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[gawk-diffs] [SCM] gawk branch, gawk_mpfr, updated. b1062311a3caab9ec89c

From: John Haque
Subject: [gawk-diffs] [SCM] gawk branch, gawk_mpfr, updated. b1062311a3caab9ec89c0f104bd9b4334174f23c
Date: Tue, 17 Apr 2012 18:19:41 +0000

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The branch, gawk_mpfr has been updated
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- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------

commit b1062311a3caab9ec89c0f104bd9b4334174f23c
Merge: e729adf f0345a2
Author: john haque <address@hidden>
Date:   Tue Apr 17 13:00:13 2012 -0500

    Merge branch 'master' into gawk_mpfr.

diff --cc ChangeLog
index 67d016a,e4170c0..848ab3b
--- a/ChangeLog
+++ b/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,92 -1,111 +1,200 @@@
 +2012-04-16  Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
 +      * io.c (read_with_timeout) [__MINGW32__]: Just call the blocking
 +      'read', as 'select' is only available for sockets.
 +      * mpfr.c (set_ROUNDMODE) [!HAVE_MPFR]: Renamed from set_RNDMODE.
 +      * main.c (load_procinfo): Declare name[] also when HAVE_MPFR is
 +      defined even though HAVE_GETGROUPS etc. are not.
 +2012-04-12         John Haque      <address@hidden>
 +      * array.c, awk.h, awkgram.y, builtin.c, command.y, debug.c,
 +      field.c, mpfr.c, profile.c: Change RND_MODE to ROUND_MODE.
 +2012-04-11         John Haque      <address@hidden>
 +      * main.c (varinit): Change RNDMODE to ROUNDMODE.
 +2012-04-11         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
 +      * main.c: Change --arbitrary-precision to --bignum.
 +2012-04-02         John Haque      <address@hidden>
 +      Add support for arbitrary-precision arithmetic.
 +      * mpfr.c: New file.
 +      * awk.h (struct exp_node): Add union to handle different number types.
 +      (MPFN, MPZN): New flag values.
 +      (DO_MPFR, do_mpfr): New defines.
 +      (PREC_node, RNDMODE_node): Add declarations.
 +      (PRECISION, RND_MODE, MNR, MFNR, mpzval, do_ieee_fmt): Add declarations.
 +      (make_number, str2number, format_val, cmp_numbers): Ditto.
 +      (force_number): Change definition.
 +      (Func_pre_exec, Func_post_exec): New typedefs.
 +      (POP_NUMBER, TOP_NUMBER): Change definitions.
 +      (get_number_ui, get_number_si, get_number_d, get_number_uj,
 +      iszero, IEEE_FMT, mpg_float, mpg_integer, mpg_float,
 +      mpg_integer): New defines.
 +      * awkgram.y (tokentab): Add alternate function entries for MPFR/GMP.
 +      (snode): Choose the appropriate function.
 +      (negate_num): New function to negate a number.
 +      (grammar): Use it.
 +      (yylex): Adjust number handling code.
 +      * array.c (value_info, asort_actual, sort_user_func): Adjust for
 +      MPFR/GMP numbers.
 +      (do_adump, indent): Minor changes.
 +      (sort_up_index_number, sort_up_value_number, sort_up_value_type): Use
 +      cmp_numbers() for numeric comparisons.
 +      * builtin.c (mpz2mpfr): New function.
 +      (format_tree): Adjust to handle MPFR and GMP numbers.
 +      * eval.c (register_exec_hook): New function to manage interpreter hooks.
 +      (num_exec_hook, pre_execute, post_execute): New and adjusted 
 +      (h_interpret): Renamed from debug_interpret.
 +      (init_interpret): Changed to use the new name.  
 +      (flags2str): New entries for MPFN and MPZN.
 +      (cmp_nodes): Reworked to use seperate routine for numeric comparisons.
 +      (set_IGNORECASE, set_BINMODE, set_LINT, update_NR, update_FNR,
 +      update_NF): Adjust code and some cleanup.
 +      * field.c (rebuild_record): Field copying code reworked to handle
 +      MPFR/GMP numbers.
 +      (set_NF): Minor adjustment.
 +      * io.c (INCREMENT_REC): New macro.
 +      (inrec, do_getline): Use the new macro.
 +      (nextfile, set_NR, set_FNR, get_read_timeout, pty_vs_pipe): Adjust code
 +      to handle MPFR/GMP numbers.
 +      * interpret.h (r_interpret): Adjust TOP_NUMBER/POP_NUMBER usage.
 +      (EXEC_HOOK): New macro and definition.
 +      (DEBUGGING): Removed.
 +      * main.c (DEFAULT_PREC, DEFAULT_RNDMODE): New defines.
 +      (opttab): New entry for option arbitrary-precision.
 +      (main): Handle the new option.
 +      (usage): Add to usage message.
 +      (varinit): Add PREC and RNDMODE.
 +      (load_procinfo): Install MPFR and GMP related items.
 +      (version): Append MPFR and GMP versions to message.
 +      * msg.c (err) : Adjust FNR handling with MPFR/GMP.
 +      * node.c (r_format_val): Renamed from format_val.
 +      (r_force_number): Return NODE * instead of AWKNUM.
 +      (make_number, str2number, format_val, cmp_numpers: Defined and 
 +      (r_unref): Free MPFR/MPZ numbers.
 +      (get_numbase): Renamed from isnondecimal and return the base.
 +      (cmp_awknums): New function to compare two AWKNUMs.
 +      * command.y (yylex): Adjust number handling code.
 +      (grammar): Minor adjustments to handle negative numbers.
 +      * debug.c (init_debug): New function.
 +      (do_info, do_set_var, watchpoint_triggered, serialize,
 +      initialize_watch_item, do_watch, print_watch_item): Minor adjustments.
 +      (debug_pre_execute): Adjusted to handle MPFR and GMP numbers.
+ 2012-03-30         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * (GAWK_AC_NORETURN): Do as macro instead of inline.
+ 2012-03-29         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * dfa.h, dfa.c: Sync with grep. Major cleanups and some changes
+       there.
+       * re.c (research): Pass size_t* to dfaexec to match type change.
+       * (AH_VERBATIM[_Noreturn]): Added from Paul Eggert to
+       ease compiling.
+       (AC_INIT): Bump version.
+       * configure,, version.c: Regenerated.
+ 2012-03-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * 4.0.1: Release tar ball made.
+ 2012-03-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * getopt.c: Add DJGPP to list of platforms where it's ok
+       to include <stdlib.h>.
+       * awkgram.y, builtin.c, ext.c, mbsupport.h, re.c: Update
+       copyright year.
+ 2012-03-21         Corinna Vinschen      <address@hidden>
+       * getopt.c: Add Cygwin to list of platforms where it's ok
+       to include <stdlib.h>.
+ 2012-03-20         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       Get new getopt to work on Linux and C90 compilers:
+       * getopt.c: Undef ELIDE_CODE for gawk.
+       (_getopt_internal_r): Init first.needs_free to 0. In test for -W
+       move executable code to after declarations for C90 compilers.
+       * getopt1.c: Undef ELIDE_CODE for gawk.
+       Minor bug fix with printf, thanks to John Haque:
+       * builtin.c (format_tree): Initialize base to zero at the top
+       of the while loop.
+       Getting next tar ball ready:
+       * Remove duplicate check for wcscoll. Thanks
+       to Stepan Kasal.
+ 2012-03-16         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * getopt.c, getopt.h, getopt1.c, getopt_int.h, regcomp.c,
+       regex.c, regex.h, regex_internal.c, regex_internal.h,
+       regexec.c: Sync with GLIBC, what the heck.
+ 2012-03-14         Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
+       * mbsupport.h (btowc): Change for non-DJGPP.
+       * re.c (dfaerror): Add call to exit for DJGPP.
+ 2012-03-14         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * regex_internal.c (re_string_skip_chars): Fix calculation of
+       remain_len with m.b. chars. Thanks to Stanislav Brabec
+       <address@hidden>.
+ 2012-02-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * main.c (init_groupset): Make `getgroups' failing a non-fatal
+       error.  After all, what's the big deal?  Should help on Plan 9.
+ 2012-02-27         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * dfa.c (parse_bracket_exp): Revert changes 2012-02-15 to stay
+       in sync with grep.
+       * dfa.h (dfarerror): Add __attribute__ from grep.
+ 2012-02-15         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       Fix warnings from GCC 4.6.2 -Wall option.
