgap(s.st_size);
+  if (NULL == a1)                         { ERR("addrgap()" ERN);   RL; }
+  FYI("map at %p\n", a1);
+  if (a1 != (a2 = MM(a1, s.st_size, fd))) { ERR("mmap()"    ERN); SERL; }
+  if (0 != close(fd))                     { ERR("close()"   ERN); SE;   }  // 
carry on
+  state.init = 1;
+  state.file = file;
+  state.hdr  = h = (pma_hdr_t *)a2;
+  if (NULL == h->mapaddr) {
+    int i;
+    ao_t *w, **ftr;  // initial "wilderness", footer
+    FYI("initializing persistent heap\n");
+    assert(      0 == h->bf_vers
+           &&    0 == h->nallocs
+           &&    0 == h->nfrees
+           &&    0 == h->res_0
+           && NULL == h->root
+           && NULL == h->afirst
+           && NULL == h->abound);
+    for (i = 0; i < NFL; i++) {
+      assert(   NULL == h->free[i].anext
+             && NULL == h->free[i].fprev
+             && NULL == h->free[i].fnext);
+      // free[i] is dummy node in doubly-linked free list; this simplifies 
code to splice aos into & out of free list
+      h->free[i].fprev = h->free[i].fnext = &(h->free[i]);
+    }
+    h->mapaddr = h;
+    h->bf_vers = VERS;
+    h->nallocs = 0;
+    h->nfrees  = 0;
+    h->res_0   = 0;
+    h->afirst = (ao_t *)(1 + h);
+    h->abound = (ao_t *)((char *)h + s.st_size);  // TODO: squelch alignment 
+    // install "wilderness" free ao on all-object list; every free ao has a
+    // footer pointing to its header, to facilitate coalescing adjacent frees;
+    // header on final ao points beyond allocatable area
+    w = h->afirst;
+    w->anext = h->abound;
+    assert(0 == AOSZ(w) % WDSZ && WDSZ < AOSZ(w));
+    ftr = (ao_t **)h->abound - 1;
+    *ftr = w;
+    fli(w);
+  }
+  else {
+    FYI("persistent heap already initialized\n");
+    if (VERS != h->bf_vers) {
+      ERR("backing file version mismatch: %d vs. %" PRIu64 "\n", VERS, 
+      SERL;
+    }
+    (void)sc(1);  // to populate UB[]
+  }
+  if (IC) { ERR("integrity check failed\n"); SERL; }
+  return 0;
+#undef MM
+// bite off adequate prefix if ao is too large, return remainder to appropriate
+// free list; must handle two cases:  given ao is free, versus given ao is live
+// and is being shrunk by realloc
+static ao_t * split_ao(ao_t *p, size_t s) {
+  size_t c = AOCAP(p), Cw = c / WDSZ, Sw;  int iu, piu, grown;  ao_t *n;
+  if (s < 24) s = 24;  // increase request size to minimum allocation size if 
necessary; TODO: magic number here
+  Sw = s / WDSZ + !!(s % WDSZ);
+  assert(NULL == LOBH(p));  // lo bits of header (p->anext) might be set, but 
not lo bits of p
+  assert(NULL == p->fprev && NULL == p->fnext);  // *p should already be 
spliced out of free lists
+  assert(c >= s && 0 == c % WDSZ);
+  FYI("split_ao(%p,%lu) AOCAP %lu words req %lu words cap %lu\n", VS p, s, c, 
Sw, Cw);
+  globh(p, &iu, &piu, &grown);
+  if (4 <= Cw - Sw) {  // split ao if remainder is large enough to be 
+    ao_t  *rem = (ao_t *)(&(p->fprev) + Sw),   // remainder
+         **rft = (ao_t **)HIBH(p->anext) - 1;  // footer of remainder
+    FYI("splitting at %p\n", VS rem);
+    rem->anext = HIBH(p->anext);  // set header of remainder
+    *rft = rem;                   // set footer of remainder
+    fli(rem);
+    p->anext = rem;   // set header of *p
+  }
+  assert(AOCAP(p) >= s);
+  slobh(p, 1, piu, grown);  // in-use bit is set; values of prev-in-use and 
grown bits are preserved
+  // set prev-in-use bit of next ao on anext list (if such exists), preserving 
iu and grown bits
+  n = HIBH(p->anext);
+  assert(n <= state.hdr->abound);
+  if (n < state.hdr->abound) {
+    globh(n, &iu, &piu, &grown);
+    slobh(n,  iu,    1,  grown);
+  }
+  return p;
+void * pma_malloc(size_t size) {
+  ao_t *r = NULL;
+  FYI("malloc(%lu)\n", size);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) return malloc(size);
+  assert(!IC);
+  if (0 >= size) {
+    WRN("malloc(%lu) argument <= zero\n", size);  SERN;  }
+  for (int c = sc(size); c < NFL; c++) {
+    ao_t *h = &(state.hdr->free[c]);
+    // FYI("check size class %d UB %lu\n", c, UB[c]);
+    for (ao_t *f = h->fnext; f != h; f = f->fnext) {
+      // FYI("free list contains ao with capacity %lu\n", AOCAP(f));
+      if (AOCAP(f) >= size) {
+        r = f;
+        goto end;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  end:
+  if (NULL != r) {
+    flr(r);
+    r = split_ao(r, size);
+    FYI("malloc returning %p\n", VS &(r->fprev));
+    ++(state.hdr->nallocs);
+    assert(!IC);
+    return &(r->fprev);
+  }
+  else {
+    WRN("malloc(%lu) cannot satisfy request at this time\n", size);
+    SERN;  // conflates ENOMEM / EAGAIN (request might succeed after frees)
+  }
+void * pma_calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size) {
+  void *p;
+  FYI("calloc(%lu,%lu)\n", nmemb, size);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) return calloc(nmemb, size);
+  if (0 >= nmemb || 0 >= size) {
+    WRN("calloc(%lu,%lu) argument <= zero\n", nmemb, size);  SERN;  }
+  // SSIZE_MAX exists but SIZE_MAX apparently doesn't; sheesh
+  if (nmemb > UINT64_MAX / size) {
+    WRN("calloc(%lu,%lu) arguments overflow\n", nmemb, size);  SERN;  }
+  if (NULL != (p = pma_malloc(nmemb * size)))
+    (void)memset(p, 0, nmemb * size);
+  return p;
+void * pma_realloc(void *ptr, size_t size) {
+  ao_t *p;  void *nu;  // "new" is a C++ keyword
+  FYI("realloc(%p,%lu)\n", ptr, size);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) return realloc(ptr, size);
+  if (NULL == ptr) return pma_malloc(size);
+  if (0 >= size) { pma_free(ptr); RN; }
+  p = (ao_t *)((ao_t **)ptr - 1);
+  if (AOCAP(p) >= size)  // no growth needed
+    return ptr;
+  nu = pma_malloc(size);
+  if (NULL == nu)
+    SERN;
+  (void)memcpy(nu, ptr, AOCAP(p));
+  pma_free(ptr);
+  return nu;
+// Merge *p with next ao on anext list; returns 1 if coalesces, 0 otherwise.
+// Flag indicates which of the two aos is on the free list and must be removed.
+static int coalesce(ao_t *p, int flr_lo_hi) {
+  ao_t *n = HIBH(p->anext), **ftr;  int piu;
+  assert(n > p && n <= state.hdr->abound);
+  FYI("coalesce(%p)\n", VS p);
+  if (n >= state.hdr->abound)  // *p is final ao on anext list
+    return 0;
+  if (0 == getbit(n, IU)) {  // next ao is not in use, therefore coalesce
+    flr(flr_lo_hi ? n : p);  // remove appropriate ao from free list
+    piu = getbit(p, PIU);
+    p->anext = HIBH(n->anext);
+    ftr = (ao_t **)p->anext - 1;
+    *ftr = p;
+    slobh(p, 0, piu, 0);  // preserve prev-in-use bit of header of *p
+    return 1;
+  }
+  else  // next ao is in use, therefore do not coalesce
+    return 0;
+void pma_free(void *ptr) {
+  ao_t *p, *n, **ftr;  int r;
+  FYI("free(%p)\n", ptr);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) { free(ptr); return; }
+  assert(!IC);
+  if (NULL == ptr) return;  // allowed by C & POSIX
+  if (! (VS state.hdr->afirst <= ptr && VS state.hdr->abound > ptr)) {  // 
e.g., p=strdup("foo") ... pma_free(p);
+    ERR("freed ptr %p outside allocatable area bounds %p %p\n",
+        ptr, VS state.hdr->afirst, VS state.hdr->abound);
+    assert(0);
+    SE;
+    return;
+  }
+  assert(0 == (uintptr_t)ptr % WDSZ);
+  p = (ao_t *)((ao_t **)ptr - 1);
+  assert(VAO(p));
+  n = HIBH(p->anext);
+  assert(p < n && n <= state.hdr->abound);
+  assert(1 == getbit(p, IU));
+  slobh(p, 0, getbit(p, PIU), 0);  // clear iu and grown bits of *p header
+  if (n < state.hdr->abound)
+    assert(1 == getbit(n, PIU));
+  FYI("merge with right/higher ao\n");
+  r = coalesce(p, 1);
+  FYI("%s\n", r ? "yes" : "no");
+  if (0 == getbit(p, PIU) && p > state.hdr->afirst) {  // if ao is not 
leftmost/lowest and previous/lower ao is not in use, merge
+    ao_t *prev = *((ao_t **)p - 1);
+    assert(prev < p);
+    FYI("merge with left/lower ao\n");
+    r = coalesce(prev, 0);
+    assert(r);
+    p = prev;
+  }
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+  (void)memset(&(p->fprev), 0, AOCAP(p));  // for near-complete "reversibility"
+  n = HIBH(p->anext);
+  assert(p < n && n <= state.hdr->abound);
+  ftr = (ao_t **)n - 1;
+  *ftr = p;
+  if (n < state.hdr->abound)
+    slobh(n, getbit(n, IU), 0, getbit(n, GROWN));  // clear prev-in-use bit of 
+  fli(p);
+  ++(state.hdr->nfrees);
+  assert(!IC);
+ }
+void pma_set_root(void *p) {
+  FYI("set_root(%p)\n", p);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) { ERR("set_root" NM); assert(0); SE; return; }
+  assert(NULL == p || VAO(p));  // could also check that p "looks like" 
pointer returned by malloc,
+  state.hdr->root = p;          // e.g., header's in-use bit should be set and 