+       * awkgram.y (newline_eof): New function to replace body of
+       NEWLINE_EOF macro.
+       (yylex): Replace body of NEWLINE_EOF macro.
+       * dfa.c (parse_bracket_exp): Init variables to zero.
+       * ext.c (dummy, junk): Remove.
+       * regex_internal.c (re_string_reconstruct): Remove buf array. It was
+       set but not used.
+ 2012-02-10         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * dfa.c: Sync with GNU grep.
+ 2012-02-07         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * main.c (main): Move init of `output_fp' to before parsing of
+       program so that error messages from msg.c don't dump core.
+       Thanks to Michael Haardt <address@hidden>.
+ 2012-01-13         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * dfa.c [is_valid_unibtye_character]: Fix from GNU grep to 
+       bug reported by me from Scott Deifik for DJGPP.
+ 2012-01-03         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * dfa.c: Sync with GNU grep.
  2012-01-02         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
        * io.c (Read_can_timeout, Read_timeout, Read_default_timeout):
diff --cc
index 3775dc4,5c0d027..b3da3c8
--- a/
+++ b/
@@@ -72,12 -72,12 +72,12 @@@ am__aclocal_m4_deps = $(top_srcdir)/m4/
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/isc-posix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lcmessage.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-ld.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-link.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-prefix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/libsigsegv.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/
 +      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/mpfr.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/
  am__configure_deps = $(am__aclocal_m4_deps) $(CONFIGURE_DEPENDENCIES) \
  am__CONFIG_DISTCLEAN_FILES = config.status config.cache config.log \
diff --cc README_d/ChangeLog
index e319a9c,b29f67a..0310bd8
--- a/README_d/ChangeLog
+++ b/README_d/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,8 -1,6 +1,14 @@@
 +2012-04-11         John Haque      <address@hidden>
-       README.hacking: New file.
++      * README.hacking: New file.
 +2012-04-01         John Haque      <address@hidden>
-       README.mpfr: New file.
++      * README.mpfr: New file.
+ 2012-03-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * 4.0.1: Release tar ball made.
  2011-07-29         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
diff --cc aclocal.m4
index bc66ce5,2af369c..c2a9c00
--- a/aclocal.m4
+++ b/aclocal.m4
@@@ -963,8 -963,8 +963,9 @@@ m4_include([m4/lib-link.m4]
+ m4_include([m4/noreturn.m4])
diff --cc awklib/
index 1b1a274,5c1fc27..8ff83c4
--- a/awklib/
+++ b/awklib/
@@@ -67,12 -67,12 +67,12 @@@ am__aclocal_m4_deps = $(top_srcdir)/m4/
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/isc-posix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lcmessage.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-ld.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-link.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-prefix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/libsigsegv.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/
 +      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/mpfr.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/
  am__configure_deps = $(am__aclocal_m4_deps) $(CONFIGURE_DEPENDENCIES) \
  mkinstalldirs = $(SHELL) $(top_srcdir)/mkinstalldirs
diff --cc builtin.c
index b17cea9,ac70fce..9134e02
--- a/builtin.c
+++ b/builtin.c
@@@ -770,8 -728,8 +770,9 @@@ format_tree
                cur = &fw;
                fw = 0;
                prec = 0;
+               base = 0;
                argnum = 0;
 +              base = 0;
                have_prec = FALSE;
                signchar = FALSE;
                zero_flag = FALSE;
diff --cc doc/
index f0571c4,7c8d9db..e475208
--- a/doc/
+++ b/doc/
@@@ -68,12 -68,12 +68,12 @@@ am__aclocal_m4_deps = $(top_srcdir)/m4/
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/isc-posix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lcmessage.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-ld.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-link.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-prefix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/libsigsegv.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/
 +      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/mpfr.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/
  am__configure_deps = $(am__aclocal_m4_deps) $(CONFIGURE_DEPENDENCIES) \
  mkinstalldirs = $(SHELL) $(top_srcdir)/mkinstalldirs
diff --cc doc/
index c5702ee,ca6b661..bf27982
--- a/doc/
+++ b/doc/
@@@ -9323,15 -9303,6 +9328,15 @@@ specific to `gawk' are marked with a po
       every `print' statement.  Its default value is `"\n"', the newline
       character.  (*Note Output Separators::.)
 +`PREC #'
 +     The working precision of arbitrary precision floating-point
 +     numbers, 53 by default (*note Setting Precision::).
 +     The rounding mode to use for arbitrary precision arithmetic on
 +     numbers, by default `"N"' (`roundTiesToEven' in the IEEE-754
 +     standard) (*note Setting Rounding Mode::).
       This is `awk''s input record separator.  Its default value is a
       string containing a single newline character, which means that an
@@@ -13646,745 -13601,9 +13652,745 @@@ writing, the latest version of GNU `get
  usage messages, warnings, and fatal errors in the local language.
 -File:,  Node: Advanced Features,  Next: Library Functions,  Prev: 
Internationalization,  Up: Top
 +File:,  Node: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic,  Next: Advanced 
Features,  Prev: Internationalization,  Up: Top
 +11 Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic with `gawk'
 +     There's a credibility gap: We don't know how much of the
 +     computer's answers to believe. Novice computer users solve this
 +     problem by implicitly trusting in the computer as an infallible
 +     authority; they tend to believe that all digits of a printed
 +     answer are significant. Disillusioned computer users have just the
 +     opposite approach; they are constantly afraid that their answers
 +     are almost meaningless.
 +     Donald Knuth(1)
 +   This minor node decsribes how to use the arbitrary precision (also
 +known as "multiple precision" or "infinite precision") numeric
 +capabilites in `gawk' to produce maximally accurate results when you
 +need it. But first you should check if your version of `gawk' supports
 +arbitrary precision arithmetic.  The easiest way to find out is to look
 +at the output of the following command:
 +     $ gawk --version
 +     -| GNU Awk 4.1.0 (GNU MPFR 3.1.0, GNU MP 5.0.3)
 +     -| Copyright (C) 1989, 1991-2012 Free Software Foundation.
 +     ...
 +   `gawk' uses the GNU MPFR ( and GNU MP
 +( (GMP) libraries for arbitrary precision arithmetic
 +on numbers. So if you do not see the names of these libraries in the
 +output, then your version of `gawk' does not support arbitrary
 +precision arithmetic.
 +   Even if you aren't interested in arbitrary precision arithmetic, you
 +may still benifit from knowing about how `gawk' handles numbers in
 +general, and the limitations of doing arithmetic with ordinary `gawk'
 +* Menu:
 +* Floating-point Programming::           Effective Floating-point Programming.
 +* Floating-point Representation::        Binary Floating-point Representation.
 +* Floating-point Context::               Floating-point Context.
 +* Rounding Mode::                        Floating-point Rounding Mode.
 +* Arbitrary Precision Floats::           Arbitrary Precision Floating-point
 +                                         Arithmetic with `gawk'.
 +* Setting Precision::                    Setting the Working Precision.
 +* Setting Rounding Mode::                Setting the Rounding Mode.
 +* Floating-point Constants::             Representing Floating-point 
 +* Changing Precision::                   Changing the Precision of a Number.
 +* Exact Arithmetic::                     Exact Arithmetic with Floating-point 
 +* Integer Programming::                  Effective Integer Programming.
 +* Arbitrary Precision Integers::         Arbitrary Precision Integer
 +                                         Arithmetic with `gawk'.
 +* MPFR and GMP Libraries::               Information About the MPFR and GMP 
 +   ---------- Footnotes ----------
 +   (1) Donald E. Knuth.  `The Art of Computer Programming'. Volume 2,
 +`Seminumerical Algorithms', third edition, 1998, ISBN 0-201-89683-4, p.
 +File:,  Node: Floating-point Programming,  Next: Floating-point 
Representation,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.1 Effective Floating-point Programming
 +Numerical programming is an extensive area; if you need to develop
 +sophisticated numerical algorithms then `gawk' may not be the ideal
 +tool, and this documentation may not be sufficient.  It might require a
 +book or two to communicate how to compute with ideal accuracy and
 +precision and the result often depends on the particular application.
 +     NOTE: A floating-point calculation's "accuracy" is how close it
 +     comes to the real value.  This is as opposed to the "precision",
 +     which usually refers to the number of bits used to represent the
 +     number (see the Wikipedia article
 +     ( for more
 +     information).
 +   Binary floating-point representations and arithmetic are inexact.
 +Simple values like 0.1 cannot be precisely represented using binary
 +floating-point numbers, and the limited precision of floating-point
 +numbers means that slight changes in the order of operations or the
 +precision of intermediate storage can change the result. To make
 +matters worse with arbitrary precision floating-point, you can set the
 +precision before starting a computation, but then you cannot be sure of
 +the number of significant decimal places in the final result.
 +   Sometimes you need to think more about what you really want and
 +what's really happening. Consider the two numbers in the following
 +     x = 0.875             # 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8
 +     y = 0.425
 +   Unlike the number in `y', the number stored in `x' is exactly
 +representable in binary since it can be written as a finite sum of one
 +or more fractions whose denominators are all powers of two.  When
 +`gawk' reads a floating-point number from program source, it
 +automatically rounds that number to whatever precision your machine
 +supports. If you try to print the numeric content of a variable using
 +an output format string of `"%.17g"', it may not produce the same
 +number as you assigned to it:
 +     $ gawk 'BEGIN { x = 0.875; y = 0.425
 +     >               printf("%0.17g, %0.17g\n", x, y) }'
 +     -| 0.875, 0.42499999999999999
 +   Often the error is so small you do not even notice it, and if you do,
 +you can always specify how much precision you would like in your output.
 +Usually this is a format string like `"%.15g"', which when used in the
 +previous example, produces an output identical to the input.
 +   Because the underlying representation can be little bit off from the
 +exact value, comparing floats to see if they are equal is generally not
 +a good idea.  Here is an example where it does not work like you expect:
 +     $ gawk 'BEGIN { print (0.1 + 12.2 == 12.3) }'
 +     -| 0
 +   The loss of accuracy during a single computation with floating-point
 +numbers usually isn't enough to worry about. However, if you compute a
 +value which is the result of a sequence of floating point operations,
 +the error can accumulate and greatly affect the computation itself.
 +Here is an attempt to compute the value of the constant pi using one of
 +its many series representations:
 +     BEGIN {
 +         x = 1.0 / sqrt(3.0)
 +         n = 6
 +         for (i = 1; i < 30; i++) {
 +             n = n * 2.0
 +             x = (sqrt(x * x + 1) - 1) / x
 +             printf("%.15f\n", n * x)
 +         }
 +     }
 +   When run, the early errors propagating through later computations
 +cause the loop to terminate prematurely after an attempt to divide by
 +     $ gawk -f pi.awk
 +     -| 3.215390309173475
 +     -| 3.159659942097510
 +     -| 3.146086215131467
 +     -| 3.142714599645573
 +     ...
 +     -| 3.224515243534819
 +     -| 2.791117213058638
 +     -| 0.000000000000000
 +     error--> gawk: pi.awk:6: fatal: division by zero attempted
 +   Here is one more example where the inaccuracies in internal
 +representations yield an unexpected result:
 +     $ gawk 'BEGIN {
 +     >   for (d = 1.1; d <= 1.5; d += 0.1)
 +     >       i++
 +     >   print i
 +     > }'
 +     -| 4
 +   Can computation using aribitrary precision help with the previous
 +examples?  If you are impatient to know, see *note Exact Arithmetic::.
 +   Instead of aribitrary precision floating-point arithmetic, often all
 +you need is an adjustment of your logic or a different order for the
 +operations in your calculation.  The stability and the accuracy of the
 +computation of the constant pi in the previous example can be enhanced
 +by using the following simple algebraic transformation:
 +     (sqrt(x * x + 1) - 1) / x = x / (sqrt(x * x + 1) + x)
 +   There is no need to be unduly suspicious about the results from
 +floating-point arithmetic. The lesson to remember is that
 +floating-point math is always more complex than the math using pencil
 +and paper. In order to take advantage of the power of computer
 +floating-point, you need to know its limitations and work within them.
 +For most casual use of floating-point arithmetic, you will often get
 +the expected result in the end if you simply round the display of your
 +final results to the correct number of significant decimal digits.
 +Avoid presenting numerical data in a manner that implies better
 +precision than is actually the case.
 +File:,  Node: Floating-point Representation,  Next: Floating-point 
Context,  Prev: Floating-point Programming,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.2 Binary Floating-point Representation
 +Although floating-point representations vary from machine to machine,
 +the most commonly encountered representation is that defined by the
 +IEEE 754 Standard. An IEEE-754 format value has three components:
 +   * a sign bit telling whether the number is positive or negative,
 +   * an "exponent" giving its order of magnitude, E,
 +   * and a "significand", S, specifying the actual digits of the number.
 +   The value of the number is then S * 2^E.  The first bit of a
 +non-zero binary significand is always one, so the significand in an
 +IEEE-754 format only includes the fractional part, leaving the leading
 +one implicit.
 +   Three of the standard IEEE-754 types are 32-bit single precision,
 +64-bit double precision and 128-bit quadruple precision.  The standard
 +also specifies extended precision formats to allow greater precisions
 +and larger exponent ranges.
 +File:,  Node: Floating-point Context,  Next: Rounding Mode,  Prev: 
Floating-point Representation,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.3 Floating-point Context
 +A floating-point context defines the environment for arithmetic
 +operations.  It governs precision, sets rules for rounding and limits
 +range for exponents.  The context has the following primary components:
 +     Precision of the floating-point format in bits.
 +     Maximum exponent allowed for this format.
 +     Minimum exponent allowed for this format.
 +`underflow behavior'
 +     The format may or may not support gradual underflow.
 +     The rounding mode of this context.
 +   *note table-ieee-formats:: lists the precision and exponent field
 +values for the basic IEEE-754 binary formats:
 +Name           Total bits     Precision      emin           emax
 +Single         32             24             -126           +127
 +Double         64             53             -1022          +1023
 +Quadruple      128            113            -16382         +16383
 +Table 11.1: Basic IEEE Formats
 +     NOTE: The precision numbers include the implied leading one that
 +     gives them one extra bit of significand.
 +   A floating-point context can also determine which signals are treated
 +as exceptions, and can set rules for arithmetic with special values.
 +Please consult the IEEE-754 standard or other resources for details.
 +   `gawk' ordinarily uses the hardware double precision representation
 +for numbers.  On most systems, this is IEEE-754 floating-point format,
 +corresponding to 64-bit binary with 53 bits of precision.
 +     NOTE: In case an underflow occurs, the standard allows, but does
 +     not require, the result from an arithmetic operation to be a
 +     number smaller than the smallest nonzero normalized number. Such
 +     numbers do not have as many significant digits as normal numbers,
 +     and are called "denormals" or "subnormals". The alternative,
 +     simply returning a zero, is called "flush to zero". The basic
 +     IEEE-754 binary formats support subnormal numbers.
 +File:,  Node: Rounding Mode,  Next: Arbitrary Precision Floats,  
Prev: Floating-point Context,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.4 Floating-point Rounding Mode
 +The "rounding mode" specifies the behavior for the results of numerical
 +operations when discarding extra precision. Each rounding mode indicates
 +how the least significant returned digit of a rounded result is to be
- calculated.  The `RNDMODE' variable (*note Setting Rounding Mode::)
++calculated.  The `ROUNDMODE' variable (*note Setting Rounding Mode::)
 +provides program level control over the rounding mode.  *note
 +table-rounding-modes:: lists the IEEE-754 defined rounding modes:
- Rounding Mode                    IEEE Name              `RNDMODE'
++Rounding Mode                    IEEE Name              `ROUNDMODE'
 +Round to nearest, ties to even   `roundTiesToEven'      `"N"' or `"n"'
 +Round toward plus Infinity       `roundTowardPositive'  `"U"' or `"u"'
 +Round toward negative Infinity   `roundTowardNegative'  `"D"' or `"d"'
 +Round toward zero                `roundTowardZero'      `"Z"' or `"z"'
 +Round to nearest, ties away      `roundTiesToAway'      `"A"' or `"a"'
 +from zero                                               
 +Table 11.2: Rounding Modes
 +   The default mode `roundTiesToEven' is the most preferred, but the
 +least intuitive. This method does the obvious thing for most values, by
 +rounding them up or down to the nearest digit.  For example, rounding
 +1.132 to two digits yields 1.13, and rounding 1.157 yields 1.16.