HIBH should be reasonable
+void * pma_get_root(void) {
+  void *p;
+  FYI("get_root()\n");
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) { ERR("get_root" NM); assert(0); SERN; }
+  p = state.hdr->root;
+  assert(NULL == p || VAO(p));
+  return p;
+typedef unsigned long ul_t;
+void pma_set_avail_mem(const ul_t v) {
+  FYI("set_avail_mem(0x%lx)\n", v);
+  ASI;
+  if (2 == state.init) { ERR("set_avail_mem" NM); assert(0); SE; return; }
+  assert(!IC);
+  for (int i = 0; i < NFL; i++) {
+    ao_t *p, *f = &(state.hdr->free[i]);
+    if (f->fprev != f)
+      for (p = f->fnext; p != f; p = p->fnext) {
+        ul_t *q = (ul_t *)(1 + p),
+             *e = (ul_t *)(HIBH(p->anext)) - 1;
+        for ( ; q != e; q++)
+          if (*q != v)  // avoid over-writing same value; gratuitous 
modification is a Bad Thing for persistent memory
+            *q = v;
+        for ( ; q != e; q++)
+          assert(*q == v);
+      }
+  }
+  assert(!IC);
diff --git a/support/pma.h b/support/pma.h
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..0a9859c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/support/pma.h
@@ -0,0 +1,73 @@
+/* "pma", a persistent memory allocator (interface)
+   Copyright (C) 2022  Terence Kelly
+   Contact:  tpkelly @ {,, }
+   This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+   it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
+   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+   (at your option) any later version.
+   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
+   along with this program.  If not, see <>.
+// version strings of interface and implementation should match
+#define PMA_H_VERSION "2022.05May.01 (Avon 5)"
+extern const char pma_version[];
+/* May contain line number in pma.c where something went wrong if one
+   of the other interfaces fails.  "Use the Source, Luke." */
+extern int pma_errno;
+/* Must be called exactly once before any other pma_* function is
+   called, otherwise behavior is undefined.  Available verbosity
+   levels are: 0 => no diagnostic printouts, 1 => errors only printed
+   to stderr, 2 => also warnings, 3 => also very verbose "FYI"
+   messages.  Use verbosity level 2 by default.  File argument
+   specifies backing file containing persistent heap, initially an
+   empty sparse file whose size is a multiple of the system page
+   size.  If file argument is NULL, fall back on standard memory
+   allocator: pma_malloc passes the buck to ordinary malloc, pma_free
+   calls ordinary free, etc.  In fallback-to-standard-malloc mode,
+   only pma_malloc/calloc/realloc/free may be used; other functions
+   such as pma_get/set_root must not be used.  The implementation may
+   store a copy of the file argument, i.e., the pointer, so both this
+   pointer and the memory to which it points (*file) must not
+   change. */
+extern int pma_init(int verbose, const char *file);
+/* The following four functions may be used like their standard
+   counterparts.  See notes on pma_init for fallback to standard
+   allocator.  See notes on fork in README. */
+extern void * pma_malloc(size_t size);
+extern void * pma_calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
+extern void * pma_realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
+extern void   pma_free(void *ptr);
+/* The following two functions access the persistent heap's root
+   pointer, which must either be NULL or must point within a block of
+   persistent memory.  If the pointer passed to pma_set_root is not a
+   pointer returned by pma_malloc/calloc/realloc, that is likely a
+   bug, though the implementation is not obliged to check for such
+   bugs. */
+extern void   pma_set_root(void *ptr);
+extern void * pma_get_root(void);
+/* Prints to stderr details of internal data structures, e.g., free
+   lists, and performs integrity checks, which may be very slow. */
+extern void pma_check_and_dump(void);
+/* Set non-metadata words of free blocks to given value.  Useful for
+   debugging (v == 0xdeadDEADbeefBEEF) and for preparing backing file
+   to be re-sparsified with fallocate (v == 0x0). */
+extern void pma_set_avail_mem(const unsigned long v);
+#endif // PMA_H_INCLUDED



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