 +   However, when it comes to rounding a value that is exactly halfway
 +between, things do not work the way you probably learned in school.  In
 +this case, the number is rounded to the nearest even digit.  So
 +rounding 0.125 to two digits rounds down to 0.12, but rounding 0.6875
 +to three digits rounds up to 0.688.  You probably have already
 +encountered this rounding mode when using the `printf' routine to
 +format floating-point numbers.  For example:
 +     BEGIN {
 +         x = -4.5
 +         for (i = 1; i < 10; i++) {
 +             x += 1.0
 +             printf("%4.1f => %2.0f\n", x, x)
 +         }
 +     }
 +produces the following output when run(1):
 +     -3.5 => -4
 +     -2.5 => -2
 +     -1.5 => -2
 +     -0.5 => 0
 +      0.5 => 0
 +      1.5 => 2
 +      2.5 => 2
 +      3.5 => 4
 +      4.5 => 4
 +   The theory behind the rounding mode `roundTiesToEven' is that it
 +more or less evenly distributes upward and downward rounds of exact
 +halves, which might cause the round-off error to cancel itself out.
 +This is the default rounding mode used in IEEE-754 computing functions
 +and operators.
 +   The other rounding modes are rarely used.  Round toward positive
 +infinity (`roundTowardPositive') and round toward negative infinity
 +(`roundTowardNegative') are often used to implement interval arithmetic,
 +where you adjust the rounding mode to calculate upper and lower bounds
 +for the range of output. The `roundTowardZero' mode can be used for
 +converting floating-point numbers to integers.  The rounding mode
 +`roundTiesToAway' rounds the result to the nearest number and selects
 +the number with the larger magnitude if a tie occurs.
 +   Some numerical analysts will tell you that your choice of rounding
 +style has tremendous impact on the final outcome, and advise you to
 +wait until final output for any rounding. Instead, you can often
 +achieve this goal by setting the precision initially to some value
 +sufficiently larger than the final desired precision, so that the
 +accumulation of round-off error does not influence the outcome.  If you
 +suspect that results from your computation are sensitive to
 +accumulation of round-off error, one way to be sure is to look for a
 +significant difference in output when you change the rounding mode.
 +   ---------- Footnotes ----------
 +   (1) It is possible for the output to be completely different if the
 +C library in your system does not use the IEEE-754 even-rounding rule
 +to round halfway cases for `printf()'.
 +File:,  Node: Arbitrary Precision Floats,  Next: Setting Precision, 
 Prev: Rounding Mode,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.5 Arbitrary Precision Floating-point Arithmetic with `gawk'
 +`gawk' uses the GNU MPFR library for arbitrary precision floating-point
 +arithmetic.  The MPFR library provides precise control over precisions
 +and rounding modes, and gives correctly rounded reproducible
 +platform-independent results.  With the command-line option `--bignum'
 +or `-M', all floating-point arithmetic operators and numeric functions
 +can yield results to any desired precision level supported by MPFR.
- Two built-in variables `PREC' (*note Setting Precision::) and `RNDMODE'
- (*note Setting Rounding Mode::) provide control over the working
- precision and the rounding mode.  The precision and the rounding mode
- are set globally for every operation to follow.
++Two built-in variables `PREC' (*note Setting Precision::) and
++`ROUNDMODE' (*note Setting Rounding Mode::) provide control over the
++working precision and the rounding mode.  The precision and the
++rounding mode are set globally for every operation to follow.
 +   The default working precision for arbitrary precision floats is 53,
- and the default value for `RNDMODE' is `"N"', which selects the IEEE-754
- `roundTiesToEven' (*note Rounding Mode::) rounding mode.(1) `gawk' uses
- the default exponent range in MPFR (EMAX = 2^30 - 1, EMIN = -EMAX) for
- all floating-point contexts.  There is no explicit mechanism to adjust
- the exponent range.  MPFR does not implement subnormal numbers by
- default, and this behavior cannot be changed in `gawk'.
++and the default value for `ROUNDMODE' is `"N"', which selects the
++IEEE-754 `roundTiesToEven' (*note Rounding Mode::) rounding mode.(1)
++`gawk' uses the default exponent range in MPFR (EMAX = 2^30 - 1, EMIN =
++-EMAX) for all floating-point contexts.  There is no explicit mechanism
++to adjust the exponent range.  MPFR does not implement subnormal
++numbers by default, and this behavior cannot be changed in `gawk'.
 +     NOTE: When emulating an IEEE-754 format (*note Setting
 +     Precision::), `gawk' internally adjusts the exponent range to the
 +     value defined for the format and also performs computations needed
 +     for gradual underflow (subnormal numbers).
 +     NOTE: MPFR numbers are variable-size entities, consuming only as
 +     much space as needed to store the significant digits. Since the
 +     performance using MPFR numbers pales in comparison to doing math
 +     using the underlying machine types, you should consider using only
 +     as much precision as needed by your program.
 +   ---------- Footnotes ----------
 +   (1) The default precision is 53, since according to the MPFR
 +documentation, the library should be able to exactly reproduce all
 +computations with double-precision machine floating-point numbers
 +(`double' type in C), except the default exponent range is much wider
 +and subnormal numbers are not implemented.
 +File:,  Node: Setting Precision,  Next: Setting Rounding Mode,  
Prev: Arbitrary Precision Floats,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.6 Setting the Working Precision
 +`gawk' uses a global working precision; it does not keep track of the
 +precision or accuracy of individual numbers. Performing an arithmetic
 +operation or calling a built-in function rounds the result to the
 +current working precision. The default working precision is 53 which
 +can be modified using the built-in variable `PREC'. You can also set the
 +value to one of the following pre-defined case-insensitive strings to
 +emulate an IEEE-754 binary format:
 +`PREC'       IEEE-754 Binary Format
 +`"half"'     16-bit half-precision.
 +`"single"'   Basic 32-bit single precision.
 +`"double"'   Basic 64-bit double precision.
 +`"quad"'     Basic 128-bit quadruple precision.
 +`"oct"'      256-bit octuple precision.
 +   The following example illustrates the effects of changing precision
 +on arithmetic operations:
 +     $ gawk -M -vPREC=100 'BEGIN { x = 1.0e-400; print x + 0; \
 +     >   PREC = "double"; print x + 0 }'
 +     -| 1e-400
 +     -| 0
 +   Binary and decimal precisions are related approximately according to
 +the formula:
 +   PREC = 3.322 * DPS
 +Here, PREC denotes the binary precision (measured in bits) and DPS
 +(short for decimal places) is the decimal digits. We can easily
 +calculate how many decimal digits the 53-bit significand of an IEEE
 +double is equivalent to: 53 / 3.332 which is equal to about 15.95.  But
 +what does 15.95 digits actually mean? It depends whether you are
 +concerned about how many digits you can rely on, or how many digits you
 +   It is important to know how many bits it takes to uniquely identify
 +a double-precision value (the C type `double').  If you want to convert
 +from `double' to decimal and back to `double' (e.g., saving a `double'
 +representing an intermediate result to a file, and later reading it
 +back to restart the computation), then a few more decimal digits are
 +required. 17 digits is generally enough for a `double'.
 +   It can also be important to know what decimal numbers can be uniquely
 +represented with a `double'. If you want to convert from decimal to
 +`double' and back again, 15 digits is the most that you can get. Stated
 +differently, you should not present the numbers from your
 +floating-point computations with more than 15 significant digits in
 +   Conversely, it takes a precision of 332 bits to hold an approximation
 +of constant pi that is accurate to 100 decimal places.  You should
 +always add some extra bits in order to avoid the confusing round-off
 +issues that occur because numbers are stored internally in binary.
 +File:,  Node: Setting Rounding Mode,  Next: Floating-point 
Constants,  Prev: Setting Precision,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.7 Setting the Rounding Mode
- The built-in variable `RNDMODE' has the default value `"N"', which
++The built-in variable `ROUNDMODE' has the default value `"N"', which
 +selects the IEEE-754 rounding mode `roundTiesToEven'.  The other
- possible values for `RNDMODE' are `"U"' for rounding mode
++possible values for `ROUNDMODE' are `"U"' for rounding mode
 +`roundTowardPositive', `"D"' for `roundTowardNegative', and `"Z"' for
 +`roundTowardZero'.  `gawk' also accepts `"A"' to select the IEEE-754
 +mode `roundTiesToAway' if your version of the MPFR library supports it;
- otherwise setting `RNDMODE' to this value has no effect. *Note Rounding
- Mode::, for the meanings of the various rounding modes.
++otherwise setting `ROUNDMODE' to this value has no effect. *Note
++Rounding Mode::, for the meanings of the various rounding modes.
 +   Here is an example of how to change the default rounding behavior of
 +`printf''s output:
-      $ gawk -M -vRNDMODE="Z" 'BEGIN { printf("%.2f\n", 1.378) }'
++     $ gawk -M -vROUNDMODE="Z" 'BEGIN { printf("%.2f\n", 1.378) }'
 +     -| 1.37
 +File:,  Node: Floating-point Constants,  Next: Changing Precision,  
Prev: Setting Rounding Mode,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.8 Representing Floating-point Constants
 +Be wary of floating-point constants! When reading a floating-point
 +constant from program source code, `gawk' uses the default precision,
 +unless overridden by an assignment to the special variable `PREC' on
 +the command line, to store it internally as a MPFR number.  Changing
 +the precision using `PREC' in the program text does not change the
 +precision of a constant. If you need to represent a floating-point
 +constant at a higher precision than the default and cannot use a
 +command line assignment to `PREC', you should either specify the
 +constant as a string, or a rational number whenever possible. The
 +following example illustrates the differences among various ways to
 +print a floating-point constant:
 +     $ gawk -M 'BEGIN { PREC = 113; printf("%0.25f\n", 0.1) }'
 +     -| 0.1000000000000000055511151
 +     $ gawk -M -vPREC = 113 'BEGIN { printf("%0.25f\n", 0.1) }'
 +     -| 0.1000000000000000000000000
 +     $ gawk -M 'BEGIN { PREC = 113; printf("%0.25f\n", "0.1") }'
 +     -| 0.1000000000000000000000000
 +     $ gawk -M 'BEGIN { PREC = 113; printf("%0.25f\n", 1/10) }'
 +     -| 0.1000000000000000000000000
 +   In the first case, the number is stored with the default precision
 +of 53.
 +File:,  Node: Changing Precision,  Next: Exact Arithmetic,  Prev: 
Floating-point Constants,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.9 Changing the Precision of a Number
 +     The point is that in any variable-precision package, a decision is
 +     made on how to treat numbers given as data, or arising in
 +     intermediate results, which are represented in floating-point
 +     format to a precision lower than working precision.  Do we promote
 +     them to full membership of the high-precision club, or do we treat
 +     them and all their associates as second-class citizens?  Sometimes
 +     the first course is proper, sometimes the second, and it takes
 +     careful analysis to tell which.
 +     Dirk Laurie(1)
 +   `gawk' does not implicitly modify the precision of any previously
 +computed results when the working precision is changed with an
 +assignment to `PREC'.  The precision of a number is always the one that
 +was used at the time of its creation, and there is no way for the user
 +to explicitly change it afterwards. However, since the result of a
 +floating-point arithmetic operation is always an arbitrary precision
 +floating-point value--with a precision set by the value of `PREC'--one
 +of the following workarounds effectively accomplishes the desired
 +     x = x + 0.0
 +     x += 0.0
 +   ---------- Footnotes ----------
 +   (1) Dirk Laurie.  `Variable-precision Arithmetic Considered Perilous
 +- A Detective Story'.  Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis.
 +Volume 28, pp. 168-173, 2008.
 +File:,  Node: Exact Arithmetic,  Next: Integer Programming,  Prev: 
Changing Precision,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.10 Exact Arithmetic with Floating-point Numbers
 +     CAUTION: Never depend on the exactness of floating-point
 +     arithmetic, even for apparently simple expressions!
 -11 Advanced Features of `gawk'
 +   Can arbitrary precision arithmetic give exact results? There are no
 +easy answers. The standard rules of algebra often do not apply when
 +using floating-point arithmetic.  Among other things, the distributive
 +and associative laws do not hold completely, and order of operation may
 +be important for your computation. Rounding error, cumulative precision
 +loss and underflow are often troublesome.
 +   When `gawk' tests the expressions `0.1 + 12.2' and `12.3' for
 +equality using the machine double precision arithmetic, it decides that
 +they are not equal!  (*Note Floating-point Programming::.)  You can get
 +the result you want by increasing the precision; 56 in this case will
 +get the job done:
 +     $ gawk -M -vPREC=56 'BEGIN { print (0.1 + 12.2 == 12.3) }'
 +     -| 1
 +   If adding more bits is good, perhaps adding even more bits of
 +precision is better?  Here is what happens if we use an even larger
 +value of `PREC':
 +     $ gawk -M -vPREC=201 'BEGIN { print (0.1 + 12.2 == 12.3) }'
 +     -| 0
 +   This is not a bug in `gawk' or in the MPFR library.  It is easy to
 +forget that the finite number of bits used to store the value is often
 +just an approximation after proper rounding.  The test for equality
 +succeeds if and only if _all_ bits in the two operands are exactly the
 +same. Since this is not necessarily true after floating-point
 +computations with a particular precision and effective rounding rule, a
 +straight test for equality may not work.
 +   So, don't assume that floating-point values can be compared for
 +equality.  You should also exercise caution when using other forms of
 +comparisons.  The standard way to compare between floating-point
 +numbers is to determine how much error (or "tolerance") you will allow
 +in a comparison and check to see if one value is within this error
 +range of the other.
 +   In applications where 15 or fewer decimal places suffice, hardware
 +double precision arithmetic can be adequate, and is usually much faster.
 +But you do need to keep in mind that every floating-point operation can
 +suffer a new rounding error with catastrophic consequences as
 +illustrated by our attempt to compute the value of the constant pi,
 +(*note Floating-point Programming::).  Extra precision can greatly
 +enhance the stability and the accuracy of your computation in such
 +   Repeated addition is not necessarily equivalent to multiplication in
 +floating-point arithmetic. In the last example (*note Floating-point
 +Programming::), you may or may not succeed in getting the correct
 +result by choosing an arbitrarily large value for `PREC'. Reformulation
 +of the problem at hand is often the correct approach in such situations.
 +File:,  Node: Integer Programming,  Next: Arbitrary Precision 
Integers,  Prev: Exact Arithmetic,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.11 Effective Integer Programming
 +As has been mentioned already, `gawk' ordinarily uses hardware double
 +precision with 64-bit IEEE binary floating-point representation for
 +numbers on most systems. A large integer like 9007199254740997 has a
 +binary representation that, although finite, is more than 53 bits long;
 +it must also be rounded to 53 bits.  The biggest integer that can be
 +stored in a C `double' is usually the same as the largest possible
 +value of a `double'. If your system `double' is an IEEE 64-bit
 +`double', this largest possible value is an integer and can be
 +represented precisely.  What more should one know about integers?
 +   If you want to know what is the largest integer, such that it and
 +all smaller integers can be stored in 64-bit doubles without losing
 +precision, then the answer is 2^53.  The next representable number is
 +the even number 2^53 + 2, meaning it is unlikely that you will be able
 +to make `gawk' print 2^53 + 1 in integer format.  The range of integers
 +exactly representable by a 64-bit double is [-2^53, 2^53].  If you ever
 +see an integer outside this range in `gawk' using 64-bit doubles, you
 +have reason to be very suspicious about the accuracy of the output.
 +Here is a simple program with erroneous output:
 +     $ gawk 'BEGIN { i = 2^53 - 1; for (j = 0; j < 4; j++) print i + j }'
 +     -| 9007199254740991
 +     -| 9007199254740992
 +     -| 9007199254740992
 +     -| 9007199254740994
 +   The lesson is to not assume that any large integer printed by `gawk'
 +represents an exact result from your computation, especially if it wraps
 +around on your screen.
 +File:,  Node: Arbitrary Precision Integers,  Next: MPFR and GMP 
Libraries,  Prev: Integer Programming,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.12 Arbitrary Precision Integer Arithmetic with `gawk'
 +If the option `--bignum' or `-M' is specified, `gawk' performs all
 +integer arithmetic using GMP arbitrary precision integers.  Any number
 +that looks like an integer in a program source or data file is stored
 +as an arbitrary precision integer.  The size of the integer is limited
 +only by your computer's memory.  The current floating-point context has
 +no effect on operations involving integers.  For example, the following
 +computes 5^4^3^2, the result of which is beyond the limits of ordinary
 +`gawk' numbers:
 +     $ gawk -M 'BEGIN {
 +     >   x = 5^4^3^2
 +     >   print "# of digits =", length(x)
 +     >   print substr(x, 1, 20), "...", substr(x, length(x) - 19, 20)
 +     > }'
 +     -| # of digits = 183231
 +     -| 62060698786608744707 ... 92256259918212890625
 +   If you were to compute the same value using arbitrary precision
 +floating-point values instead, the precision needed for correct output
 +(using the formula `prec = 3.322 * dps'), would be 3.322 x 183231, or
 +   The result from an arithmetic operation with an integer and a
 +floating-point value is a floating-point value with a precision equal
 +to the working precision.  The following program calculates the eighth
 +term in Sylvester's sequence(1) using a recurrence:
 +     $ gawk -M 'BEGIN {
 +     >   s = 2.0
 +     >   for (i = 1; i <= 7; i++)
 +     >       s = s * (s - 1) + 1
 +     >   print s
 +     > }'
 +     -| 113423713055421845118910464
 +   The output differs from the acutal number,
 +113423713055421844361000443, because the default precision of 53 is not
 +enough to represent the floating-point results exactly. You can either
 +increase the precision (100 is enough in this case), or replace the
 +floating-point constant `2.0' with an integer, to perform all
 +computations using integer arithmetic to get the correct output.
 +   It will sometimes be necessary for `gawk' to implicitly convert an
 +arbitrary precision integer into an arbitrary precision floating-point
 +value.  This is primarily because the MPFR library does not always
 +provide the relevant interface to process arbitrary precision integers
 +or mixed-mode numbers as needed by an operation or function.  In such a
 +case, the precision is set to the minimum value necessary for exact
 +conversion, and the working precision is not used for this purpose.  If
 +this is not what you need or want, you can employ a subterfuge like
 +     gawk -M 'BEGIN { n = 13; print (n + 0.0) % 2.0 }'
 +   You can avoid this issue altogether by specifying the number as a
 +float to begin with:
 +     gawk -M 'BEGIN { n = 13.0; print n % 2.0 }'
 +   Note that for the particular example above, there is unlikely to be a
 +reason for simply not using the following:
 +     gawk -M 'BEGIN { n = 13; print n % 2 }'
 +   ---------- Footnotes ----------
 +   (1) Weisstein, Eric W.  `Sylvester's Sequence'. From MathWorld-A
 +Wolfram Web Resource.
 +File:,  Node: MPFR and GMP Libraries,  Prev: Arbitrary Precision 
Integers,  Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
 +11.13 Information About the MPFR and GMP Libraries
 +There are a few elements available in the `PROCINFO' array to provide
 +information about the MPFR and GMP libraries.  *Note Auto-set::, for
 +more information.
 +File:,  Node: Advanced Features,  Next: Library Functions,  Prev: 
Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic,  Up: Top
 +12 Advanced Features of `gawk'
       Write documentation as if whoever reads it is a violent psychopath
@@@ -26353,10 -25564,10 +26359,10 @@@ Inde
  * coprocesses, closing:                  Close Files And Pipes.
                                                                (line   6)
  * coprocesses, getline from:             Getline/Coprocess.   (line   6)
- * cos() function:                        Numeric Functions.   (line  14)
+ * cos() function:                        Numeric Functions.   (line  15)
  * counting:                              Wc Program.          (line   6)
  * csh utility:                           Statements/Lines.    (line  44)
 -* csh utility, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options. (line 323)
 +* csh utility, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options. (line 329)
  * csh utility, |& operator, comparison with: Two-way I/O.     (line  44)
  * ctime() user-defined function:         Function Example.    (line  72)
  * currency symbols, localization:        Explaining gettext.  (line 103)
@@@ -27044,8 -26253,8 +27050,8 @@@
                                                                (line  26)
  * gawk, regular expressions, operators:  GNU Regexp Operators.
                                                                (line   6)
- * gawk, regular expressions, precedence: Regexp Operators.    (line 157)
+ * gawk, regular expressions, precedence: Regexp Operators.    (line 161)
 -* gawk, RT variable in <1>:              Auto-set.            (line 196)
 +* gawk, RT variable in <1>:              Auto-set.            (line 213)
  * gawk, RT variable in <2>:              Getline/Variable/File.
                                                                (line  10)
  * gawk, RT variable in <3>:              Multiple Line.       (line 129)
@@@ -27226,9 -26429,7 +27232,9 @@@
  * installation, VMS:                     VMS Installation.    (line   6)
  * installing gawk:                       Installation.        (line   6)
  * INT signal (MS-Windows):               Profiling.           (line 206)
- * int() function:                        Numeric Functions.   (line  22)
+ * int() function:                        Numeric Functions.   (line  23)
 +* integer, arbitrary precision:          Arbitrary Precision Integers.
 +                                                              (line   6)
  * integers:                              Basic Data Typing.   (line  21)
  * integers, unsigned:                    Basic Data Typing.   (line  30)
  * interacting with other programs:       I/O Functions.       (line  63)
@@@ -27738,19 -26932,17 +27744,19 @@@
  * POSIX awk, OFMT variable and:          OFMT.                (line  27)
  * POSIX awk, period (.), using:          Regexp Operators.    (line  50)
  * POSIX awk, printf format strings and:  Format Modifiers.    (line 159)
- * POSIX awk, regular expressions and:    Regexp Operators.    (line 157)
+ * POSIX awk, regular expressions and:    Regexp Operators.    (line 161)
  * POSIX awk, timestamps and:             Time Functions.      (line   6)
  * POSIX awk, | I/O operator and:         Getline/Pipe.        (line  52)
 -* POSIX mode:                            Options.             (line 222)
 +* POSIX mode:                            Options.             (line 228)
  * POSIX, awk and:                        Preface.             (line  23)
  * POSIX, gawk extensions not included in: POSIX/GNU.          (line   6)
  * POSIX, programs, implementing in awk:  Clones.              (line   6)
 -* POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable:  Options.             (line 307)
 +* POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable:  Options.             (line 313)
 +* PREC variable <1>:                     Setting Precision.   (line   6)
 +* PREC variable:                         User-modified.       (line 134)
  * precedence <1>:                        Precedence.          (line   6)
  * precedence:                            Increment Ops.       (line  61)
- * precedence, regexp operators:          Regexp Operators.    (line 152)
+ * precedence, regexp operators:          Regexp Operators.    (line 156)
  * print debugger command:                Viewing And Changing Data.
                                                                (line  36)
  * print statement:                       Printing.            (line  16)
@@@ -27938,11 -27130,8 +27944,8 @@@
  * right angle bracket (>), >> operator (I/O): Redirection.    (line  50)
  * right shift, bitwise:                  Bitwise Functions.   (line  32)
  * Ritchie, Dennis:                       Basic Data Typing.   (line  74)
 -* RLENGTH variable:                      Auto-set.            (line 183)
 +* RLENGTH variable:                      Auto-set.            (line 200)
  * RLENGTH variable, match() function and: String Functions.   (line 223)
- * RNDMODE variable <1>:                  Setting Rounding Mode.
-                                                               (line   6)
- * RNDMODE variable:                      User-modified.       (line 138)
  * Robbins, Arnold <1>:                   Future Extensions.   (line   6)
  * Robbins, Arnold <2>:                   Bugs.                (line  32)
  * Robbins, Arnold <3>:                   Contributors.        (line 108)
@@@ -27961,9 -27150,8 +27964,12 @@@
  * robot, the:                            Dynamic Extensions.  (line   6)
  * Rommel, Kai Uwe:                       Contributors.        (line  43)
  * round() user-defined function:         Round Function.      (line  16)
 +* rounding mode, floating-point:         Rounding Mode.       (line   6)
  * rounding numbers:                      Round Function.      (line   6)
 -* RS variable <1>:                       User-modified.       (line 134)
++* ROUNDMODE variable <1>:                Setting Rounding Mode.
++                                                              (line   6)
++* ROUNDMODE variable:                    User-modified.       (line 138)
 +* RS variable <1>:                       User-modified.       (line 143)
  * RS variable:                           Records.             (line  20)
  * RS variable, multiline records and:    Multiple Line.       (line  17)
  * rshift() function (gawk):              Bitwise Functions.   (line  51)
@@@ -28418,441 -27606,420 +28424,441 @@@
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 -Node: GNU Free Documentation License982877
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++Node: Foreword31559
++Node: Preface35904
++Ref: Preface-Footnote-138957
++Ref: Preface-Footnote-239063
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++Node: Cliff Random Function644622
++Node: Ordinal Functions645638
++Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-1648708
++Ref: Ordinal Functions-Footnote-2648960
++Node: Join Function649169
++Ref: Join Function-Footnote-1650940
++Node: Gettimeofday Function651140
++Node: Data File Management654855
++Node: Filetrans Function655487
++Node: Rewind Function659626
++Node: File Checking661013
++Node: Empty Files662107
++Node: Ignoring Assigns664337
++Node: Getopt Function665890
++Ref: Getopt Function-Footnote-1677194
++Node: Passwd Functions677397
++Ref: Passwd Functions-Footnote-1686372
++Node: Group Functions686460
++Node: Walking Arrays694544
++Node: Sample Programs696113
++Node: Running Examples696778
++Node: Clones697506
++Node: Cut Program698730
++Node: Egrep Program708575
++Ref: Egrep Program-Footnote-1716348
++Node: Id Program716458
++Node: Split Program720074
++Ref: Split Program-Footnote-1723593
++Node: Tee Program723721
++Node: Uniq Program726524
++Node: Wc Program733953
++Ref: Wc Program-Footnote-1738219
++Ref: Wc Program-Footnote-2738419
++Node: Miscellaneous Programs738511
++Node: Dupword Program739699
++Node: Alarm Program741730
++Node: Translate Program746479
++Ref: Translate Program-Footnote-1750866
++Ref: Translate Program-Footnote-2751094
++Node: Labels Program751228
++Ref: Labels Program-Footnote-1754599
++Node: Word Sorting754683
++Node: History Sorting758567
++Node: Extract Program760406
++Ref: Extract Program-Footnote-1767889
++Node: Simple Sed768017
++Node: Igawk Program771079
++Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-1786236
++Ref: Igawk Program-Footnote-2786437
++Node: Anagram Program786575
++Node: Signature Program789643
++Node: Debugger790743
++Node: Debugging791695
++Node: Debugging Concepts792128
++Node: Debugging Terms793984
++Node: Awk Debugging796581
++Node: Sample Debugging Session797473
++Node: Debugger Invocation797993
++Node: Finding The Bug799322
++Node: List of Debugger Commands805810
++Node: Breakpoint Control807144
++Node: Debugger Execution Control810808
++Node: Viewing And Changing Data814168
++Node: Execution Stack817524
++Node: Debugger Info818991
++Node: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands822972
++Node: Readline Support828417
++Node: Limitations829248
++Node: Language History831500
++Node: V7/SVR3.1833012
++Node: SVR4835333
++Node: POSIX836775
++Node: BTL837783
++Node: POSIX/GNU838517
++Node: Common Extensions843668
++Node: Ranges and Locales844775
++Ref: Ranges and Locales-Footnote-1849379
++Node: Contributors849600
++Node: Installation853861
++Node: Gawk Distribution854755
++Node: Getting855239
++Node: Extracting856065
++Node: Distribution contents857757
++Node: Unix Installation862979
++Node: Quick Installation863596
++Node: Additional Configuration Options865558
++Node: Configuration Philosophy867035
++Node: Non-Unix Installation869377
++Node: PC Installation869835
++Node: PC Binary Installation871134
++Node: PC Compiling872982
++Node: PC Testing875926
++Node: PC Using877102
++Node: Cygwin881287
++Node: MSYS882287
++Node: VMS Installation882801
++Node: VMS Compilation883404
++Ref: VMS Compilation-Footnote-1884411
++Node: VMS Installation Details884469
++Node: VMS Running886104
++Node: VMS Old Gawk887711
++Node: Bugs888185
++Node: Other Versions892037
++Node: Notes897352
++Node: Compatibility Mode898044
++Node: Additions898827
++Node: Accessing The Source899639
++Node: Adding Code901064
++Node: New Ports907031
++Node: Dynamic Extensions911144
++Node: Internals912584
++Node: Plugin License921103
++Node: Loading Extensions921741
++Node: Sample Library923551
++Node: Internal File Description924241
++Node: Internal File Ops927956
++Ref: Internal File Ops-Footnote-1932680
++Node: Using Internal File Ops932820
++Node: Future Extensions935197
++Node: Basic Concepts937701
++Node: Basic High Level938458
++Ref: Basic High Level-Footnote-1942493
++Node: Basic Data Typing942678
++Node: Floating Point Issues947203
++Node: String Conversion Precision948286
++Ref: String Conversion Precision-Footnote-1949986
++Node: Unexpected Results950095
++Node: POSIX Floating Point Problems951921
++Ref: POSIX Floating Point Problems-Footnote-1955626
++Node: Glossary955664
++Node: Copying980640
++Node: GNU Free Documentation License1018197
++Node: Index1043334
  End Tag Table
diff --cc m4/ChangeLog
index 22dc64d,9e6800a..782171a
--- a/m4/ChangeLog
+++ b/m4/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,6 -1,11 +1,15 @@@
 +2012-04-01         John Haque      <address@hidden>
 +      * mpfr.m4: New file.
+ 2012-03-30         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * noreturn.m4: New file.
+ 2012-03-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * 4.0.1: Release tar ball made.
  2011-06-23         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
        * ChangeLog.0: Rotated ChangeLog into this file.
diff --cc pc/ChangeLog
index 27a485c,4d2cce3..8d340b4
--- a/pc/ChangeLog
+++ b/pc/ChangeLog
@@@ -1,37 -1,61 +1,95 @@@
 +2012-04-16  Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
 +      * Makefile.tst (PGAWK): Redefine as "../gawk.exe -p".
 +      (MPFR_TESTS): New variable, a list of MPFR-related tests.
 +      (mpfr-tests): A new target.
 +      (badargs): Reset GREP_OPTIONS to empty, to avoid gratuitous
 +      failures when the user has something like -nH there.
 +      (mpfrieee, mpfrexprange, mpfrrnd, mpfrnr, mpfrsort, mpfrbigint):
 +      New tests.
 +      * Makefile (default): Add descriptions of mingw32-mpfr and
 +      mingw32-libreadline-mpfr targets.
 +      (DGAWKOBJS): Remove unused variables.
 +      (djgpp, djgpp-debug, mingw32): Don't use them.
 +      (mingw32): Add -D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO to compilation flags.
 +      (mingw32-readline, mingw32-mpfr, mingw32-readline-mpfr): New targets.
 +      (CFLAGS, AWKOBJS2): Don't reference obsolete DYN_FLAGS and DYN_OBJ
 +      variables.
 +      (AWKOBJS2): Add symbol$O.
 +      (AWKOBJS3): New variable, lists MPFR-related object files.
 +      (AWKOBJS): Add $(AWKOBJS3).
 +      (all): Remove pgawk.exe and dgawk.exe.
 +      (pgawk.exe, dgawk.exe, $(PRSPFILE) $(DRSPFILE), eval_p$O)
 +      (profile_p$O): Remove targets.
 +      (random$O, debug$O): Don't depend on floatmagic.h
 +      (eval$O): Depend on interpret.h.
 +      (clean): Prepend '-' to command line, to ignore errors due to
 +      non-existent files.
 +      * config.h: Comment out "#undef HAVE_LIBREADLINE" (again).
+ 2012-03-29         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * config.h: Add definition for _Noreturn.
+ 2012-03-28         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * 4.0.1: Release tar ball made.
+ 2012-03-20         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * Makefile.tst (printfbad3): New test.
+ 2012-03-14         Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
+       * gawkmisc.pc (btowc): New version for DJGPP.
+ 2012-03-01   Scott Deifik  <address@hidden>
+       * Makefile.tst: Sync with mainline version.
+ 2012-03-01         Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
+       * Makefile: Quiet confusing info messages from the linker when
+       gawk is linked against readline as a shared library.
+ 2012-02-22         Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
+       * Makefile.tst: Update CMP and CP definitions, add "Expect xxxx to
+       fail with MinGW" messages as needed.
+ 2012-02-15         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * gawkmisc.pc (execvp): Modify signature, return -1
+       on error.
+ 2012-02-11  Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
+       Fix dependencies in pc/Makefile.
+       * Makefile ($(ALLOBJS) $(LIBOBJS) eval_p$O profile_p$O): Add eval_d$O,
+       debug$O, and command$O.
+       Support MinGW build with the readline library.
+       * Makefile (default): Add a line for the mingw32-readline target.
+       (mingw32-readline): New target, passes -DHAVE_LIBREADLINE to the
+       compiler and adds -lreadline to the linker command line.
+       * config.sed: Comment out "#undef HAVE_LIBREADLINE", so that it
+       could be #define'd on the compiler command line.
+ 2012-02-10         Arnold D. Robbins     <address@hidden>
+       * gawkmisc.pc (execvp): New function based on code from Eli
+       Zaretskii to make dgawk's restarting the debugger work.
+ 2012-01-27   Scott Deifik  <address@hidden>
+       * Makefile.tst: Sync with mainline version.
  2011-12-12   Scott Deifik  <address@hidden>
        * Makefile.tst: Sync with mainline version.
diff --cc pc/Makefile
index f01849a,af3044d..21fe0bf
--- a/pc/Makefile
+++ b/pc/Makefile
@@@ -154,30 -165,17 +154,37 @@@ LMINGW32 = $(CC) $(LF) -o $@ $(GAWKOBJS
        $(MAK) all \
 -      CC=gcc O=.o CF="-O2 -gdwarf-2 -g3" OBJ=popen.o \
 -      LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" LF2=-lmsvcp60 RSP=
 +      CC=gcc O=.o CF="-D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO -O2 -gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      OBJ=popen.o LNK=LMINGW32 LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" LF2=-lmsvcp60 RSP=
 +      $(MAK) all \
 +      CC=gcc O=.o \
 +      CF="-D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO -DHAVE_LIBREADLINE -O2 -gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      OBJ=popen.o LNK=LMINGW32 LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      LF2="-lreadline -lmsvcp60 -Wl,--enable-auto-import" RSP=
 +      $(MAK) all \
 +      CC=gcc O=.o \
 +      CF="-D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO -DHAVE_MPFR -O2 -gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      OBJ=popen.o LNK=LMINGW32 LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      LF2="-lmpfr -lgmp -lmsvcp60 -Wl,--enable-auto-import" RSP=
 +      $(MAK) all \
 +      CC=gcc O=.o \
-gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      OBJ=popen.o LNK=LMINGW32 LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" \
 +      LF2="-lmpfr -lgmp -lreadline -lmsvcp60 -Wl,--enable-auto-import" RSP=
+ mingw32-readline:
+       $(MAK) all \
+       CC=gcc O=.o CF="-DHAVE_LIBREADLINE -O2 -gdwarf-2 -g3" OBJ=popen.o \
+       LF="-gdwarf-2 -g3" \
+       LF2="-lreadline -lmsvcp60 -Wl,--enable-auto-import" RSP=
  # Define BIND for BINDless compiles, otherwise $($(BIND)) may break.
diff --cc pc/Makefile.tst
index 83a8a32,c10430a..ab56653
--- a/pc/Makefile.tst
+++ b/pc/Makefile.tst
@@@ -793,36 -800,11 +803,41 @@@ exit
        @-AWK="$(AWKPROG)" $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
        @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrieee
 +      @$(AWK) -M -vPREC=double -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrexprange
 +      @$(AWK) -M -vPREC=53 -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrrnd
 +      @$(AWK) -M -vPREC=53 -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrnr
 +      @$(AWK) -M -vPREC=113 -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden 
$(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrsort
 +      @$(AWK) -M -vPREC=53 -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 +      @echo mpfrbigint
 +      @$(AWK) -M -f $(srcdir)/address@hidden > _$@ 2>&1
 +      @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
+ rri1::
+       @echo $@
+       @[ -z "$$GAWKLOCALE" ] && GAWKLOCALE=en_US.UTF-8; \
+       AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  < $(srcdir)/address@hidden 
>_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT CODE: $$? >>_$@
+       @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
  # file Maketests, generated from by the Gentests program
diff --cc test/
index 4eb9590,64d4851..838eca8
--- a/test/
+++ b/test/
@@@ -67,12 -67,12 +67,12 @@@ am__aclocal_m4_deps = $(top_srcdir)/m4/
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/isc-posix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lcmessage.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-ld.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-link.m4 \
        $(top_srcdir)/m4/lib-prefix.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/libsigsegv.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
 -      $(top_srcdir)/
 +      $(top_srcdir)/m4/longlong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/mpfr.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 \
-       $(top_srcdir)/
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/nls.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/noreturn.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/po.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/progtest.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/readline.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/socket.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/stdint_h.m4 $(top_srcdir)/m4/uintmax_t.m4 \
++      $(top_srcdir)/m4/ulonglong.m4 $(top_srcdir)/
  am__configure_deps = $(am__aclocal_m4_deps) $(CONFIGURE_DEPENDENCIES) \
  mkinstalldirs = $(SHELL) $(top_srcdir)/mkinstalldirs
@@@ -2921,8 -2884,13 +2929,13 @@@ printfbad1
        @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
        @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
+ printfbad3:
+       @echo printfbad3
+       @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
+       @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 -      @echo procinfs
 +      @echo $@
        @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
        @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
diff --cc test/Maketests
index 4bc06e5,b616856..9682572
--- a/test/Maketests
+++ b/test/Maketests
@@@ -1075,8 -1080,13 +1075,13 @@@ printfbad1
        @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
        @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
+ printfbad3:
+       @echo printfbad3
+       @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
+       @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@
 -      @echo procinfs
 +      @echo $@
        @AWKPATH=$(srcdir) $(AWK) -f address@hidden  >_$@ 2>&1 || echo EXIT 
CODE: $$? >>_$@
        @-$(CMP) $(srcdir)/address@hidden _$@ && rm -f _$@


Summary of changes:
 .gitignore          |    1 +
 ChangeLog           |  110 +++-         |   10 +-
 NEWS                |    8 +-
 README              |    6 +-
 README.git          |   53 ++-
 README_d/ChangeLog  |   10 +-
 aclocal.m4          |    1 +
 awkgram.c           |   36 +-
 awkgram.y           |   38 +-
 awklib/ChangeLog    |    4 +
 awklib/  |   10 +-
 builtin.c           |    5 +-          |   13 +
 configure           |    5 +-        |    7 +-
 dfa.c               | 2246 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------------------
 dfa.h               |   19 +-
 doc/ChangeLog       |    9 +
 doc/     |   10 +-
 doc/      |    7 +-
 doc/       |  962 +++++++++++-----------
 doc/gawk.texi       |   21 +-
 doc/texinfo.tex     | 1161 +++++++++++++++++++-------
 ext.c               |   14 +-
 extension/ChangeLog |    9 +-
 getopt.c            |  133 +++-
 getopt.h            |   11 +-
 getopt1.c           |   10 +-
 getopt_int.h        |    5 +-
 io.c                |    2 +-
 m4/ChangeLog        |    9 +
 m4/noreturn.m4      |   38 +
 main.c              |   19 +-
 mbsupport.h         |    6 +-
 missing_d/ChangeLog |    4 +
 pc/ChangeLog        |   58 ++
 pc/Makefile         |    7 +
 pc/Makefile.tst     |  115 ++-
 pc/config.h         |   19 +-
 pc/config.sed       |    2 +
 pc/gawkmisc.pc      |   23 +-
 pc/testoutcmp.awk   |   19 +
 po/ChangeLog        |    4 +
 po/           |  Bin 48739 -> 46123 bytes
 po/da.po            | 1461 +++++++++++++++++-----------------
 po/           |  Bin 52166 -> 49358 bytes
 po/de.po            | 1076 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/           |  Bin 51471 -> 48746 bytes
 po/es.po            | 1079 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/           |  Bin 51684 -> 48930 bytes
 po/fi.po            | 1075 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/           |  Bin 53311 -> 50390 bytes
 po/fr.po            | 1076 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/gawk.pot         |  970 ++++++++++------------
 po/           |  Bin 44316 -> 41479 bytes
 po/it.po            | 1065 ++++++++++++------------
 po/           |  Bin 55596 -> 52218 bytes
 po/ja.po            | 1064 ++++++++++++------------
 po/           |  Bin 49267 -> 46629 bytes
 po/nl.po            | 1077 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/           |  Bin 50946 -> 48745 bytes
 po/pl.po            | 1095 ++++++++++++-------------
 po/           |  Bin 48752 -> 46113 bytes
 po/sv.po            | 1077 ++++++++++++-------------
 posix/ChangeLog     |    4 +
 re.c                |    5 +-
 regcomp.c           |   42 +-
 regex.c             |    5 +-
 regex.h             |   18 +-
 regex_internal.c    |   37 +-
 regex_internal.h    |   10 +-
 regexec.c           |   27 +-
 test/ChangeLog      |   15 +
 test/    |   80 +-
 test/    |   95 ++-
 test/Maketests      |    5 +
 test/printfbad3.awk |   22 +
 test/printfbad3.ok  |    1 +
 vms/ChangeLog       |   24 +
 vms/descrip.mms     |    2 +-
 vms/vms-conf.h      |   20 +-
 vms/    |    2 +-
 vms/     |   16 +-
 84 files changed, 9418 insertions(+), 8386 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 m4/noreturn.m4
 create mode 100644 test/printfbad3.awk
 create mode 100644 test/printfbad3.ok


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